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A Study to Improve Performance

Efficiency of Solar Power


Applications by PWM with MPPT
charge controller
Presented by :
Amruth.R.T.
Research Scholar
Reg. No. 161011189
Asst.Prof, Dept. of EEE, NIEIT,
Mysore India
amruth.rt@gmail.com
Year 2014

Under the Guidance


of :
Dr. B.J. Ranganath
Dean academic EIT,
Ummathoor,
1412,K.M.Puram
Mysore,-570004, India
bjranganath516@gamil
.com

CONTENTS
Abstract
Introduction
Materials for PV solar cells
Methodology
Results Analysis
Conclusion
Reference

ABSTRACT
The present trend in the requirements of solar

power generation concentrates on

Manufacturing of high efficiency PV cells with high


efficiency
Utilization with lower power losses to obtain a stable
voltage from an input supply (PV cells).
Stable Voltage with minimum ripple factor of DC-DC
converter.

The usage of thin film technologies like

cadmium telluride,

copper-indium-gallium-di-selenide (CIGS)

Evolving to reduce the costs of the solar electricity


system with higher efficiency.

This paper deals with

The analysis of material used for the construction


of photovoltaic cells and new technology of fourjunction solar cell contribution in terms of efficiency
For optimizing the usage of power with the design of

proposed DC/DC buck-boost converter based PWM


with MPPT charge controller compared to Linear
Charge controller and MPPT charge controller.

Artificial Neural Network technique is used for


evaluating, optimizing and predicting solar charge
controller for different working condition.

INTRODUCTI
Thin film is the preferred generic description for the field of
ON
micro-electronics in which conductive, resistive, and/or

insulating films are deposited or sputtered on a ceramic or


other insulating substrate.
The term thin film is derived from the fact that the
deposited films are of the order of 2-5 micrometers in
thickness compared with the 10 to 50 micrometers for thick
film
Thin film areas include substrate patterning, bump
metallurgy, thin film filters and coatings for fiber optic
telecommunication systems, medical implants and wear
protection, cutting tools solar PV cells, thin film fuel cells and
batteries etc.
Thin film technology is also closely linked with
nanotechnology, which is becoming one of the main areas in
the new-generation manufacturing and precision engineering
industries

Introduction contd..

To extract the maximum power from solar panel, power has


to be operate at its Maximum Power Point.
Operating the panel at any other point amounts to under
utilization of the PV power available and thus inefficient use of
expensive PV power unit.
Tracking the MPP of a PV panel (DC source) is called the
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT).
MPPT and ensuring that the panel operates at this MPP
helps maximum utilization of the installed PV capacity.
The PV power extracted can be used:
To directly power a DC load
To be converted to AC using an inverter to drive an AC load
To charge an energy storage device (battery, super capacitor etc.)
enabling the power

In this study the concept of

DC/DC buck-boost converter is considered to build the


PWM with MPPT charge controller to achieve a better
efficiency

Battery protection along with the performance analysis


of PWM with MPPT charge controller compare to existing
linear charge controller and MPPT charge controller.

MATERIALS FOR PV SOLAR CELLS


There are three main types of commercially available PV

cells viz.
1. Mono crystalline silicon PV
2. Polycrystalline silicon PV
3. Thin film amorphous silicon PV
Thin Film Solar Cells are usually categorized according to
the photovoltaic material used. The following categories
exist
A. Copper Indium Diselenide (CIS)
B. Cadmium Telluride (CdTe)
C. Gallium Arsenide (CIGS)
D. Amorphous silicon (a-Si)

E. Advanced four junction solar sub


cell
Four
junction solar sub cells are used in concentrator

photo voltaic (CPV), a technology which achieves more


than twice the efficiency of conventional PV power
plants in sun-rich locations.
The terrestrial use of III-V type multi junction solar
cells, which originally came from space technology, has
prevailed to realize highest efficiencies for the
conversion of sunlight to electricity.
In this multi junction solar cell, several cells made out
of different III-V semiconductor

METHODOLO
focus is on GY
introducing

Here the
the advance
technique and methodologies of harvesting,
charging, protecting the batteries from a PV panel
using a High Efficiency enabled Solar charge
controller and in addition to that the complete
system is evaluated and analyzed periodically.
The different charge Controllers are:
Linear Charge Controller
MPPT Charge Controller
PWM+MPPT Charge Controller
The basic schematic structure of the proposed buckboost converter, and the two operation states switch
on and switch off, and also the buck-boost converter
current and voltage waveforms operating in CCM are
shown next.

Block diagram of the PWM with MPPT


charge controller reference system

Fig.1 Block diagram of the PWM with MPPT charge controller


reference system

PWM+MPPT Charge Controller


board

Fig.2. PWM+MPPT Charge Controller

Experimental setup for performance analysis


of solar charge controllers
A. Two Solar panels of
5W,each,
B. Solar charge
controller of designed
rating,
C. Battery of 12V, 5AH,
D. DC/AC lighting load,
E. Clip on meter

Fig.3. Experimental setup

The Keil vision Integrated Development Environment


has been used to develop the algorithm for the different
peripherals such as ADC, PWM, USART, timers along with
MPPT algorithm.

