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Radiation

Rybicki & Lightman

Chapter 6

**Cyclotron and Synchrotron Radiation
**

Charged particles are accelerated by B-fields radiation

“magnetobremsstrahlung”

Cyclotron Radiation

non-relativistic particles

frequency of emission = frequency of gyration

Synchrotron Radiation

relativistic particles

frequency of emission

from a single particle

emission at a range

of frequencies

Astronomical Examples:

(1) Galactic and extragalactic non-thermal radio and X-ray emission

Supernova remnants, radio galaxies, jets

(2) Transient solar events, Jovian radio emission

Synchrotron emission:

reveals presence of B-field, direction

Allows estimates of energy content of particles

Spectrum energy distribution of electrons

Jet production in many different contexts

**Equation of motion for a single electron:
**

Recall

E / c

p

p

Relativistic equation

of motion

4-momentum

dp

m0 a

d

d

0

dt

so

see Eqn. 4.82-4.84

q

d d

p mv v B

dt

dt

c

d

d

2

E

mc qv E 0

dt

dt

or

constant

v constant

(1)

and v v|| is a constant. normal to B 0 v|| constant dv q v B dt mc Since v is a constant. is a constant . parallel to B v vel.(2) Let v d v|| dt be divided into v|| vel.

uniform circular motion in plane perpendicular to B field .uniform velocity along the field line (4) The frequency of rotation or gyration is eB B mc Remember cyclotron eB mc so (Larmor frequency) cyclotron B .(3) Result: Helical motion .

E 10GeV R 1014 cm 7 AU small on cosmic scales . the Larmor frequency is cyclotron = 2. Numerically.8 B1G MHz Radius of the orbit R v cyclotron E1GeV 10 cm B1G 7 Typical values: B 10 6 G .

6 10 15 2 2 B 2 ergs/s . In our case. the acceleration is perpendicular to the velocity: dv q a v B dt mc So a B v e2 write r0 m c 2 e v c classical electron radius and 2q 2 4 q 2 B 2 2 P 3 2 2 2 v 3c mc P r c 2 2 B 2 2 2 3 o 1.Total Emitted Power Recall For single electron 2q 2 4 2 P 3 a 2 a||2 3c perpendicular. parallel acceleration in frame where the electron is instantaneously at rest.

mono-energetic velocity distribution of electrons: i. all electrons have the same velocity v. r r −1 β ⋅ β cos β2 P Then 2 So α = ∫ r c B 2 2 3 0 2 dΩ(β sinα) ∫ dΩ 2 β2 = 4π 2 2 2 0 3 2 ∫ 2 2 β 8π 2 2 dΩsin 2 α = = β 4π 3 3 P = ( ) r cβ 2γ2 B 2 per particle or P 1.110 15 2 2 B 2 erg/s per electron .Average over an isotropic. but random pitch angle with respect to the B field.e.

magnetic energy density B P ~ 1.Write it another way where 4 2 2 P T c U B 3 8 r02 T 3 Thomson cross-section B2 UB 8 For β1.6 10 8 2 2 2 E eV / sec 2 me c .

4 yr P B E G .Life time of particle of energy E is 2 t1/ 2 B E 1 2 16.

when the core of the beam (of half-width 1/γ) is pointed at your line of sight: .Spectrum of Synchrotron Radiation -Qualitative Discussion The spectrum of synchrotron radiation is related to the Fourier transform of the time-varying electric field. the observer sees radiation only for a short time. Because of beaming.

you see a narrow pulse of E-field expect spectrum to be broad in frequency .e.The result is that E(t) is “pulsed” i.

It is straight-forward to show (R&L p. angle v makes wrt B . 169-173) that the width of the pulse of E(t) is 1 t 3 B sin A where gyro frequency of eB B particle in field mc pitch angle.

cutting off at frequencies >> ωC .Define CRITICAL FREQUENCY 3 3 C B sin 2 or 3 3 C B sin 4 Spectrum is broad.

For the highly relativistic case. one can show that the spectrum for a single particle: 3 e 3 B sin P( ) F 2 2 mc C Where F is a dimensionless function which looks like: .

Transition from Cyclotron to Synchrotron Emission β<<1 “CYCLOTRON” a to observer eB B mc .

Slightly faster .

β ~ 1 Highly relativistic a to observer .

the observed spectra for synchrotron sources are power laws s P ( ) where s = spectral index at least over some particular range of frequencies ω Example: on the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of a blackbody spectrum s = -2 .Spectral Index for Power-Law Electron Distribution Often.

with energies between E.. particularly at high velocities e. “Fermi acceleration” Maxwell-Boltzman distribution “Non-thermal” tail of particle velocities v Let N(E) = # particles per vol.A number of particle acceleration processes yield a power-law energy distribution for the particles. E+dE N ( E )dE CE p dE Power-law p = spectral index C = constant .g.

