flow in pipes is illustrated, friction calculation and hydraulic losses

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flow in pipes is illustrated, friction calculation and hydraulic losses

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Assistant Professor of Mechanical

Power, Faculty of Engineering, KFS

University,

Kafrelsheikh, Egypt.

Objectives

Have a deeper understanding of laminar and

turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully

developed flow.

Calculate the major and minor losses associated

with pipe flow in pipeline with a review both EGL

and HGL, practice some cases and determine

the pumping power. requirements

Understand the simplification and analysis of

network

having

both

series,

parallel,

branching(more than two tanks systems)

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Our Plan

Review energy relationships in single pipes

Review both EGL and HGL, practice some

cases

Extend analysis to progressively more

complex systems

Pipes in parallel or series

Interconnected pipe loops and reservoirs where

flow direction is not obvious

add energy to fluid in a system

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Pipe flow generally refers to fluid in pipes

and appurtenances flowing full and under

pressure

Examples: Water distribution in homes,

industry, cities; irrigation

System components

Pipes

Valves and bends

Pumps and turbines

Storage (often unpressurized elevated tanks)

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Energy equation between any two points:

E 2 E 1 h pump hturb hL ,f

p2 V22

p1 V12

z2

z1

hpump hturb hL , f

2g

2g

each pipe and for each link between pipes

(valves, expansions, contractions), relating

velocities based on continuity equation, and

solving subject to system constraints (Q, p, or

V at specific points).

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

(HGL)

Graphical interpretations of the energy along a pipeline may be obtained

through the EGL and HGL:

p V 2

EG L

z

2g

p

H G L

z

EGL and HGL may be obtained via a pitot tube and a piezometer tube,

respectively

In our discussion we will be taking atmospheric pressure equal to zero, thus

we will be working with gage pressures

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

(HGL)

p V 2

EG L

z

2g

H G L

p

z

hLh

due to friction

z1

Darcy-Weisbach equation for headlosses

in pipes (major headlosses):

l V2

hL f

D 2g

of fluid flow in the pipe has to be studied.

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Laminar flow: characterized

by smooth streamlines and

highly ordered motion.

Turbulent

flow:

characterized by velocity

fluctuations

and

highly

disordered motion.

The transition from laminar

to turbulent flow does not

occur suddenly; rather, it

occurs over some region in

which the flow fluctuates

between

laminar

and

turbulent flows before it

becomes fully turbulent.

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

10

11

Reynolds Number

The transition from laminar to turbulent flow depends on

the geometry, surface roughness, flow velocity, surface

temperature, and type of fluid, among other things.

British engineer Osborne Reynolds (18421912)

discovered that the flow regime depends mainly on the

ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces in the fluid.

The ratio is called the Reynolds number and is

expressed for internal flow in a circular pipe as

12

Reynolds Number

At large Reynolds numbers, the inertial forces are large

relative to the viscous forces Turbulent Flow

At small or moderate Reynolds numbers, the viscous

forces are large enough to suppress these fluctuations

Laminar Flow

The Reynolds number at which the flow becomes

turbulent is called the critical Reynolds number, Recr.

The value of the critical Reynolds number is different for

different geometries and flow conditions. For example,

Recr = 2300 for internal flow in a circular pipe.

13

Cross-sections

For flow through noncircular

pipes, the Reynolds number

is based on the hydraulic

diameter Dh defined as

Ac = cross-section area

P = wetted perimeter

turbulent flow also depends

on the degree of disturbance

of the flow by surface

roughness, pipe vibrations,

and fluctuations in the flow.

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

14

Reynolds Number

Under most practical

conditions, the flow in a

circular pipe is

flow switches between

laminar and turbulent

randomly.

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

15

We consider steady, laminar, incompressible flow of a fluid with constant

properties in the fully developed region of a straight circular pipe.

In fully developed laminar flow, each fluid particle moves at a constant axial

velocity along a streamline and the velocity profile u(r) remains unchanged in

the flow direction. There is no motion in the radial direction, and thus the

velocity component in the direction normal to the pipe axis is everywhere

zero.There is no acceleration since the flow is steady and fully developed.

of radius r, thickness dr, and length dx oriented coaxially with

a horizontal pipe in fully developed laminar flow.

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

16

Boundary

conditions

Average velocity

Velocity

profile

of radius R and length dx in fully developed

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

17

laminar flow in a horizontal pipe.

Maximim velocity

at centerline

Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

loss, and it is called pressure loss PL.

pressure loss for all

types of fully developed

internal flows

dynamic

pressure

Darcy

friction

factor

Circular pipe,

laminar

Head

loss

only and is independent of the roughness of the pipe surface.

The head loss represents the additional height that the fluid needs to be

raised by aofpump

in order to overcome

in18

the 8:pipe.

