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Villanova University

Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering
Lecture 5 Gravity Load
Design (Part 1)

Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Outline
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Review of Progress Report #1 Presentations


IBC Concrete Design Requirements
Beam & One Way Slab Design
Slab Thickness Considerations
Load Path and Framing Possibilities
Connection & Analysis Issues
Seismic Detailing Requirements
Work Tasks
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Progress Report #1 Comments


Overall, a very good job
Comments on presentations:
Timing good
Dont worry about the intro stuff next
time
Know where our site is located you
have coordinates that are accurate to
within 3 miles!!!
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Progress Report #1 Comments


Range of values:
100 to 150 mph design wind speed
Seismic Design Category D
(unanimous)
2000 to 2800 psi concrete strength
49000 to 53400 psi steel yield
strength
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

IBC Concrete Design Requirements


IBC Chapter 19
Mimics ACI 318 Code
IBC 2000 version based on 1999 ACI 318
IBC 2003 will use 2002 version of ACI
318

First seven sections (1901 1907)


correspond to ACI 318 Chapters 1 to
7
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

IBC Concrete Design Requirements


Section 1908 gives specific
modifications to ACI 318
Deals with meat of ACI Code

Sections 1909 1916 deal with


specialized areas
Sec. 1910 Seismic Design
Requirements
Sec. 1912 Anchorage to Concrete

Get to know this document!!!


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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Load Path / Framing Issues


Building Frame System
Frame for gravity load
Shear walls for lateral load

Consider support of the


chapel gravity loads:
Where do the columns go?
What beams do I need?
How do I design my slab?

Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Beam & One Way Slab Design


Review
We presumably know how to do
the following from CEE 3422:
Design a rectangular beam of
unknown cross-section size
Design a rectangular beam of known
cross-section size
Design a simply supported one way
slab
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Beam & One Way Slab Design


Review
We presumably know how to do
the following from CEE 3422:
Design a T-beam for positive moment
Design a T-beam for negative moment
Design a doubly reinforced beam
(beam with compression
reinforcement)
Design a beam for shear
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Design of Continuous Beams and


Slabs
Gap
You know how to
design crosssections for positive
or negative moment
Reinforcement
follows the moment
diagram
Why continuous
spans?
Moments
Deflections

Two Simple Spans

Continuous over Center Support

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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Design Moments (Uniform Dist.


Loading)
Simple Spans
wL2/8

Continuous Spans
Analysis far more complicated
What type of fixity do we actually have?
Must consider effects of patterned
loading
Formation of plastic hinges allows for
moment redistribution
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Design Moments Continuous Spans


We have four analysis options
Elastic Analysis (preferably STAAD)
Elastic Analysis w/ Moment
Redistribution
Approximate Frame Analysis
ACI Approximate Moment Coefficients

See McCormac text Chapter 13


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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Slab Thickness Considerations


What governs the thickness of a slab?
Flexural Strength
Shear
Deflections

Usually, deflections will govern the


thickness requirements for a one-way slab
Size slab based on deflection requirements
Check shear
Design reinforcement for flexure

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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Slab Thickness Considerations


Review McCormac text, Ch. 5
(serviceability) and Ch. 3 (one-way
slabs)
Review notes from CEE 3422,
lectures on one-way slab design
and serviceability
ACI Sec. 9.5.2.1
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Slab Thickness Considerations


(such that we do not need to compute
deflections)
For simply-supported beams, total beam
depth h must be at least L/16

A 16 ft. long simply supported beam must be


at least 12 in. deep.

For simply-supported one-way slabs, total


slab thickness h must be at least L/20
A 10 ft. long simply supported one-way slab
must be at least 6 in. deep.

You will have to look up other values!!!


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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Slab Thickness Considerations


Something to keep in mind.
Your material properties!
These tables are based on normal
strength concrete
You may wish to consider creative ways
to adjust tables for your low concrete
strength
Hint: Think about what the key concrete
material property related to deflections is

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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Load Path / Framing Possibilities


Now we can begin to develop a
framing plan for our structure
Typical practice on site is a 5 in. thick slab
We have a methodology to determine how
far a slab of a given thickness can span
Do our material properties have any
effect?

Lets look at a plan view of the twostory section


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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

Note: columns
automatically
placed at each
wall end or
corner

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Ln = 10.5 ft.

Ln = 14.5 ft.
Ln = 12.0 ft.
Ln = 27.0 ft.

Think well need some additional framing members??


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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Framing Concepts
Lets use a
simple example
for our
discussion
Column spacing
30 ft. on center

Think about
relating it to your
design as we
discuss

Plan
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Framing Concepts
We can first
assume that
well have major
girders running
in one direction
in our one-way
system

Plan
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Framing Concepts
If we span
between girders
with our slab,
then we have a
load path, but if
the spans are
too long

Plan
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Framing Concepts
We will need to
shorten up the
span with
additional beams

Plan
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Framing Concepts
But we need to
support the load
from these new
beams, so we
will need
additional
supporting
members
Plan
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Framing Concepts
Now we have a
viable plan
Lets think back
through our load
path now to
identify our
heirarchy of
members
Plan
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Framing Concepts
One-Way Slab
(continuous)
Beams
Interior (T-beams)
Exterior (L-beams)

Girders
Interior (T-beams)
Exterior (L-beams)

Plan
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Framing Concepts
Note that by running
the one-way slab in
this EW direction, we
are actually making
the EW running beams
our major girders
The NS running beams
simply transfer the
load out to these
girders (or directly to
a column)

Plan
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Framing Concepts
Now lets go
back through
with a slightly
different load
path

