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FLUID FLOW IN PIPES

Dr. M. Osama El-Samadony


Assistant Professor of Mechanical
Power, Faculty of Engineering, KFS
University,
Kafrelsheikh, Egypt.

Objectives
Have a deeper understanding of laminar and
turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully
developed flow.
Calculate the major and minor losses associated
with pipe flow in pipeline with a review both EGL
and HGL, practice some cases and determine
the pumping power. requirements
Understand the simplification and analysis of
network
having
both
series,
parallel,
branching(more than two tanks systems)
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Our Plan
Review energy relationships in single pipes
Review both EGL and HGL, practice some
cases
Extend analysis to progressively more
complex systems
Pipes in parallel or series
Interconnected pipe loops and reservoirs where
flow direction is not obvious

Consider key factors in selection of pumps to


add energy to fluid in a system
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Overview of Pipe Networks


Pipe flow generally refers to fluid in pipes
and appurtenances flowing full and under
pressure
Examples: Water distribution in homes,
industry, cities; irrigation
System components
Pipes
Valves and bends
Pumps and turbines
Storage (often unpressurized elevated tanks)
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Energy Relationships in Pipe Systems


Energy equation between any two points:
E 2 E 1 h pump hturb hL ,f
p2 V22
p1 V12
z2

z1
hpump hturb hL , f
2g
2g

Analysis involves writing expressions for hL in


each pipe and for each link between pipes
(valves, expansions, contractions), relating
velocities based on continuity equation, and
solving subject to system constraints (Q, p, or
V at specific points).
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Energy Grade Line (EGL) and Hydraulic Grade Line


(HGL)
Graphical interpretations of the energy along a pipeline may be obtained
through the EGL and HGL:

p V 2
EG L
z
2g

p
H G L
z

EGL and HGL may be obtained via a pitot tube and a piezometer tube,
respectively
In our discussion we will be taking atmospheric pressure equal to zero, thus
we will be working with gage pressures
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Energy Grade Line (EGL) and Hydraulic Grade Line


(HGL)
p V 2
EG L
z
2g

H G L

p
z

hLh

- head loss, say,


due to friction

z1

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Energy Losses in Piping Systems


Darcy-Weisbach equation for headlosses
in pipes (major headlosses):
l V2
hL f
D 2g

For estimating friction factor f the type


of fluid flow in the pipe has to be studied.
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOWS


Laminar flow: characterized
by smooth streamlines and
highly ordered motion.
Turbulent
flow:
characterized by velocity
fluctuations
and
highly
disordered motion.
The transition from laminar
to turbulent flow does not
occur suddenly; rather, it
occurs over some region in
which the flow fluctuates
between
laminar
and
turbulent flows before it
becomes fully turbulent.
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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Reynolds Number
The transition from laminar to turbulent flow depends on
the geometry, surface roughness, flow velocity, surface
temperature, and type of fluid, among other things.
British engineer Osborne Reynolds (18421912)
discovered that the flow regime depends mainly on the
ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces in the fluid.
The ratio is called the Reynolds number and is
expressed for internal flow in a circular pipe as

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Reynolds Number
At large Reynolds numbers, the inertial forces are large
relative to the viscous forces Turbulent Flow
At small or moderate Reynolds numbers, the viscous
forces are large enough to suppress these fluctuations
Laminar Flow
The Reynolds number at which the flow becomes
turbulent is called the critical Reynolds number, Recr.
The value of the critical Reynolds number is different for
different geometries and flow conditions. For example,
Recr = 2300 for internal flow in a circular pipe.

