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Water Treatment & Chemicals

for Boiler Water Systems

Boiler
 Boiler is an apparatus to produce steam.
Thermal energy released by combustion of fuel
issued to make steam at the desired temperature
and pressure.
The steam produced is used for :
1). For generating power in steam engines or steam
turbines.
2). Heating the residential and industrial buildings.
3). Performing certain processes in the sugar
mills, chemical and textile industries.

• The probable load factor. • Erection facilities. • Steam generation. Operating & maintenance cost. . • The fuel & water available.Selection of boiler • The working pressure & quality of steam. • Accessibility for repair & inspection. • Comparative initial cost. • Floor area available.

Capacity : Should be capable of supplying Steam according to the requirements. f). d). g). Safety : The boiler should be safe under the operating conditions. c). It should be capable of quick starting and loading . Its initial cost and maintenance cost is low. Accessibility : the various part of boiler should be accessible for repair & maintenance.Boiler properties a). b). It should be simple in construction . e). Efficiency : Should be able to absorb a maximum amount of heat produced due to burning of fuel in the furnace. .

2.the kinds of the materials used . 4.the methods of water circulation. 3.the types of fuels. boilers are classified according to : 1.their structures.Types of Boiler • A boiler is used to heat water and generate required steam or hot water • There are various types of boilers according to their uses.

High pressure & low pressure e.Forced circulation & natural circulation f.Stationary & portable g.Horizontal.Externally fired & internally fired d. vertical or inclined b.Classification of Boilers The boiler may be classified as : a.Fire tube & water tube c.Single tube & multi tube boilers .

 Advantage of horizontal boiler: a. Disadvantage: a. b. it occupies more space . the boiler is called horizontal.a. vertical or inclined  If the axis of boiler is horizontal.occupies less floor area. Horizontal .  If the axis is inclined then it is called inclined.  If the axis is vertical then it is called vertical.it should be repaired easily.

 In the water tube boiler the water is inside the tube & the hot gases are surround them. Fire tube & water tube boiler  In the fire tube boiler the hot gases are inside the tubes & the water surrounds in the tube. Stirling .b. ex. ex. locomotive etc. Cochran.

Externally & internally fired boiler The boiler is known as externally fired if the fire is outside the shell. the furnace is located inside the boiler shell. ex: cochran.c. . ex. lancashire etc. Babcock & wilcox In case of internally fired boilers.

lamont In natural circulation type of boiler the circulation of water in boiler takes place due to natural convention.d. ex. Lancashire. Forced circulation & natural circulation  In forced circulation type of boilers the circulation of water is done by forced pumps. ex. Velox. babcock .

ex. cochran .e. High pressure & low pressure boilers  The boilers which produce steam at pressure of 80 bar and above are called high pressure boiler. ex. Velox The boiler which produce steam at pressure below 80 bar are called low pressure boiler.

. for plant process steam etc. Stationary & portable boilers  Stationary boilers are used for power plant-steam.f. for central station utility power plants.  Portable boilers are include locomotive type & other small units for temporary use at sites.

depending upon the fire tube is one more than one. Single tube multi-tube boilers The fire tube boilers are classified as single tube & multi tube boilers. Ex: cornish boiler .g.

water-tube boilers Boiler mainly classified as: a.Types of Boiler In general.water tube .cylindrical boilers and 2.fire tube b. they are roughly classified into : 1.

.Fire tube boiler a.

. When the drum is filled with water these tubes are submerged in water. • The main constructional features of this boiler are one big size steam drum which lies horizontally upon supporting structures.Fire tube boiler • Horizontal return fire tube boiler is most suitable for low capacity thermal power plant. • There are numbers of fire tubes come from furnace and also aligned horizontally inside the drum.

When the drum is filled with water these tubes are submerged in water. • There are numbers of fire tubes come from furnace and also aligned horizontally inside the drum. .Fire tube boiler • Horizontal return fire tube boiler is most suitable for low capacity thermal power plant. • The main constructional features of this boiler are one big size steam drum which lies horizontally upon supporting structures.

travel through these tubes from rear to front of the boiler drum and finally the gases come into the smoke box. In this way a fire tube boiler controls its won pressure. steam pressure inside the drum increases which increase significantly the boiling temperature of the water and hence rate of production of steam is reduced. • The hot gasses in the tubes under water transfer heat to the water via the tube walls. .Fire tube boiler • The fuels (normally coal) burnt in the furnace and combustible gasses move into the fire tubes. • As the amount of steam is increased in that closed drum. • Due to this heat energy steam bubbles are created and come up upon the water surface. In other words this is a self pressure controlled boiler.