FLOW IN PIPES

Fundamentals

Fluid Mechanics

18 the frictional lossesChapter

Horizontal

pipe

Poiseuilles

law

For a specified flow rate, the pressure drop and

thus the required pumping power is proportional

to the length of the pipe and the viscosity of the

fluid, but it is inversely proportional to the fourth

power of the diameter of the pipe.

head loss) is one of the most general

relations in fluid mechanics, and it is

valid for laminar or turbulent flows,

circular or noncircular pipes, and pipes

with smooth or rough surfaces.

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

19

flow piping system can be reduced by a factor

19 diameter.

of 16 by doubling theChapter

pipe

8: FLOW IN PIPES

In the above cases, the pressure drop equals to the head

loss, but this is not the case for inclined pipes or pipes with

variable cross-sectional area.

Lets examine the energy equation for steady, incompressible

one-dimensional flow in terms of heads as

Or

From the above eq., when the pressure drop = the head loss?

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

20

Friction factor for fully

developed laminar flow

in pipes of various

cross sections

21

Most flows encountered in engineering practice

are turbulent, and thus it is important to

understand how turbulence affects wall shear

stress.

However, turbulent flow is a complex mechanism.

The theory of turbulent flow remains largely

undeveloped.

Therefore, we must rely on experiments and the

empirical or semi-empirical correlations developed

for various situations.

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

22

23

Most flows encountered in engineering practice are turbulent, and thus it is

important to understand how turbulence affects wall shear stress.

Turbulent flow is a complex mechanism dominated by fluctuations, and it is still

not fully understood.

We must rely on experiments and the empirical or semi-empirical correlations

developed for various situations.

and rapid fluctuations of swirling regions of

fluid, called eddies, throughout the flow.

These fluctuations provide an additional

mechanism for momentum and energy transfer.

fluid particles at different momentums into

close contact and thus enhances

momentum transfer.

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

24

mass, momentum, and energy to other regions

of flow much more rapidly than molecular

diffusion, greatly enhancing mass, momentum,

and heat transfer.

As a result, turbulent flow is associated with

much higher values of friction, heat transfer, and

mass transfer coefficients

Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Turbulent flow is characterized by random and rapid

fluctuations of swirling regions of fluid, called eddies,

throughout the flow.

These fluctuations provide an additional mechanism for

momentum and energy transfer.

In laminar flow, momentum and energy are transferred

across streamlines by molecular diffusion.

In turbulent flow, the swirling eddies transport mass,

momentum, and energy to other regions of flow much

more rapidly than molecular diffusion, such that

associated with much higher values of friction, heat

transfer, and mass transfer coefficients.

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

25

Eddy motion and thus eddy diffusivities are

much larger than their molecular

counterparts in the core region of a turbulent

boundary layer.

The velocity profiles are shown in the

figures. So it is no surprise that the wall

shear stress is much larger in turbulent flow

than it is in laminar flow.

Molecular viscosity is

a fluid property;

however, eddy

viscosity is a flow

property.

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

26

Typical velocity profiles for fully

developed laminar and

turbulent flows are given in

Figures.

Note that the velocity profile is

parabolic in laminar flow but is

much fuller in turbulent flow,

with a sharp drop near the

pipe wall.

27

Turbulent flow along a wall can be considered to consist of

four regions, characterized by the distance from the wall.

Viscous (or laminar or linear or wall) sublayer: where viscous

effects are dominant and the velocity profile in this layer is very

nearly linear, and the flow is streamlined.

Buffer layer: Next to the viscous sublayer, viscous effects are still

dominant: however, turbulent effects are becoming significant.

Overlap (or transition) layer (or the inertial sublayer): the

turbulent effects are much more significant, but still not dominant.

Outer (or turbulent) layer: turbulent effects dominate over

molecular diffusion (viscous) effects.

28

The Viscous sublayer (next to the wall):

The thickness of this sublayer is very small (typically,

much less than 1 % of the pipe diameter), but this thin

layer plays a dominant role on flow characteristics

because of the large velocity gradients it involves.

The wall dampens any eddy motion, and thus the flow

in this layer is essentially laminar and the shear stress

consists of laminar shear stress which is proportional to

the fluid viscosity.

The velocity profile in this layer to be very nearly linear,

and experiments confirm that.

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

29

resistance

30

The Moody

Chart

on the Reynolds number and the relative roughness /D.

Explicit Haaland

equation

The friction

factor is

minimum for a

smooth pipe

and increases

31 roughness.

with

31 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Chapter

Estimating f Graphically

32

The Moody chart presents the Darcy friction factor for pipe

flow as a function of the Reynolds number and /D over a

wide range. It is probably one of the most widely accepted

and used charts in engineering. Although it is developed for

circular pipes, it can also be used for noncircular pipes by

replacing the diameter by the hydraulic diameter.