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Reynolds Number for Non-circular


Cross-sections
For flow through noncircular
pipes, the Reynolds number
is based on the hydraulic
diameter Dh defined as
Ac = cross-section area
P = wetted perimeter

The transition from laminar to


turbulent flow also depends
on the degree of disturbance
of the flow by surface
roughness, pipe vibrations,
and fluctuations in the flow.
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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Reynolds Number
Under most practical
conditions, the flow in a
circular pipe is

In transitional flow, the


flow switches between
laminar and turbulent
randomly.
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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES


We consider steady, laminar, incompressible flow of a fluid with constant
properties in the fully developed region of a straight circular pipe.
In fully developed laminar flow, each fluid particle moves at a constant axial
velocity along a streamline and the velocity profile u(r) remains unchanged in
the flow direction. There is no motion in the radial direction, and thus the
velocity component in the direction normal to the pipe axis is everywhere
zero.There is no acceleration since the flow is steady and fully developed.

Free-body diagram of a ring-shaped differential fluid element


of radius r, thickness dr, and length dx oriented coaxially with
a horizontal pipe in fully developed laminar flow.
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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Boundary
conditions

Average velocity

Velocity
profile

Free-body diagram of a fluid disk element


of radius R and length dx in fully developed
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics
17
laminar flow in a horizontal pipe.

Maximim velocity
at centerline
Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Pressure Drop and Head Loss

A pressure drop due to viscous effects represents an irreversible pressure


loss, and it is called pressure loss PL.
pressure loss for all
types of fully developed
internal flows
dynamic
pressure

Darcy
friction
factor

Circular pipe,
laminar
Head
loss

In laminar flow, the friction factor is a function of the Reynolds number


only and is independent of the roughness of the pipe surface.
The head loss represents the additional height that the fluid needs to be
raised by aofpump
in order to overcome
in18
the 8:pipe.
FLOW IN PIPES
Fundamentals
Fluid Mechanics
18 the frictional lossesChapter

Horizontal
pipe
Poiseuilles
law
For a specified flow rate, the pressure drop and
thus the required pumping power is proportional
to the length of the pipe and the viscosity of the
fluid, but it is inversely proportional to the fourth
power of the diameter of the pipe.

The relation for pressure loss (and


head loss) is one of the most general
relations in fluid mechanics, and it is
valid for laminar or turbulent flows,
circular or noncircular pipes, and pipes
with smooth or rough surfaces.
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The pumping power requirement for a laminar


flow piping system can be reduced by a factor
19 diameter.
of 16 by doubling theChapter
pipe
8: FLOW IN PIPES

Pressure Drop and Head Loss


In the above cases, the pressure drop equals to the head
loss, but this is not the case for inclined pipes or pipes with
variable cross-sectional area.
Lets examine the energy equation for steady, incompressible
one-dimensional flow in terms of heads as

Or

From the above eq., when the pressure drop = the head loss?
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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Laminar Flow in Noncircular Pipes


Friction factor for fully
developed laminar flow
in pipes of various
cross sections

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


Most flows encountered in engineering practice
are turbulent, and thus it is important to
understand how turbulence affects wall shear
stress.
However, turbulent flow is a complex mechanism.
The theory of turbulent flow remains largely
undeveloped.
Therefore, we must rely on experiments and the
empirical or semi-empirical correlations developed
for various situations.
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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES


Most flows encountered in engineering practice are turbulent, and thus it is
important to understand how turbulence affects wall shear stress.
Turbulent flow is a complex mechanism dominated by fluctuations, and it is still
not fully understood.
We must rely on experiments and the empirical or semi-empirical correlations
developed for various situations.

Turbulent flow is characterized by disorderly


and rapid fluctuations of swirling regions of
fluid, called eddies, throughout the flow.
These fluctuations provide an additional
mechanism for momentum and energy transfer.

