Statics Dynamic

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Statics Dynamic

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 29

Mechanics:

Branch of physical

sciences concerned with

the state of rest or

motion of bodies

subjected to forces.

10/20/15

Engineering Mechanics

Solid Mechanics

Rigid Bodies

Statics

10/20/15

Fluid Mechanics

Deformable Bodies

Dynamics

Chapter 1 General Principles

Statics Bodies at rest

Dynamics Accelerated

motion of bodies

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Basic Quantities

Length

meter

foot

Time

second

Mass

Force

10/20/15

kilogram

slug

newton

pound

Length

Needed to locate the position

of a point in space and describe

the size of a physical system.

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Time

Conceived as a succession of

events. Concepts of STATICS

are time independent.

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Mass

A property of matter by which we

can compare the action of one

body to another. This property

manifests itself as a gravitational

attraction between two bodies

and provide a qualitative

measure of the resistance of

matter to a change in velocity.

10/20/15

Force

Generally considered as a push of

a pull exerted by one body on

another. Interaction occurs when

there is direct contact between

the bodies. Gravitational,

electrical and magnetic forces do

not require direct contact. Force

is characterized by magnitude,

direction and point of application.

10/20/15

Idealizations

1. Particle - an object having mass

2. Rigid Body - a combination of a

large number of particles which

remain in a fixed position relative

to each other, both before and

after the application of a force.

10/20/15

Motion

First Law: A particle originally at rest, or

moving in a straight line with constant

velocity, will remain in this state

provided the particle is not subjected

to unbalanced forces.

10/20/15

10

Motion

Second Law: A particle acted upon by an

unbalanced force F experiences an

acceleration a that has the same direction

as the force and a magnitude that is

directly proportional to the force. If F is

applied to a particle of mass m then: F =

ma.

10/20/15

11

Motion

Third Law: The mutual forces of

action and reaction between two

particles are equal, opposite and

collinear.

10/20/15

12

Newtons Laws of

Gravitational Attraction

m 1m 2

FG

2

r

10/20/15

Where:

F = force of gravitation

G = universal constant

of gravitation

m1,m2= mass of two

particles

r = distance between

two particles

13

Units

1. Basic quantities (force, mass,

Newtons second law.

2. Units used to measure quantities

are not all independent.

3. Three of four units, called base

units, are arbitrarily defined and

the fourth is derived.

10/20/15

14

SI Units

1. Modern version of metric system.

2. Base units are length, time and mass,

meter (m), second (s), and kilogram

(kg)

3. Acceleration of gravity:

m

g 9.81 2

s

10/20/15

15

SI Units

4. Force is derived quantity measured in

unit called a newton

kg m

1N 1

2

s

10/20/15

16

1. Base units are length, time and

force.

2. feet (ft), second (s), and pound

(lb)

ft

3. Acceleration

of gravity:

g 32.2

10/20/15

17

4. Mass is derived quantity

measured in a unit called a slug:

lb s

1 slug 1

ft

10/20/15

18

Systems of Units

Name

SI

US

Customar

y

10/20/15

Length

Time

Mass

Force

m

n

(m)

(s)

(kg)

(N)

foot

(ft)

second

slug

pound

(s)

(lb s2/ft

(lb

19

Unit

Conversions

Unit Conversions

Force : 1 lb 4.4482 N

Mass : 1 slug 14.5938 kg

Length : 1 ft 0.3048 m

10/20/15

20

Multiple

1,000,000,000

1,000,000

1,000

Submultiple

0.001

0.000001

0.00000001

10/20/15

Exponential form

Prefix

SI

symbol

109

106

103

giga

mega

kilo

G

M

k

10-3

10-6

10-9

milli

micro

nano

21

Concepts to Study

1.

2.

3.

4.

Dimensional Homogeneity

Significant Figures

Rounding Off Numbers

Calculations

10/20/15

22

Dimensional Homogeneity

Each of the terms of an equation must

be expressed in the same units.

s = v t + 1/2 a t2

s is position in meters

v is velocity in m/s

a is acceleration in m/s2

t is time in seconds

m = m/s s + m/s2 s2 = m

10/20/15

23

Significant Figures

1. Accuracy specified by number of

significant figures.

2. Defined as any digit including a

zero (provided it is not used to

specify the location of a decimal

point).

3. 5604 and 34.52 both have four

significant figures

10/20/15

24

Engineering Notation

1. Does 40 have one or two

significant figures?

2. Engineering notation uses

powers of ten with exponents in

multiples of three.

3. 40 written as 0.04 (103) is forty

to one significant figure and

0.040 (103) is forty to two

significant figures.

10/20/15

25

Calculations

When performing calculations

retain a greater number of

digits than the problem data.

Engineers usually round off

final answer to three

significant figures.

Intermediate calculations are

usually done to four

significant figures.

Answer can never have more

significant figures than given

data!

10/20/15

26

km

1000

m

1

h

2 kmis this?

2

h

SOLUTION:

h km 3600 s

Since 1 km = 1000 m and 1 h = 3600 s, the conversion

factors2000

are arranged

so that a cancellation of units can

m

2 kmbe applied.

0.555 5 0.556 m

h

3600 s

m

m

1 ft

ft

ft

0.556

0.556

1.824 1.82

s

s 0.3048 m

s

s

Recall that 1 ft = 0.3038 m

10/20/15

27

1. Read the problem carefully and

correlate the actual physical

situation with the theory studied.

2. Draw necessary diagrams and

tables.

3. Apply relevant principles,

generally in mathematical form.

10/20/15

28

4. Solve the equations algebraically (without

5.

6.

7.

8.

numerical answer.

Be sure to use a consistent set of units.

Report the answer with no more

significant figures than the accuracy of the

given data.

Decide if answer seems reasonable.

Think about what the problem taught you!

10/20/15

29

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