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GENERAL ELECTRICAL DRIVES

What is electrical drives?

Components of electrical drives
DC drives Vs AC drives
Torque equations

DC DRIVES Vs AC DRIVES
DC drives:
AC Drives:

General Torque Equation

Translational (linear) motion:

dv
F M
dt

F : Force (Nm)
M : Mass (Kg )
v : velocity (m/s)

Rotational motion:

d
TJ
dt

T : Torque (Nm)
J : Moment of Inertia (Kgm2 )
: angular velocity ( rad/s )

Torque Equation: Motor drives

d
d
Te TL J
or Te TL J
dt
dt
Te : motor torque (Nm)

Te TL 0

Acceleration

Te TL 0

Deceleration

Te TL 0

Constant speed

continue
Drive accelerates or decelerates depending
on whether Te is greater or less than TL
During acceleration, motor must supply not only
the load torque but also dynamic torque, ( Jd/dt ).
During deceleration, the dynamic torque, ( Jd/dt ), has
a negative sign. Therefore, it assists the motor
torque, Te.

Te

Speed

Forward Forward Reverse Reverse

running braking acc.
running

Reverse Forward
braking acc.

4Q OPERATION
F: FORWARD R: REVERSE M : MOTORING B: BRAKING
Te

SPEED

FB

Te

II

FM

TORQUE

RM

Te

III

IV

Te

RB

4Q OPERATION: LIFT SYSTEM

Positive speed
Negative torque

Motor

Counterweight

Cage

DC MOTOR DRIVES
Principle of operation
Torque-speed characteristic
Methods of speed control
Armature voltage control
Variable voltage source
Phase-controlled Rectifier
Switch-mode converter (Chopper)
1Q-Converter
2Q-Converter
4Q-Converter

Principle of Operation

DC Motors
Stator: field
windings

Rotor: armature
windings

Current in
Current out

Equivalent circuit of DC motor

Ra
+

Lf

La
ia

Rf
if

Vt

ea

Vf

di
v t R a ia L a ea
dt

Te ktia
e a k E

v f R f if L
Electromagnetic torque
Armature back e.m.f.

di f
dt

Torque-speed characteristics
Armature circuit:

Va Ra ia L

dia
ea
dt

Va Ra I a Ea

Therefore speed is given by,

Ra
Va

T
2 e
kT
kT
Three possible methods of speed control:
Armature resistance Ra
Field flux
Armature voltage Va

Speed

Maximum
Torque

Torque

Separately excited DC motors have good

speed regulation.

Motor speed control function

1. Resistance in armature circuit
When a resistance is inserted in the armature circuit, the speed
drop increases and the motor speed decreases.

2. Terminal voltage (armature voltage)

Reducing the armature voltage Vt of the motor reduces the motor
speed

3. Field flux (field voltage)

Reducing the field voltage reduces the flux and the motor speed
increases

(armature circuit)
Speed

Ra increasing
Maximum
Torque

Torque

Power loss in Ra
Does not maintain maximum torque capability
Poor speed regulation

(armature circuit)

holding

EXAMPLE

Speed

Va increasing

Maximum
Torque

Torque
Trated

good speed regulation

maintain maximum torque capability

holding

EXAMPLE

DC Motor Speed Control

Speed

By Decreasing Flux

Flux Decreasing

Maximum
Torque

Torque
Trated

Slow transient response

Does not maintain maximum torque capability

EXAMPLE

Speed control of DC Motors

Below base speed: Armature voltage control (retain maximum
torque capability)
Above base speed: Field weakening (i.e. flux reduced) (Trading-off torque
capability for speed)

Armature voltage control

Field flux control

Torque

Line of
Maximum
Torque Limitation

base

speed

SOLID STATE CONTROL

Rectifier (AC to DC)

2. Full wave drive

3. Effects of freewheeling

EXAMPLE 6.4

Example 6.5

Field Control

Armature Control

Converter 1 (ON)

Converter 2 (ON)

ia

+
3-phase Or
1-phase
supply

Vt

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

Methods of Armature Voltage Control

Phase-controlled rectifier: 4Q Operation

1 or 3phase
supply

+
1 or 3phase
supply

Vt

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

AN ALTERNATIVE WAY
Phase-controlled rectifier : 4Q Operation
R1

F1
3-phase
supply
+

Va

F2

R2

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

SOLID STATE CONTROL

Rectifier (AC to DC)

2. Full wave drive

3. Effects of freewheeling

Converters For DC motor Drives

Switchmode converters: 1Q Converter

T1

+
Vt
-

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

T1
D2

T2

+
Vt
D1 -

Ia

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

Q1 T1 or D1
Q2 D2 or T2

Switchmode converters: 4Q Converter

T1

T4

D1

D3

+ Vt -

D4

D2

T3

T2

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

Switchmode converters
Switching at high frequency
Reduces current ripple
Increases control bandwidth
Suitable for high performance applications