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IMMEDIATE

PHYSIOLOGICAL
RESPONSES TO
TRAINING
PDHPE: Core 2 – Body in
Motion

Heart Rate (HR)
• An average resting heart rate is 72 beats/minute.
Resting heart rates (RHR) of 30 beats/ minute or
less is not uncommon in elite athletes.
• HR will rise sharply from an inactive state to an
active state.
• At the cessation of exercise there will be a quick
decline in HR. This decline will be rapid in a fit
person.

Stroke Volume (SV)
• SV is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle of
the heart during a contraction. SV is measured in mL/beat.
• SV increases during exercise with most of the increase
being when the person moves from rest to moderate
exercise. As intensity increases to a high level there is less
change in SV.
• A sedentary person will maintain a SV of 60 – 80 Mls/beat
while a well trained athlete will reach 160mls/beat at
submaximal loads.
• WHAT WILL BE THE RESULT OF THIS?
• Important to remember that while our HR steadily
increases, our SV levels off at a moderate level of exercise.
SEE TABLE ON PG. 193

Cardiac Output (CO)
• CO is the amount of blood pumped by the heart
/minute.
• CO = HR X SV
• CO for both trained and untrained people at rest is
approximately 5L/minute.
• How can this be if the trained athletes have a lower
resting heart rate?
• As we move from rest to exercise the muscles being
used demand a greater supply of oxygen. SEE pg.
194

Lactate Levels (LL)
• Lactate is the chemical formed during the
breakdown of CHO in the absence of sufficient
oxygen.
• It is measured in millimoles/litre of blood.
• With each molecule of Lactate formed, 1
HYDROGEN ION is also formed. It is this ion that
increases the acidity level of the blood and
subsequently makes it difficult for muscles to
perform.

Ventilation Rate (VR)
• VR has two phases inspiration and expiration.
• Minute Ventilation is the measurement of air
breathed in one minute – APPROX. 6L
• At rest we breathe about 12 breathes/min = 500
mls/breath.
• Our breathing increases even before exercise
begins. Our body anticipates the need for more
oxygen and thus our breathing becomes more
rapid.
• At the end of exercise our breathing remains rapid
for a short period and gradually returns to normal.