Both Moody chart and Colebrook equation are accurate to

15% due to roughness size, experimental error, curve fitting

of data, etc

33

For laminar flow, the friction factor decreases with increasing Reynolds

number, and it is independent of surface roughness.

The friction factor is a minimum for a smooth pipe and increases with

roughness. The Colebrook equation in this case ( = 0) reduces to the

Blasius formula:

Prandtl equation.

f 0.316 / Re1/ 4

by the shaded area in the Moody chart. At small relative roughnesses,

the friction factor increases and approaches the value for smooth pipes.

At very large Reynolds numbers (to the right of the dashed line on the

Moody chart) the friction factor curves corresponding to specified

relative roughness curves are nearly horizontal, and thus the friction

factors are independent of the Reynolds number. The flow in that region

is called fully turbulent flow or just fully rough flow because the

thickness of the viscous sublayer decreases with increasing Reynolds

number, andit becomes so thin that it is negligibly small compared to

the surface roughness height.The Colebrook equation in the fully rough

zone reduces to the von Krmn equation.

34

34 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Chapter

when the pipe length and diameter are given

for a specified flow rate (or velocity)

2. Determining the flow rate when the pipe length

and diameter are given for a specified

pressure drop (or head loss)

3. Determining the pipe diameter when the pipe

length and flow rate are given for a specified

pressure drop (or head loss)

encountered in pipe flow.

calculations,

these explicit relations are used

35

Explicit relations have been developed which

eliminate iteration. They are useful for quick,

direct calculation, but introduce an additional 2%

error (Swamee- Jain Eqns.)

36

Relationships in Turbulent Pipe Flow

Hazen-Williams equation widely used for hL

as function of flow parameters for turbulent

flow at typical velocities in water pipes:

V 0.849CHW R

0.63

h

hL

l

Q1.85 1

hL 10.7l 4.87 1.85

D CHW

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Aflow D 2 4 D R

Rh

Pwetted

D

4 2

0.54

units, replace 0.849 by 1.318 and 10.7 by 4.73.

37

38

Turbulent Curves on the Moody Diagram

Darcy - Weisbach

hf 1

2 gD

l f

2g D

0.50

0.50

0.50

D S f

4

hL (=S*l)

8f l

2

Q

2 g D 5

Hazen-Williams*

Manning*

1 0.67 0.50

Rh S

n

0.278 D

10.7

2.63

0.54

4.87

1.85

HW

CHW

0.312D

1.85

10.3

2.67

D 5.33

0.50

1

n

1 2

Q

2

n

Coefficients shown are for SI units (V in m/s, and D and Rh in m); for BG units (ft/s and ft), replace 0.849 by 1.318; 0.354

by 0.550; 0.278 by 0.432; 10.7 by 4.73;1/n by 1.49/n; 0.397 by 0.592; 0.312 by 0.465; and 10.3 by 4.66.

39

Summary

hf k Q

hf KQ

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

40

1.85

Minor Losses

Piping systems include fittings, valves, bends, elbows,

tees, inlets, exits, enlargements, and contractions.

These components interrupt the smooth flow of fluid and

cause additional losses because of flow separation and

mixing.

The head loss introduced by a completely open valve

may be negligible. But a partially closed valve may cause

the largest head loss in the system which is evidenced

by the drop in the flow rate.

We introduce a relation for the minor losses associated

with these components as follows.

41

Minor Losses

the resistance coefficient).

Is different for each component.

Is assumed to be independent of Re

(Since Re is very large).

Typically provided by manufacturer

or generic table.

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

42

Minor Losses

The minor loss occurs locally across the minor loss

component, but keep in mind that the component

influences the flow for several pipe diameters downstream.

This is the reason why most flow meter manufacturers

recommend installing their flow meter at least 10 to 20

pipe diameters downstream of any elbows or valves.

Minor losses are also expressed in terms of the

equivalent length Lequiv, defined as

43

Nomogram of

fitting equivalent

length

44

Minor Losses

Total head loss in a system is comprised of

major losses (in the pipe sections) and the minor

losses (in the components)

i pipe sections

j components

45

The head loss at the inlet of a pipe is

a strong function of geometry. It is

almost negligible for well-rounded

inlets (KL = 0.03 for r/D = 0.2), but

increases to about 0.50 for sharpedged inlets (because the fluid

cannot make sharp 90 turns easily,

especially at high velocities;

therefore, the flow separates at the

corners).

The flow is constricted into the vena

contracta region formed in the

midsection of the pipe.

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

46

47

Whether laminar or turbulent, the fluid leaving the pipe loses all of its kinetic energy as it mixes with the

reservoir fluid and eventually comes to rest

48

49

smaller-diameter pipe)

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

50

51

and Energy Losses

52

2

p

V

E

LG

LTE

L2gz

Energy gradient lines

sum of all heads: pressure head ,velocity head, and datum

head

pressure

head

velocity

head

elevation

head (w.r.t.

datum)

minor losses - the energy line would be at a constant level.