The intense mixing in turbulent flow brings


fluid particles at different momentums into
close contact and thus enhances
momentum transfer.
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In turbulent flow, the swirling eddies transport


mass, momentum, and energy to other regions
of flow much more rapidly than molecular
diffusion, greatly enhancing mass, momentum,
and heat transfer.
As a result, turbulent flow is associated with
much higher values of friction, heat transfer, and
mass transfer coefficients
Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES (Skipped)


Turbulent flow is characterized by random and rapid
fluctuations of swirling regions of fluid, called eddies,
throughout the flow.
These fluctuations provide an additional mechanism for
momentum and energy transfer.
In laminar flow, momentum and energy are transferred
across streamlines by molecular diffusion.
In turbulent flow, the swirling eddies transport mass,
momentum, and energy to other regions of flow much
more rapidly than molecular diffusion, such that
associated with much higher values of friction, heat
transfer, and mass transfer coefficients.
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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Turbulent Shear Stress


Eddy motion and thus eddy diffusivities are
much larger than their molecular
counterparts in the core region of a turbulent
boundary layer.
The velocity profiles are shown in the
figures. So it is no surprise that the wall
shear stress is much larger in turbulent flow
than it is in laminar flow.

Molecular viscosity is
a fluid property;
however, eddy
viscosity is a flow
property.
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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Turbulent Velocity Profile


Typical velocity profiles for fully
developed laminar and
turbulent flows are given in
Figures.
Note that the velocity profile is
parabolic in laminar flow but is
much fuller in turbulent flow,
with a sharp drop near the
pipe wall.

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Turbulent Velocity Profile


Turbulent flow along a wall can be considered to consist of
four regions, characterized by the distance from the wall.
Viscous (or laminar or linear or wall) sublayer: where viscous
effects are dominant and the velocity profile in this layer is very
nearly linear, and the flow is streamlined.
Buffer layer: Next to the viscous sublayer, viscous effects are still
dominant: however, turbulent effects are becoming significant.
Overlap (or transition) layer (or the inertial sublayer): the
turbulent effects are much more significant, but still not dominant.
Outer (or turbulent) layer: turbulent effects dominate over
molecular diffusion (viscous) effects.

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Turbulent Velocity Profile (Skipped)


The Viscous sublayer (next to the wall):
The thickness of this sublayer is very small (typically,
much less than 1 % of the pipe diameter), but this thin
layer plays a dominant role on flow characteristics
because of the large velocity gradients it involves.
The wall dampens any eddy motion, and thus the flow
in this layer is essentially laminar and the shear stress
consists of laminar shear stress which is proportional to
the fluid viscosity.
The velocity profile in this layer to be very nearly linear,
and experiments confirm that.
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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Effect of Viscous Sub-layer on flow


resistance

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

The Moody
Chart

The friction factor in fully developed turbulent pipe flow depends


on the Reynolds number and the relative roughness /D.

Colebrook equation (for smooth and rough pipes)


Explicit Haaland
equation

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

The friction
factor is
minimum for a
smooth pipe
and increases
31 roughness.
with

31 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Estimating f Graphically

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

The 32Moody Chart

Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

32

The Moody Chart


The Moody chart presents the Darcy friction factor for pipe
flow as a function of the Reynolds number and /D over a
wide range. It is probably one of the most widely accepted
and used charts in engineering. Although it is developed for
circular pipes, it can also be used for noncircular pipes by
replacing the diameter by the hydraulic diameter.
Both Moody chart and Colebrook equation are accurate to
15% due to roughness size, experimental error, curve fitting
of data, etc

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Observations from the Moody chart

For laminar flow, the friction factor decreases with increasing Reynolds
number, and it is independent of surface roughness.

The friction factor is a minimum for a smooth pipe and increases with
roughness. The Colebrook equation in this case ( = 0) reduces to the
Blasius formula:
Prandtl equation.

f 0.316 / Re1/ 4

The transition region from the laminar to turbulent regime is indicated


by the shaded area in the Moody chart. At small relative roughnesses,
the friction factor increases and approaches the value for smooth pipes.

At very large Reynolds numbers (to the right of the dashed line on the
Moody chart) the friction factor curves corresponding to specified
relative roughness curves are nearly horizontal, and thus the friction
factors are independent of the Reynolds number. The flow in that region
is called fully turbulent flow or just fully rough flow because the
thickness of the viscous sublayer decreases with increasing Reynolds
number, andit becomes so thin that it is negligibly small compared to
the surface roughness height.The Colebrook equation in the fully rough
zone reduces to the von Krmn equation.

