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3 credit hours (2+1


Lecturer :
Dr. Jamilah Othman
SEMESTER 2 2014/2015

Telephone : 03- 8946 8233
e-mail :
: Semester Kedua

At the end of this course, student will be able
◦ Understand concepts and theories of
coflict. (C4)
◦ Describe, analyze and evaluate situations
of conflict at various contexts.(C6)
◦ Harness their skills in handling conflict.

This Course Covers Basic Concepts And
Theories Of Conflict, Sources And
Effects Of Conflict, Types Of Conflict,
Strategies For Conflict Resolution,
Application Of Conflict Resolution In
Human Resource Development, And
Current Issues In Conflict.

 Concept

and Theories of Conflict

Views Of Conflict
Context And Level Of Conflict
Theories Of Conflict Management
 Types

Of Conflict


 Factors Related To Conflict ◦ Control Over Resources ◦ Preferences And Nuisances (Priorities And Disturbances) ◦ Values ◦ Beliefs ◦ The Nature Of The Relationship Of The Conflicting Parties  Methods Of Handling Conflict ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦    Competition & Cooperation Conflict Handling Styles Third-Party Roles Negotiation Mediation .

 Outcomes Of Conflict Positive Outcome Of Conflict Negative Outcome Of Conflict  Skills Required In Handling Conflict Identifying Conflict Situations Communication Stress Management Anger Management Problem Solving .

 Issues In Conflict Management ◦ Human Rights ◦ Violence ◦ Stereotype And Generalizations    Conflict Case Studies ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Interpersonal Conflict Family Conflict Organizational Conflict Community Conflict International/Interstate Conflict .

 Conflict is a fact of life  Conflict is a universal phenomenon  Conflict is a perception issue  Conflict happens as a result of individual’s perception of a phenomenon  Conflict is a sharp disagreement or opposition of interest or idea  A conflict exist whenever incompatibality occurs The  Outcome of Conflict Can be Negative or Positive Conflict accurs when an individual or group feels negatively affected by another individual or group .

.  The Human Relationship View The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group or relationship.The Views About Conflict  The Functionalist View The belief that conflict is harmful and must be avoided.

 The Interactionist View The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group.  The Structuralist View The belief that there is always an underlying structural conflict between the producers of economic wealth and those who benefit most from the economic system. . but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively.

 Deutch (1973) A conflict exists whenever incompatible activities occur. but managed. .  Tjosvold & Johnson(1989) Conflict is not to be avoided or eliminated.

. Rahim & Aminah (2006) Conflict happens as a result of individual’s perception of a phenomenon. Jamilah. whereby the phenomenon itself is presented as an obstacle to the individuals.

Conflict between individuals . the conflict is internal to the individual or inside oneself. conflict between siblings . Intrapersonal .Individuals can be within the same team or outside the team (eg) Conflict between one employee with another employee of the same department.face dilemma when decision is difficult (eg.conflict within the individual.make decisions over choices . .) role conflict  Interpersonal .

countries. Intragroup . organization. communities culture.Conflict between members of a team or group (eg) Conflict between members of family. departments. etc.Conflict between two or more teams or groups (eg) conflict between families. .  Intergroup . football team. organizations.Conflict within a team or group . religious groups etc.

misplased or displased conflict (conflict is acted out with the .The way people act in conflict is due to the individuals ways of thinking a.based on psychological theories by Sigmund Freud .non-substaintive conflict (to release tension unrelated to the other person in the conflict situation) .it explains how individuals respond to conflict situations.Psychodynamic and Attribution Theories .A theory is a means of explaining how something works  The focus of a theory’s explanation directs attentions to that part of the conflict and assigns the underlying explanation on the cause of conflict  1. particularly in light of their aggressive impulses and their anxieties . Psychodynamic Theory .people experience conflict because of their intrapersonal state .the theory points out that people are not always aware of their motivations that drive their behavior .

or outcomes of conflict.the perception of conflict arises when an individual feels frustration. attribution affects the way individual define conflicts.individual conceptualize conflict and attribute it to various causes. . .Conclusions about the other individual are based on attributes about that individual or on inferences about the meanings. thinks about the cause. and choose strategies to achieve their goals effectively within conflict situations. interpret the other’s behavior.An individual makes conclusions about the other person’s behavior . .b. Attribution Theory . and acts in response to it .

people evaluate their interpersonal relationships in terms of their value created by the costs and rewards associated with the relationship.the cost is the feelings on the assessment on the amount of effort put into the relationship .focus on how relationships between people involved in a conflict is enacted and resolved a.2. . .the theory assumes that people choose their behaviors due to self-interest and a desire to maximize rewards and minimize costs. Relationship Theories .the rewards is what is received as a result of the relationship . Social Exchange Theory .conflict arises when one person in the relationship feels that the outcomes are too low and perceive that the other will resist any attempt to raise the outcome. .

harmonious state of affairs. Game Theory self-interest. . .b. chosen to costs.people act in conflict situations from a position of and that moves and couter moves are maximize rewards and minimize .interdependent actions and estimations of moves and countermoves within a conflict situation affect the movement of a conflict toward resolution. Systems Theory .sees conflict as an important part of a system . .allows change and adaptation to various assumes that conflict represents a breakdown in communication from the also assumes that conflict as a normal part of interaction. c. .

