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Group Member: 1. Aulia Y.
2. Lintang Amiluhur
3. Maula Akbar
4. M. Andika Putra
5. Vino Chandra
6. Yohanes Agung C.

has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart . a mid-oceanic ridge. • Passive voice For example.Lexicogrammatical Features • Simple Present Tense A volcano is a vent which transfers molten rock known as magma from depth to the earth’s surface. such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

.What is Volcano? A volcano is a vent which transfers molten rock known as magma from depth to the earth’s surface. Magma erupting from a volcano is called lava and is the material which builds up the cone surrounding the vent.

softer layer in its mantle. Therefore. For example. has volcanoes caused by divergent . rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter. volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major. a mid-oceanic ridge. on Earth.

They occur when particles and blobs of lava are ejected from a volcanic vent. this builds up a circular or oval-shaped cone. and the pieces rain down around the vent. . The lava is blown violently into the air.Type of Volcanoes Cinder Cone: These are the simplest type of volcano. Over time. with a bowl-shaped crater at the top.

With all this material coming out. Mount Fuji. for example. or stratovolcanoes make up some of the world’s most memorable mountains: Mount Rainier. . They can have clusters of vents. with lava breaking through walls. or issuing from fissures on the sides of the mountain. and Mount Cotopaxi. These volcanoes have a conduit system inside them that channels magma from deep within the Earth to the surface.Composite Volcano: Composite volcanoes. they can grow thousands of meters tall.

Shield Volcano: These are large. with hundreds of eruptions. They’re not likely to explode catastrophically. creating many layers. These volcanos build up slowly over time. . so it can travel for great distances down the shallow slopes of the volcano. The lava that pours out of shield volcanoes is thin. broad volcanoes that look like shields from above – hence the name.

The dome grows by expansion of the lava within. Unlike shield volcanoes. Lava domes can explode violently. with low-viscosity lava. releasing a huge amount of hot rock and ash. and the mountain forms from material spilling off the sides of the growing dome. the magma from volcanic domes just pile up over and around the vent. .Lava Domes: Volcanic or lava domes are created by small masses of lava which are too viscous (thick) to flow very far.

The most common consequences of this are population movements as large numbers of people are often forced to flee the moving lava flow.How did it happen? Volcanic eruptions happen when lava and gas are discharged from a volcanic vent. Volcanic eruptions often cause temporary food shortages and volcanic ash landslides called Lahar. .

seeking out cracks and weaknesses in the rock. and this causes rock to melt and squeeze out of cracks in the rock. The magma collects into vast chambers beneath the Earth’s crust. Since this magma is less dense than the surrounding rock. it “floats” up to the surface. When it finally reaches the surface. .Although the Earth’s mantle is solid rock. we see this as an eruption. it’s under high pressures and temperatures.

• Acid Rain This effect. . followed by carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. together with increased stratospheric chlorine levels from chlorofluorocarbon pollution.How about the effects? • Volcanic Gases Water vapor is typically the most abundant volcanic gas. generates chlorine monoxide (ClO). which destroys ozone (O3).