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GENERAL ELECTRICAL DRIVES

What is electrical drives?


Components of electrical drives
Advantages of electrical drives
DC drives Vs AC drives
Torque equations
Load torque profiles
Four quadrant operation

DC DRIVES Vs AC DRIVES
DC drives:
Advantage in control unit
Disadvantage in motor
AC Drives:
Advantage in motor
Disadvantage in control unit

General Torque Equation


Translational (linear) motion:

dv
F M
dt

F : Force (Nm)
M : Mass (Kg )
v : velocity (m/s)

Rotational motion:

d
TJ
dt

T : Torque (Nm)
J : Moment of Inertia (Kgm2 )
: angular velocity ( rad/s )

Torque Equation: Motor drives


d
d
Te TL J
or Te TL J
dt
dt
Te : motor torque (Nm)

TL : Load torque (Nm)

Te TL 0

Acceleration

Te TL 0

Deceleration

Te TL 0

Constant speed

continue
Drive accelerates or decelerates depending
on whether Te is greater or less than TL
During acceleration, motor must supply not only
the load torque but also dynamic torque, ( Jd/dt ).
During deceleration, the dynamic torque, ( Jd/dt ), has
a negative sign. Therefore, it assists the motor
torque, Te.

Torque Equation: Graphical


Te

Speed

Forward Forward Reverse Reverse


running braking acc.
running

Reverse Forward
braking acc.

4Q OPERATION
F: FORWARD R: REVERSE M : MOTORING B: BRAKING
Te

SPEED

FB

Te

II

FM

TORQUE

RM

Te

III

IV

Te

RB

4Q OPERATION: LIFT SYSTEM


Positive speed
Negative torque

Motor

Counterweight

Cage

DC MOTOR DRIVES
Principle of operation
Torque-speed characteristic
Methods of speed control
Armature voltage control
Variable voltage source
Phase-controlled Rectifier
Switch-mode converter (Chopper)
1Q-Converter
2Q-Converter
4Q-Converter

Principle of Operation

DC Motors
Stator: field
windings

Rotor: armature
windings

Current in
Current out

Equivalent circuit of DC motor


Ra
+

Lf

La
ia

Rf
if

Vt

ea

Vf

di
v t R a ia L a ea
dt

Te ktia
e a k E

v f R f if L
Electromagnetic torque
Armature back e.m.f.

di f
dt

Torque-speed characteristics
Armature circuit:

Va Ra ia L
In steady state,

dia
ea
dt

Va Ra I a Ea

Therefore speed is given by,

Ra
Va

T
2 e
kT
kT
Three possible methods of speed control:
Armature resistance Ra
Field flux
Armature voltage Va

Torque-speed characteristics of DC motor


Speed

No load speed

Full load speed

Maximum
load
Torque

Torque

Separately excited DC motors have good


speed regulation.

Motor speed control function


1. Resistance in armature circuit
When a resistance is inserted in the armature circuit, the speed
drop increases and the motor speed decreases.

2. Terminal voltage (armature voltage)


Reducing the armature voltage Vt of the motor reduces the motor
speed

3. Field flux (field voltage)


Reducing the field voltage reduces the flux and the motor speed
increases

Controlling Speed by adding resistor


(armature circuit)
Speed

Ra increasing
Maximum
Torque

Torque

Power loss in Ra
Does not maintain maximum torque capability
Poor speed regulation

Controlling Speed by adding resistor


(armature circuit)

holding

EXAMPLE

DC Motor Speed Control


Speed

By Changing Armature voltage


Va increasing

Maximum
Torque

Torque
Trated

good speed regulation


maintain maximum torque capability

DC Motor Speed Control

holding

EXAMPLE

DC Motor Speed Control


Speed

By Decreasing Flux

Flux Decreasing

Maximum
Torque

Torque
Trated

Slow transient response


Does not maintain maximum torque capability

EXAMPLE

Speed control of DC Motors


Below base speed: Armature voltage control (retain maximum
torque capability)
Above base speed: Field weakening (i.e. flux reduced) (Trading-off torque
capability for speed)

Armature voltage control


Field flux control

Torque

Line of
Maximum
Torque Limitation

base

speed

SOLID STATE CONTROL


Rectifier (AC to DC)

Chopper (DC to DC)

1. Half wave drive

1. First quadrant

2. Full wave drive

2. Second quadrant

3. Effects of freewheeling

3. Two quadrant
4. Four quadrant

RECTIFICATION HALF-WAVE (SINGLE PHASE)

RECTIFICATION HALF-WAVE (SINGLE PHASE)

EXAMPLE 6.4

RECTIFICATION FULL-WAVE (SINGLE PHASE)

RECTIFICATION FULL-WAVE (SINGLE PHASE)

Example 6.5

RECTIFICATION FIRST QUARDRANT (THREE PHASE)

RECTIFICATION TWO QUADRANT (THREE PHASE)


Field Control

Armature Control

RECTIFICATION TWO QUARDRANT (THREE PHASE)

RECTIFICATION TWO QUARDRANT (THREE PHASE)


Converter 1 (ON)

Converter 2 (ON)

Phase-controlled rectifier (ACDC)

ia

+
3-phase Or
1-phase
supply

Vt

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

Methods of Armature Voltage Control


Phase-controlled rectifier: 4Q Operation

1 or 3phase
supply

+
1 or 3phase
supply

Vt

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

AN ALTERNATIVE WAY
Phase-controlled rectifier : 4Q Operation
R1

F1
3-phase
supply
+

Va

F2

R2

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

SOLID STATE CONTROL


Rectifier (AC to DC)

Chopper (DC to DC)

1. Half wave drive

1. First quadrant

2. Full wave drive

2. Second quadrant

3. Effects of freewheeling

3. Two quadrant
4. Four quadrant

DC-DC Chopper Circuit

Converters For DC motor Drives


Switchmode converters: 1Q Converter

T1

+
Vt
-

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

Converters For DC motor Drives

Switchmode converters: 2Q Converter

T1
D2

T2

+
Vt
D1 -

Ia

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

Q1 T1 or D1
Q2 D2 or T2

4 Quadrant DC-DC Control

Converters For DC motor Drives

Switchmode converters: 4Q Converter

T1

T4

D1

D3

+ Vt -

D4

D2

T3

T2

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

Advantages of Switch mode converters

Switchmode converters
Switching at high frequency
Reduces current ripple
Increases control bandwidth
Suitable for high performance applications