In a practical, the energy line decreases along the flow due

to losses (except for pump).

A turbine in the flow reduces the energy line and a pump in

the line increases the energy

line.

Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

53

p

H

G

L

z

head and datum head (piezometric head)

where

The hydraulic grade line lies one velocity head

below the energy line and parallel to it.

54

55

55 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Chapter

56

57

57 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Chapter

with cross crack

58

58 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Chapter

with a fitted valve

Valve may be either:

a) Fully Opened (hv assumed negligible ).

c) Fully Closed.

59

60

Pump Terminology

Pump head (dynamic head) Hp

Pump discharge Q

Pump speed n

Pump power P

61

61 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Chapter

Centrifugal Pump

62

62 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Chapter

Pump Terminology

Power P

Motor

efficiency m

Q, H

Pump

Efficiency p

63

63 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Chapter

Pump Terminology

Pump Output (Water) Power (Q in m3, H in m,

is specific gravity and dimensionless, and P in

horsepower)

Pw Q Hp

Pump Input (Brake) Power

BP

Q Hp

64

64 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Chapter

Pump Terminology

Electric Motor Power

MP

Q Hp

65

65 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Chapter

Pump Performance

Variable-Speed pumps may be desirable

when different operating modes require

different pump head or flow

Similarity laws

Q1/Q2 = n1/n2

H1/H2 = (n1/n2)2

P1/P2 = (n1/n2)3

66

66 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Chapter

67

67 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Chapter

Pump Terminology

Static Lift (Suction head - Hs)

elevation difference between pump centerline

and the suction water surface. If the pump is

higher, static lift is positive. If pump is lower,

static lift is negative.

Static Discharge (Discharge head - hd) elevation

difference between the pump centerline and the

end discharge point. If pump is higher, static

discharge is negative.

Total Static Head (Hst) sum of static lift and

static discharge. H H H

st

68

68 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Chapter

Pump Terminology

Shutoff Head head at 0 flow

Operating point the point where the pump

curve and the system curve intersect.

A system curve is a curve describing the headflow relationship of the pipeline system.

H sys H st H dyn

describing the head-flow relationship of the

2

pump

H a b Q c Q

p

69

69 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Chapter

Hsys

System Curve

friction losses

Hdyn

Hst

70

70 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Chapter

Operating Point

71

71 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Chapter

Preventing Cavitation

72

72 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Chapter

73

73 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Chapter

Multiple-Pump combination

74

75

76

and B

branches is the same

77

Pipe

systems

in Parallel

78

Parallel Pipes

Water at 20C is to be pumped from a reservoir (zA = 5

m) to another reservoir at a higher elevation (zB = 13 m)

through two 36-m-long pipes connected in parallel.

79

Parallel Pipes

Water is to be pumped by a 70 percent efficient motor

pump combination that draws 8 kW of electric power

during operation. The minor losses and the head loss in

pipes that connect the parallel pipes to the two reservoirs

are considered to be negligible. Determine the total flow

rate between the reservoirs and the flow rate through each

of the parallel pipes.

Solution:

Assumptions:

1 The flow is steady and incompressible.

2 The entrance effects are negligible, and the flow is fully

developed.

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

80

Two Parallel Pipes

Solution:

3 The elevations of the reservoirs remain constant.

4 The minor losses and the head loss in pipes other than

the parallel pipes are said to be negligible.

5 Flows through both pipes are turbulent (to be verified).

The useful head supplied by the pump to the fluid is

determined from

81

Two Parallel Pipes

The energy equation for a control volume between these

two points simplifies to

or

Where

We designate the 4-cm-diameter pipe by 1 and the 8-cm-diameter

pipe by 2. The average velocity, the Reynolds number, the friction

factor, and the head loss in each pipe are expressed as

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

82

Two Parallel Pipes

83

Two Parallel Pipes

their simultaneous solution by an equation solver gives

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

84

Two Parallel Pipes

Note that Re > 4000 for both pipes, and thus the

assumption of turbulent flow is verified.

Discussion The two parallel pipes are identical, except

the diameter of the first pipe is half the diameter of the

second one. But only 14 percent of the water flows

through the first pipe. This shows the strong dependence

of the flow rate (and the head loss) on diameter.

85

Branching

Pipe

systems

86

87

88

= 24

89

=8

1) Intially, guess hD value (avg. of all heads is good

guess).

2)find Q1, Q2, Q3 from:

3)Calculate Q,

4) recalculate Q with another hD

4) Plot hD verus Q

90

91

Two general types of

networks connections

are

Pipes in series

Volume flow rate is

constant

Head loss is the

summation of parts

Pipes in parallel

Volume flow rate is the

sum of the components

Pressure loss across all

branches is the same

92

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