Turns out that there is a VERY simple relation between p = spectral index of particle energies and s = spectral index of observed radiation .

with energy E (1) Power/particle with energy E. E ) E1 # particles /Vol. emitted at frequency ω where E1 and E2 define the range over which the power law holds.p = spectral index of particle energies and s = spectral index of observed radiation Since E mc 2 p N ( E )dE CE dE can be written E2 N ( )d C p d PTotal ( ) dE N ( E ) P ( . .

in terms of γ 2 PTotal ( ) d N ( ) P ( .Equivalently. change variables by letting x C where C critical frequency 32 3 B sin . ) F 2 2 mc C (3) Inserting (1) and (3) into (2). ) (2) 1 where 3 e 3 B sin P( .

Then PTotal ( p 1) x2 2 dx x ( p 3) 2 F ( x) x1 can approximate x1 0. and particle energy index. s. . x2 ∞ Then the integral is ~constant with ω PTotal ( ) So ( p 1) 2 s p 1 s 2 Relation between slope of power law of radiation. p.

Polarization of Synchrotron Radiation First. consider a single radiating charge elliptically polarized radiation Observer The cone of radiation projects onto an ellipse on the plane of the sky Major axis is perpendicular to the projection of B on the sky .

per cent polarization p 1 p 73 • Linear polarization is perpendicular to direction of B .• Ensemble of emitters with different α emission cones from each side of line of sight cancel partial linear polarization • Frequency integrated polarization can be as high as 75% • For a power-law distribution of energies.

A straight-forward calculation involving Einstein A’s and B’s (R&L pp. 186-190) yields the absorption coefficient for synchrotron self-absorption for a power-law distribution of electrons p /2 ⎛ ⎞ 3e 3e ( p +2) / 2 ⎛ 3p + 2 ⎞ ⎛ 3p + 22 ⎞ −( p +4 ) / 2 C ( B sinα) Γ⎜ ⎜ ⎟Γ ⎜ ⎟ν 3 5 ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 12 ⎠ 8πm ⎝2πm c ⎠ 3 gamma function .Synchrotron Self-Absorption Photon interacts with a charge in a magnetic field and is absorbed. giving up its energy to the charge Can also have stimulated emission: a particle is induced to emit more strongly in a direction and at a frequency at which there are already photons present.

The Source function is simpler: j S P ( ) 4 5 / 2 • Independent of p • • 5/ 2 spectrum dead give-away that synchrotron self-abs. is what is going on 5 2 which is the Rayleigh-Jeans value 2 .

Summary: For optically thin emission For optically thick I I S ( p 1) / 2 5 / 2 Low-frequency cut-off ( p 1) / 2 Thick Thin .

. SNe. Sources in Milky Way are pulsars.Synchrotron Radio Sources Map of sky at 408 MHz (20 cm).

The nebula is roughly 10 lightyears across. or a pulsar is this wind which energizes the nebula. The supernova explosion left behind a rapidly spinning neutron star. observed as a "guest star" by ancient Chinese astronomers. and causes it to emit the radio waves which formed this image. and it is at a distance of about 6. It is presently expanding at about 1000 km per second.000 light years from earth. from NRAO web site . Radio emission of M1 = Crab Nebula.Crab Nebula The Crab Nebula. is the remnant of a supernova in 1054 AD.

IR Optical Radio X-ray (Chandra) .

897 Synchrotron Synchrotron Self-Compton .Crab Nebula Spectral Energy Distribution from Radio to TeV gamma rays see Aharonian+ 2004 ApJ 614.

sec.4x1013 2.0x108 109.4x1015 0.4 Gamma Ray 1x1022 1. (eV) Electron lifetime (Yr) Radio (0.0x1011 109 X-ray (4 keV) 1x1018 1.Synchrotron Lifetimes.024 = 9 days 5.5 GHz) 5x108 3. for Crab Nebula Photon frequency (Hz) Electron Energy U.000 Optical (6000A) 5x1014 3.16 1 2 electron decay time. B γ π for α = .B in teslas 2 Timescales << age of Crab Pulsar is Replenishing energy .

Guess what this is an image of? .

Extragalactic radio sources: Very isotropic distribution on the sky 6cm radio sources right ascension Milky Way North Galactic Pole .

Blowup of North Pole .

7-1.VLA Core of jets: flat spectrum s=0 to .2 .3 Extended lobes: steep spectrum s = 0.

II (Fanaroff & Riley 1974 MNRAS 167 31P) FRI: Low luminosity edge dark Ex.FR I vs. FR II On large scales (>15 kpc) radio sources divide into Fanaroff-Riley Class I. Cygnus A .:Cen-A FRII: High luminosity hot spots on outer edge Ex.

Lobes are polarized synchrotron emission with well-ordered B-fields Polarization is perpendicular to B .

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