The application software developed for the PWM with


MPPT charge controller reference design has the following
functions to perform
This application software controls the load and charges
the battery
The main functionality of this software always tracks the
MPP
and lead-acid battery charging layers at an
appropriate time as required. This application manages
the safety check of the system
It also indicates the status of the charge controller

RESULTS ANALYSIS
Analysis of Data
The experimental setup is connected and
conducted using poly crystalline silicon PV panel and
the experiment for different charge controller under
study such as
Linear Charge Controller,
MPPT buck topology based Charge Controller and
Proposed Buck-Boost based PWM with MPPT Solar
Charge Controller with respect to time (hr) for number
of Days in a month, number of months in for a whole
year under study.
The experimental data generated for each charge
controller consists of input parameters such as Solar
Insolation (W/m2), Solar PV voltage, Solar PV current,
Solar PV power, Battery voltage, Battery current,
Battery Power and output
parameters such as

Individual Graphical Analysis of PWM with MPPT Solar Charge


Controller

Fig 4. Average plot of Efficiency in % versus Months


Jan to June year of PWM MPPT Charge controller

Fig.6.Average plot of Current Loss in mA versus


Months Jan to June year of PWM MPPT Charge
controller

Fig.5.Average plot of Voltage Loss in V versus


Months Jan to June year of PWM MPPT Charge
controller.

Fig.7.Average plot of Power Loss in mW versus


Months Jan to June year of PWM MPPT Charge
controller.

Comparative Analysis of Charge Controllers

Fig.8.Average Efficiency in % Comparison Graph


for LCC, MPPT, PWM MPPT from Jan to June
year

Fig.10.Average Current Loss in mA Comparison


Graph forLCC, MPPT, PWM MPPT from Jan to
June year

Fig.9.Average Voltage Loss in V


Comparison Graph for LCC, MPPT, PWM
MPPT from Jan to June year

Fig.11.Average Current Loss in mA


Comparison Graph for LCC, MPPT, PWM
MPPT from Jan to June year

Analysis of Charge Controllers by ANN Technique


Fig. 14. 7-6-4 Multilayer Perceptron (MLP).ANN network analysis diagram of PWM with MPPT Charge Controller.

Fig. 12. 7-6-4 Multilayer Perceptron (MLP).ANN network analysis diagram of PWM with MPPT
Charge Controller.

Fig.13. Relative Importance Graph of PWM with MPPT Charge Controller

Fig.14. Relative Sensitivity Graph of PWM with MPPT Charge Controller

Fig.15. Relative Error Graph of PWM with MPPT Charge Controller.

CONCLUSION
1.In the proposed PWM with MPPT Solar Charge Controller,
investigations are made to find the concept of buck-boost
converter to extract the Maximum Power from solar panel
during different weather condition and Pulse Width
Modulation (PWM) technique to achieve constant voltage
battery charging and protecting the battery from over
current, short circuit by switching the solar system
controllers power device.
2.The proposed PWM with MPPT solar charge controller
will improve the overall performance efficiency by 10% to
21% poly silicon material, minimizes the voltages loss by
0.91 to 1.4 volts, current loss by 30.55mA to 83.2mA and
power loss by 33.9mW to 136.66mW compared to existing
two types of charge controllers leading to a higher
efficiency in power generation by the solar system to
meet the high demand rate.

3. Further improvement of efficiency of around 20% to


40% can be achieved by the use of four junction solar sub
cell with the proposed PWM with MPPT solar charge
controller and CIGS and other film technology coatings.

1. Dr. B. J. Ranganath, & Mr. Amruth.R.T(May-2013.); The


Role of Microcontroller Based Voltage Converter Controller
System for Solar Power Application paper published
National Conference on Recent Trends in Electrical Engg,.
Sri Krishna Institute Of Technology, Bangalore.
2. Dr. B. J. Ranganath, & Mr. Amruth.R.T; Analysis of
Semiconductor Material used In Solar PV Cell for Optimum
generation of Solar Power in Domestic Sector paper
published 15th ISTE Karnataka State Faculty Convention
,East West Institute Of Technology, Bangalore,Dec-2012
3. Dr. B. J. Ranganath, & Mr. Amruth.R.T; Optimum
Utilization of Solar Power for Multiple Applications in
Domestic Sector paper published Electrical India
Magazine, Mumbai,Dec-2012.
4. Dr. B. J. Ranganath, & Mr. Amruth.R.T (July-2013),
Design of DC/DC Buck-Boost Converter Charge Controller
for Solar Power Applications International Global
Research Multi subject Journal, ISSN: 22777-8160, vol. 2,

REFERENCE
S

5. Dr. B. J. Ranganath, & Mr. Amruth.R.T(Nov-2013);


Design Characteristic and Performance Evaluation of
DC/DC Buck-Boost Converter Based PWM with MPPT
Solar Charge Controller for Bulk Solar Power
Applications, paper published National Conference
on Advances in engg. and technology, Ekalavya
Institute Of Technology, Ummathur.