. travel through these tubes from rear to front of the boiler drum and finally the gases come into the smoke box. steam pressure inside the drum increases which increase significantly the boiling temperature of the water and hence rate of production of steam is reduced.Fire tube boiler • The fuels (normally coal) burnt in the furnace and combustible gasses move into the fire tubes. • The hot gasses in the tubes under water transfer heat to the water via the tube walls. • As the amount of steam is increased in that closed drum. • Due to this heat energy steam bubbles are created and come up upon the water surface. In this way a fire tube boiler controls its won pressure. In other words this is a self pressure controlled boiler.

the steam drum is always under pressure. Disadvantage of fire tube boiler 1)Due to large water the required steam pressure rising time quite high. . 2)Output steam pressure cannot be very high since the water and steam are kept in same vessel. so there may be a chance of huge explosion which resulting to severe accident. 2) Fluctuation of steam demand can be met easily.  3)The steam received from fire tube boiler is not very dry.Fire tube boiler Advantage of fire tube boiler 1) Compact in construction.  4)In a fire tube boiler. 3) Cheaper than water tube boiler.

Fire tube boiler Relationship between the heating surface area and the evaporation rate of water-tube boilers Lihat file Relationship between the heating surface area and the evaporation rate of fire and flue-tube boilers Lihat file .

Very high pressure in order of 140 kg/cm2 can be obtained smoothly . Advantages of Water Tube Boiler There are many advantages of water tube boiler due to which these types of boiler are essentially used in large thermal power station. 1. This is the basic definition of water tube boiler. Actually this boiler is just opposite of fire tube boiler where hot gasses are passed through tubes which are surrounded by water. hence rate of heat transfer is high which results into higher efficiency 3. movement of water is much faster than that of fire tube boiler.Larger heating surface can be achieved by using more numbers of water tubes 2.Water tube boiler lihat file • A water tube boiler is such kind of boiler where the water is heated inside tubes and the hot gasses surround them.Due to convectional flow.

  1) Horizontal Straight Tube Boiler  2) Bent Tube Boiler  3) Cyclone Fired Boiler . namely.Water tube boiler Types of Water Tube Boiler There are many types of water tube boiler . They can be sub-categorized in three types.

Two Drum Bent Tube Boiler  ii. such as  i. such as  i. Low Head Three Drum Bent Tube Boiler  iv. Four Drum Bent Tube Boiler . Three Drum Bent Tube Boiler  iii.Water tube boiler Horizontal Straight Tube Boiler again can be sub-divided into two different types. Longitudinal Drum Boiler ii. Cross Drum Boiler Bent Tube Boiler also can be sub-divided into four different types.

Operating pressure 7. Particulars Fire tube boilers Water tube boilers 1.Risk of bursting Internally fired Externally fired lower Higher Difficult Simple Difficult Simple Not so necessary More necessary Limited to 16 bar Under high pressure as 100 bar More floor area Less floor area Large for same power Small same Less lesser More More risk .Treatment of water 6.Explosion 10.Shell diameter power 9.Transportation 5.Comparison between fire tube & water tube boiler No.Rate of steam production 3.Mode of firing 2.Floor area 8.Construction 4.

.kg of hour/hr/m2 of heating surface c.kg of steam/hr b. Evaporative capacity : It can be expressed in terms of : a.kg of steam/kg of fuel fired 2).Boiler Performance 1). Factor of Evaporation It is defined as the ratio of the heat received by 1kg of water at the working conditions to that received by 1 kg of water evaporated from and at 100 degree.

Cochran boiler 3. Lancashire boiler 5).Tugas Jelaskan cara kerja dan gambar : FIRE TUBE BOILERS 1). Locomotive boilers . Simple vertical boiler 2).) Cornish boiler 4).

Types of cross drum boiler : 1. Type of bent tube boiler adalah Low head three drum . Horizontal Straight tube boiler : a.three drum 3.two drum 2.four drum 2).Tugas Jelaskan cara kerja dan gambar : WATER TUBE BOILERS 1). Bent tube boiler .Longitudinal drum b.Cross drum.