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TIP Design Constraints .

and political constraints when they design products and processes. social.Product Design Constraints and Requirements  Design Engineers must consider a multitude of technical. environmental. economic.  There must be clear evidence in your design project that you have addressed the constraints that are relevant to your project. .

Effect of Constraints Better Designs Design Changes Constraint Limits Design Changes .

hydraulic. magnitude. acceleration. impact • Energy needed – heating. transport. properties • Control system – electrical. display . direction. form. kinematics • Forces involved – load direction. mechanical. space. conversion. load. cooling. pressure • Materials to be used – flow. arrangement • Motion of parts – type. velocities. width. pneumatic • Information flow – inputs. outputs.Functional Constraints • Overall Geometry – size.

indirect. hazard elimination • Human – warnings. noise. radiation. air. sea.Safety Constraints • Operational – direct. light. reaction. training • Environmental – land. transport .

codes • Quality control – inspection.Quality Constraints • Quality assurance – regulations. testing. standards. statistics . labeling • Reliability – design life. failures.

Manufacturing Constraints • Production of components – factory limitations. quality control. welding • Transport – material handling. foundations. bolting. wastes • Purchase of components – supplier quality. reliability. means of production. clearance. packaging . inspection • Assembly – installation.

budget.Economic Constraints • • • • • Marketing analysis – size of market. transport. overhead. testing costs Manufacturing cost . machines. supplier costs. labor.packing. warranty • Resources – time. distribution. inspection Distribution costs . assembly.tooling. labor. service centers. market segments Design costs – design team computing. material $ . spare parts. capital. information retrieval Development costs – design detailing.

instructions. layout. comfort. layout. warnings • Ergonomic design – man-machine relationships. clarity. height. interactions .Ergonomic Constraints • User needs – type of operation. operation. lighting • Cybernetic design – controls.

toxicity . toxicity • Working fluid selection – fluid. liquid. implications for following generations • Material selection –solid. stability. social resources • Sustainability – political and commercial consequences. protection. flammability. gas. gas.Ecological Constraints • General environmental impact – impact on natural resources.

color. texture. product families . feel. trends • Future expectations – rate of change in technology.Aesthetic Constraints • Customer appeal – shape. history. form. trends. smell. surprise and delight features • Fashion – culture.

working environments • Maintenance – servicing intervals. regulations • Operation – quietness.Life-Cycle Constraints • Distribution – means of transport. scrap . wear. inspection. nature and conditions of dispatch. special uses. rules. cleaning. exchange and repair. diagnostics • Disposal – recycle.

copyrights .Legal/Ethical Constraints • Regulations – OSHA. FDA • Ethics – public safety. health. welfare and integrity • Intellectual Property – patents. trademarks. FAA.