3.These factions may co-exist peacefully although basically they may be hostile to each other . Structural Theory .The struggle between social factions (groups of different beliefs and values) .

structural conflict that exist due to control of the production and distribution of wealth in a society . Marxism and Capitalism .each conflicting party tries to get control of the people to gain power by trying to get control of the ideology of the mass .in capitalist system the conflict is between those who have the control production and distribution of wealth and those who sell their ability to work in the capitalist system .a.sometimes it takes the form of religious struggle but it strongly points to political and economic struggle .

Radical Feminism .the two conflicting factions are women and men . .the achievements of women were hidden when men were usually the winners in the conflict between men and women.‘radical’ means looking at the root cause .b.

woman without her man is nothing .

Type of Conflict  Constructive Conflict      Supports Organization Goal Increases Organization Achievement Increases Organization Image E.g : Sexual Harassment . or Introduction of any innovations Destructive Conflict     Does Not Support Organization’s Goal Decreases Organization’s Achievement Decreases Organization’s Image E.g : ISO.

 Intra-personal  Within an individual  Inter-personal  Between two or more individuals  Intra-group  Within a group  Inter-group  Between two or more groups .

Positive Outcome of Conflict Binds people together  Preserves a relationship  Helps to define and clarify structure and expectations  Better Decision  Increases Productivity  Leads to new growths and ideas  Energizes and Increases Peoples’ Motivation  .

Negative Outcome of Conflict Decreases Satisfaction  Decreases Teamwork  Increases Turnover  Sabotage and Abuse  .

. Conflict can be constructive or destructive. Outcomes of conflict can be positive or negative.Conclusion    Views of conflict differ among individuals.


Contents  The Cause of Conflict  Individual’s Conceptualization  Hierarchy of Needs  Variables Affecting The Cause of Conflict  The Conflict Process  Stages of Conflict Process  Conclusion .

g : siblings .g : value judgment ◦ Beliefs  E.g : Organization mission and vision ◦ The Nature of The Relationship  E.◦ Control Over Resources ◦ Preferences and Nuisances  E.g : music while working. technology ◦ Values  E.

Development Content State of the individual. Value / need set Causal attribution Intentional attribution Context analysis Content analysis Choice assessment Process of conceptualization Stimulus experience symbolization Context .Internal / personal / factors developmental factors Steps in the process of External conceptualization Level of.

Selfactualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological .

   Physiological Hunger. thirst. belongingness. acceptance and friendship . and other bodily needs Safety Security and Protection from Physical and Emotional Harm Social Affection. shelter. sex.

recognition and attention  Self-actualization The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. autonomy and achievement External esteem factors such as status. Esteem Internal esteem factors such as selfrespect. includes growth. achieving one’s potential and self-fulfillment .

       The characteristics of the parties in conflict Their prior relationship to one another The nature of the issue giving rise to the conflict The social environment within which the conflict occurs The interested audiences to the conflict The strategy and tactics employed by the parties in the conflict The consequences of the conflict to each of the participants and to other interested parties .

Five stages of the conflict process model: Stage Stage Stage Stage Stage 1 2 3 4 5 : : : : : Potential for conflict Recognition of conflict Conflict handling styles Conflict behavior Conflict outcomes .

other’s behavior Decrease group performance .Stage 1 Stage 2 Potential for conflict Recognition of conflict Preceding circumstance : Perceived conflict .structure .communication variables Conflict handling style Competing Collaborating Compromising .party’s behavior .personal Stage 3 Felt conflict Avoiding Accommodating Stage 4 Stage 5 Conflict behavior Conflict outcomes Overt conflict:- Increase group performance .

.  Individual’s needs and interests are important to be considered in understanding issues of conflict.Conclusion  Individual perception and view on issues influence the cause of conflict.


Contents  Five Common Conflict Styles  Model SALAM  Third-Party Roles .

 Model Thomas Kilmann  Avoiding  Accommodation  Competing  Compromising  Collaborating .

Tinggi Bertanding Bergabung (compete) (Collaborate) Berkompromi (Compromise) Pengelakan (Avoid) Rendah Akomodasi (Accommodate) Tinggi .

 S = starting the conflicting view  A = agreeing that a conflict exist  L = listening for and learning the difference  A = advising one another (menjelaskan isu konflik)  M = minimizing area of disagreement that could lead to aggression or withdraw .

 Mediator(Mediasi)  Arbitrator (Penimbang Tara)  Conciliator (Pendamai)  Consultant (Pakar Runding) .

 Mediator (Mediasi):  Pihak ketiga yang neutral  Membantu proses membuat keputusan oleh pihak yang berkonflik  Tidak memihak kepada mana-mana pihak yang berkonflik .

 Arbitrator (Penimbang Tara)  Pihak ketiga yang berkuasa untuk membuat keputusan untuk mereka yang berkonflik selepas memdengar keduadua pihak .

 Conciliator (Pendamai):  Pihak ketiga yang mewujudkan jalinan komunikasi kepada mereka yang berkonflik.  Menggalakkan mereka yang berkonflik untuk mencapai persetujuan .

. Consultant (Perunding):  Pihak ketiga yang menjadi pakar runding untuk membimbing mereka yang berkonflik untuk memcapai persetujuan.