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Process Design

“To design” refers to the process of originating
and developing a plan for a product, service or
Is any part of an organization which takes a set
of input resources which are then used to
transform something into outputs of products
or services.

Process Design Process design Processes that Design Products and Services Concept Generation Processes that Produce Products and Services Supply Network Design Screening Layout and Flow Preliminary Design Evaluation and Improvement Prototyping and final design Process Technology Job Design .

.Nature of the design activity: 1) Design is inevitable – products. 2) Product design influences process design – decisions taken during the design of a product or service will have an impact on the decisions taken during the design of the process which produces those products or services and vice versa. services and the processes which produce them all have to be designed.

Product & services design are interrelated to its process design Designing the Product or Service Products and services should be designed in such a way that they can be created effectively Designing the Processes that Produce the Product or Service Processes should be designed so they can create all products and services which the operation is likely to introduce Decisions taken during the design of the product or service will have an impact on the process that produces them and vice versa .

it is impossible to separate service design and process design – they are the same thing. Design of process can constrain the design of products and services. The overlap is greater in the service industry: • Service industry .it is possible to separate product design and process design but it is beneficial to consider them together because the design of products has a major effect on the cost of making them. .Process Design and Product/Service Design are Interrelated • • • To commit to the detailed design of a product or service consideration must be given to how it is to be produced. • Manufacturing industry .

Process and product/service design must satisfy customer • Products/services designer customers satisfaction criteria • Aesthetically pleasing • Reliability • Meets expectation • Inexpensive • Quality • Easy to manufacture and deliver • Speedy • Process designer customers satisfaction achieved through: • Layout • Location • Process technology • Human skills .

The design activity is itself a process TRANSFORMED RESOURCES Technical information Market information Time information INPUTS THE DESIGN OUTPUT ACTIVITY Test and design equipment Design and technical staff TRANSFORMING RESOURCES Finished designs which are: High quality: Error-free designs which fulfil their purpose in an effective and creative way Speedily produced: Designs which have moved from concept to detailed specification in a short time Dependably delivered: Designs which are delivered when promised Produced flexibly: Designs which include the latest ideas to emerge during the process Low cost: Designs produced without consuming excessive resources .

Designing processes • • • • • Process mapping Process mapping symbols Improving processes Process performance Throughput. cycle time & work in process .

. • Critical analysis of process maps can improve the process.Process mapping • Used to identify different types of activities. • Shows the flow of material. people or information.

Process performance • Process performance can be judge against the five key performance objective:  Quality  Speed  Dependability  Flexibility  Cost .

work content.Throughput. g. when customers join a queue in a process they become WIP throughput = work in process x cycle time . and work in process • • Throughput – the time for a unit to move through the process Work content – the total amount of work required to produce a unit of output (measured in time) • Cycle time – The average time between units of output emerging form the process • Work in process (WIP) –unfinished items in a production process waiting for further processing e. cycle time.

Process Types .

high work content “products” • Specially made. quality and cost objectives • Many different skills have to be coordinated • Fixed position layout . large scale. every one customized • Defined start and finish: time.Project Processes • One-off. complex.

Project Process .

High variety.Jobbing Processes • Very small quantities: “one-offs”. or team of jobbers complete whole product • Fixed position or process layout (routing decided by jobbers) . low repetition. • Skill requirements are usually very broad • Skilled jobber. or only a few required • Specially made.

Jobbing Process .

repeating demand. narrower skills • Set-ups (changeovers) at each stage of production • Process or cellular layout . But can make specials • Specialized.Batch Processes • Higher volumes and lower variety than for jobbing • Standard products.

Batch Process .

or almost instantaneous ones Cell or product layout . repeat products Low and/or narrow skills No set-ups.Mass (Line) Processes • • • • • Higher volumes than Batch Standard.

Mass Process .

Continuous Process • Extremely high volumes and low variety: often single product • Standard. repeat products • Highly capital-intensive and automated • Few changeovers required • Difficult and expensive to start and stop the process • Product layout: usually flow along conveyors or pipes .

Continuous Process .

Service process types High High Manufacturing process types Project Professional service Service shop Variety Variety Jobbing Batch Mass Low Volume High Low Low Continuous Mass service Low Volume High .