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34 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Types of Fluid Flow Problems

1. Determining the pressure drop (or head loss)


when the pipe length and diameter are given
for a specified flow rate (or velocity)
2. Determining the flow rate when the pipe length
and diameter are given for a specified
pressure drop (or head loss)
3. Determining the pipe diameter when the pipe
length and flow rate are given for a specified
pressure drop (or head loss)

The three types of problems


encountered in pipe flow.

To avoid tedious iterations in head loss, flow rate, and diameter


calculations,
these explicit relations are used

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Types of Fluid Flow Problems (Again)


Explicit relations have been developed which
eliminate iteration. They are useful for quick,
direct calculation, but introduce an additional 2%
error (Swamee- Jain Eqns.)

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Alternative Equations for Flow - Headloss


Relationships in Turbulent Pipe Flow
Hazen-Williams equation widely used for hL
as function of flow parameters for turbulent
flow at typical velocities in water pipes:
V 0.849CHW R

0.63
h

hL

l

Q1.85 1
hL 10.7l 4.87 1.85
D CHW
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Aflow D 2 4 D R
Rh

Pwetted
D
4 2

0.54

Coefficients shown are for SI units; for BG


units, replace 0.849 by 1.318 and 10.7 by 4.73.

37

Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Comparison of Equations for Transitional and


Turbulent Curves on the Moody Diagram
Darcy - Weisbach

hf 1
2 gD
l f

2g D

0.50

0.50

0.50

2 g 2.50 0.50 0.50


D S f
4

hL (=S*l)

8f l
2
Q
2 g D 5

Hazen-Williams*

Manning*

0.849CHW Rh0.63 S 0.54

1 0.67 0.50
Rh S
n

0.354 D 0.63 S 0.54CHW 0.397D 0.67 S 0.50 1

0.278 D

10.7

2.63

0.54

4.87

1.85
HW

CHW

0.312D

1.85

10.3

2.67

D 5.33

0.50

1
n

1 2
Q
2
n

Coefficients shown are for SI units (V in m/s, and D and Rh in m); for BG units (ft/s and ft), replace 0.849 by 1.318; 0.354
by 0.550; 0.278 by 0.432; 10.7 by 4.73;1/n by 1.49/n; 0.397 by 0.592; 0.312 by 0.465; and 10.3 by 4.66.

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Summary

hf k Q

hf KQ
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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1.85

Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Minor Losses
Piping systems include fittings, valves, bends, elbows,
tees, inlets, exits, enlargements, and contractions.
These components interrupt the smooth flow of fluid and
cause additional losses because of flow separation and
mixing.
The head loss introduced by a completely open valve
may be negligible. But a partially closed valve may cause
the largest head loss in the system which is evidenced
by the drop in the flow rate.
We introduce a relation for the minor losses associated
with these components as follows.

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Minor Losses

KL is the loss coefficient (also called


the resistance coefficient).
Is different for each component.
Is assumed to be independent of Re
(Since Re is very large).
Typically provided by manufacturer
or generic table.
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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Minor Losses
The minor loss occurs locally across the minor loss
component, but keep in mind that the component
influences the flow for several pipe diameters downstream.
This is the reason why most flow meter manufacturers
recommend installing their flow meter at least 10 to 20
pipe diameters downstream of any elbows or valves.
Minor losses are also expressed in terms of the
equivalent length Lequiv, defined as

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Nomogram of
fitting equivalent
length

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Minor Losses
Total head loss in a system is comprised of
major losses (in the pipe sections) and the minor
losses (in the components)

i pipe sections

j components

If the piping system has constant diameter

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Head loss at the inlet of a pipe


