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WELCOME

RESHMA THANKAPPAN
BEd NATURAL SCIENCE
ROLL NO:34

THE MYSTERY OF GROWTH


Living

beings are characterized by their ability to grow

Development

of organism from the zygote to the fully

grown state taken place by mitosis, this is known as


growth
When

a cell attains particular size, it divides

MITOSIS
It

is discovered by Flemming in1882

It

occurs in somatic cells, so it is called somatic cell

division
During

mitosis a cell divides due to two identical

daughter cells ,so it is called as equational division


The

divided cells will have nucleus having the same

amount of DNA as the parent cell

TYPES OF MITOSIS
INTRANUCLEAR MITOSIS

It occurs in acellular organism

Nuclear membrane remains intact and mitotic events occurs


within the nuclear envelope

Nucleus

divides along the cytoplasm

EXTRANUCLEAR MITOSIS
Nuclear

membrane break

Mitotic

events occur within the cytoplasm

ANASTRAL MITOSIS
Mitosis without asters is called anastral mitosis
ASTRAL MITOSIS
Mitosis with the appearance of asters is called astral
mitosis
ENDOMITOSIS
The multiplication of chromosome without nuclear
division

The

life history of a cell called cell cycle


The two important phases of cell cycle are:
1.Interphase
2.Mitotic phase

INTERPHASE
It

is also known as resting phase

It

is considered as the first phase of mitosis

The

interphase consist of 3 sub stages: G1, S and G2

During

interphase RNA, protein are synthesised,cell organells are

produced,DNA duplication and spindle fibre formation are occur

MITOTIC PHASE
During

mitotic phase the duplicated materials are

separated
It

takes place in different phase,they are:

1.prophase
2.metaphase
3.anaphase
4.telophase

PROPHASE
Chromosomal materials condences to form
compact mitotic chromosomes
Chromosomes
chromatids

composed

attached

together

of
at

two
the

centromere
Initiation of the assembly of mitotic
spindle, the microtubule, the proteinaceous
components of the cell cytoplasm help in the
process

METAPHASE
The complete disintegration of nulclear
envelope occur in this phase
Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores
of chromosomes
Chromosomes are moved to spindle equator
and get alligned along meataphase plate
through spindle fibres to both poles

ANAPHASE
chromatids

of each chromosomes are separated and form

two chromosomes called daughter chromosomes


The

daughter chromosomes move towards the opposite

poles of the cells


The

migration is achieved by the contraction

of the chromosomal fibres and


streching interzonal fibres

TELOPHASE
Nuclear

membrane and nucleolus reappear,


spindle fibres disappears
Golgi complex and endoplasmic reticulam
are reappeared

CYTOKINENSIS
It

is as end stage of cell division

Cell

plate is developed between two daughter nuclei

SIGNIFICANCE OF MITOSIS
It

ensures equal distribution of the nucleus and the

cytoplasm between the daughter cells


The
It

chromosome number is maintain constant

helps in the growth and development of the organ and

the body of the organisms


It

helps in the asexual reproduction in the organism

It

helps in the repair of tissues

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