Plan
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Framing Concepts
We again
assume that
well have major
girders running
in one direction
in our one-way
system

Plan
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Framing Concepts
This time, lets
think about
shortening up the
slab span by
running beams
into our girders.
Our one-way slab
will transfer our
load to the beams.
Plan
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Framing Concepts
With this
approach, we have
already
established our
heirarchy
The only
difference is in the
direction of our
load path
90 degree rotation

Plan
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Framing Concepts - Conclusions


Either load path will work
In this case, they are identical
With a rectangular bay (instead of a
square) bay, there will be a
difference
Tradeoff is usually in number of
supporting members vs. span of
supporting members
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Two Load Path Options

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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Framing Concepts - Considerations


For your structure:
Look for a natural load path
Identify which column lines are best
suited to having major framing
members (i.e. girders)
Assume walls are not there for
structural support, but consider that
the may help you in construction
(forming)
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Connection / Analysis Issues


With continuous reinforced
concrete framing systems,
connections are a major issue with
respect to:
Detailing of reinforcement at these
congested areas
Assumptions regarding fixity of
beams and slabs
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Connection / Analysis Issues


Lets first
consider our
continuous oneway slab (12
strip shown)
framing into an
exterior
(spandrel) beam
Plan
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Slab-Exterior Beam Connection

Slab is a six span continuous system


Some fixity at end of slab due to torsional
rigidity of exterior beam, but what happens
when beam and slab crack?
Do we want to count on fixity?

Also, if we design slab for negative moment


here, we must develop reinforcement (like a
cantilever)

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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Slab-Exterior Beam Connection


Typical
assumptions:
Simple support at
end
No moment in
slab at end
Place some
reinforcement at
top of slab to
control cracking
Design exterior
beam for minimal
torsion

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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Connection / Analysis Issues


Now lets
consider our
beam-girder
joints

Plan
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Beam-Girder Connection

Beam is a two span continuous system


Similar situation: some fixity at end of beam
due to torsional rigidity of exterior girder, but
what happens when beam and girder crack?
Do we want to count on fixity?

Also, if we design beam for negative moment


here, we must develop reinforcement (like a
cantilever)

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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Slab-Exterior Beam Connection


Typical
assumptions:
Simple support at
end
No moment in
beam at end
Place some
reinforcement at
top of beam to
control cracking
Design exterior
girder for minimal
torsion

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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Analysis One-Way Slab & T-Beams


For the simple elements just described,
where supports are provided by beams
and girders,

Supporting elements have some stiffness,


but it is fairly small
Assumption of treating one-way slabs and Tbeams as continuous beams is valid
A frame analysis is not needed since there
are no columns involved
Simple analysis methods can be used if all
assumptions are met (i.e. ACI moment
coefficients)

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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Connection / Analysis Issues


Finally, lets look
at beam-column
and girdercolumn joints
Three situations:
Interior column
Exterior column
Corner column
Plan
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Interior Column Connection


Girders framing in to a column:

Columns will provide some rigidity


Moments will depend upon
distribution of stiffness
Frame analysis is warranted to
determine these moments
Unbalanced loading (patterned live
load) must be considered
Goal: Determine moments in
girders (they will not necessarily
be equal), as well as axial load &
moment combinations for columns

Beam/girder reinforcement
must be continuous through
joint

Plan
cu

cl

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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Exterior Column Connection


Same basic situation:

Columns will provide some rigidity


Moments will depend upon
distribution of stiffness
Frame analysis is warranted to
determine these moments
Unbalanced loading (patterned live
load) must be considered
Goal: Determine moments in girders
(they will not necessarily be equal),
as well as axial load & moment
combinations for columns

Beam/girder reinforcement must


be developed for negative
moment

Plan
cu

cl

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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Corner Column Connection


This is essentially the same
situation as an exterior
column
Note that where we have
beams (not girders) framing
into columns, the same
principles apply
However, these moments are
typically very small and will
usually not control the design

Plan

cu

cl

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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Analysis Girders & Beams Framing Into


Columns
For these elements, support is provided
by columns
Columns have substantial stiffness and
will attract some moments
Assumption of treating these girders and
beams as continuous beams is not valid
A frame analysis is needed to determine the
appropriate distribution of moments
Elastic analysis is recommended (STAAD,
PCABeam)
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Seismic Detailing Requirements for


Reinforced Concrete - Introduction

IBC Section 1910


ACI 318-99 Chapter 21
These two sections, together,
identify specific detailing
requirements related to seismic
design of concrete structures
Level of detailing required is based
on Seismic Design Category
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Work Tasks
Determine final loads on the structure
Gravity loads (dead, live)
Lateral loads (seismic, wind)

Truss analysis on roof & design of roof


members
Detailing of roof-to-structure connection
Develop a load path (framing plan) to
support the gravity loads associated
with the second story chapel
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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Work Tasks
Look into how the selection of Seismic
Design Category D will affect concrete
design detailing requirements for your
beams, columns, and slab
Work on design of one-way slab, beams,
and girders
We will discuss design for shear and torsion
next time!

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Villanova University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

CEE 4606 - Capstone II


Structural Engineering

Assignment for Tuesday


1. Submit a detailed sketch showing your framing
plan (load path for gravity loads) for the second
story chapel

Identify all columns, beam, and girder locations, and


specify a slab thickness

2. Summarize on one sheet how the selection of


Seismic Design Category D will affect the detailing
of your structure

Use a bullet item / list format to identify specific detailing


requirements for your beams, columns, and slab
Dont consider shear walls for now (they will be masonry)

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