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Media Theorists

Rosie Betteridge

Vladimir Propp Character Types

Propp introduced the concept of eight character types:

Hero Protagonist

Villain Antagonist

Princess The object of the quest

False Hero Villain pretending to be moral

Donor Prepares the hero and/or offers a magical substance

Father Sets the task for the hero and establishes roles of characters

Dispatcher Character who sends the hero on their quest and identifies evil

Helper (magical) Character who assists the hero

We will use Propps theory to help us portray the roles that we are attempting to
show. In our music video, the characters we will be using are the father role
which is that traditional father pressuring his son into traditional values. Also, the
protagonist will be identified as a false hero due to him being in denial of his
sexuality and acting like someone hes not. He will also be the princess because
he is the object of the other males desire.

Gramsci - Hegemony
Gramsci presented his idea of hegemony, this is how people in power
maintain their power. Dominant ideology considered hegemonic is the
power in society that is maintained by constructing ideologies that are
promoted by mass media.
Another form of hegemony is cultural hegemony:
This is the dominance of one social group over another. Consisting of the
ruling class being seen to be normal. Manipulating culture in society in
order to present their views as common sense. This is due to the ruling
class not being able to rule through force alone.
In our music video we are going against Gramsci's theory of hegemony. We
are rejecting the dominant ideology of heterosexuality and therefore
normalizing gay rights. We will be representing the gay community through
the use of visuals.

Todorov Narrative Theory

Todorov suggested that most story lines follow the same narrative pattern:

Equilibrium: The neutral beginning .

Disruption: Interference of the narrative.

Realisation: Everyone begins to notice that there is a problem.

Restored order: An attempt to repair the problem.

Equilibrium again: The problem is resolved but there is now a new

equilibrium which starts off a new narrative.

Our music video will essentially be following Todorovs narrative theory

because the beginning will consist of the homosexual male being unsure
about his sexuality. There will be a disruption which consists of the traditional
family attempting to pressure him into following the norms and values that
they believe is correct. The realisation is the protagonist realising his true
sexuality. This leads on to the restored order consisting of him attempting to
fix the relationship with the other male. Finally, finishing with both of them
accepting their relationship.

Andrew Goodwin Seven Rules

Goodwin introduced the seven key rules of music videos:

Links between visuals and lyrics

Links between visuals and music

Genre characteristics: Depicted as certain codes, conventions and


Notion of looking (Voyeurism): The idea of gaze and how artists are seen.

Demands of a record label: Star image, visuals and styles that reoccur.

Performance, narrative or concept based

Intertextuality: Making reference to existing products.

Our music video will be conforming to the majority of Goodwin's rules

although demands of a record label will not be relevant within our video
because Canopy Climbers are an unsigned group. We will correlate both the
lyrics and music with the visuals through the use of analysis. The music
video will be both narrative and concept based.

Richard Dyer Star Theory

Star theory is the idea that the persona or icon that is manufactured by the
music industry is used for financial gain.
This theory is irrelevant to our product because Canopy Climbers are an
unsigned band which has a limited amount of media recognition and
representation meaning that they dont obtain a constructed iconography.