The head loss at the inlet of a pipe is
a strong function of geometry. It is
almost negligible for well-rounded
inlets (KL = 0.03 for r/D = 0.2), but
increases to about 0.50 for sharpedged inlets (because the fluid
cannot make sharp 90 turns easily,
especially at high velocities;
therefore, the flow separates at the
corners).
The flow is constricted into the vena
contracta region formed in the
midsection of the pipe.
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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Head loss at the inlet of a pipe

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Whether laminar or turbulent, the fluid leaving the pipe loses all of its kinetic energy as it mixes with the
reservoir fluid and eventually comes to rest

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Gradual Expansion and Contraction (based on the velocity in the


smaller-diameter pipe)

Typos in the text


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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Some Examples on Energy


and Energy Losses

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

2
p
V
E
LG
LTE
L2gz
Energy gradient lines

Total energy gradient (TEL EGL - EL) line is equal to


sum of all heads: pressure head ,velocity head, and datum
head
pressure
head

velocity
head

elevation
head (w.r.t.
datum)

For a fluid flow without any losses due to either friction or


minor losses - the energy line would be at a constant level.
In a practical, the energy line decreases along the flow due
to losses (except for pump).
A turbine in the flow reduces the energy line and a pump in
the line increases the energy
line.
Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics
53

p
H
G
L
z

Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL )

Hydraulic gradient line is the sum of pressure


head and datum head (piezometric head)

where
The hydraulic grade line lies one velocity head
below the energy line and parallel to it.

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Case 1: pipe flow connecting two tanks

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55 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Case 1: pipe flow connecting two tanks

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Case 2: pipe discharge to atmosphere

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57 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Case 3: pipe flow connecting two tanks


with cross crack

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58 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Case 4: pipe flow connecting two tanks


with a fitted valve
Valve may be either:
a) Fully Opened (hv assumed negligible ).

b) Partially Opened (partially closed).

c) Fully Closed.

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Case 5: Pump System

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Pump Terminology
Pump head (dynamic head) Hp
Pump discharge Q
Pump speed n
Pump power P

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61 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Centrifugal Pump

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62 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Pump Terminology
Power P
Motor
efficiency m
Q, H
Pump
Efficiency p

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63 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Pump Terminology
Pump Output (Water) Power (Q in m3, H in m,
is specific gravity and dimensionless, and P in
horsepower)
Pw Q Hp
Pump Input (Brake) Power

BP

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Q Hp

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64 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Pump Terminology
Electric Motor Power

MP

Q Hp

Typically motor efficiency is approximately 98%

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65 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Pump Performance
Variable-Speed pumps may be desirable
when different operating modes require
different pump head or flow
Similarity laws
Q1/Q2 = n1/n2
H1/H2 = (n1/n2)2
P1/P2 = (n1/n2)3

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66 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Pump Performance Curves

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67 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Pump Terminology
Static Lift (Suction head - Hs)
elevation difference between pump centerline
and the suction water surface. If the pump is
higher, static lift is positive. If pump is lower,
static lift is negative.
Static Discharge (Discharge head - hd) elevation
difference between the pump centerline and the
end discharge point. If pump is higher, static
discharge is negative.
Total Static Head (Hst) sum of static lift and
static discharge. H H H
st

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68 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Pump Terminology
Shutoff Head head at 0 flow
Operating point the point where the pump
curve and the system curve intersect.
A system curve is a curve describing the headflow relationship of the pipeline system.

H sys H st H dyn

A pump performance curve is a curve


describing the head-flow relationship of the
2
pump
H a b Q c Q
p

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69 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Hsys

System Curve

friction losses

Hdyn

Hst

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70 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Operating Point

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71 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Preventing Cavitation

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72 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

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73 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Multiple-Pump combination

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Pipe systems in Series

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

For parallel pipes, perform CV analysis between points A


and B

Since p is the same for all branches, head loss in all


branches is the same

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Pipe
systems
in Parallel

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

EXAMPLE : Pumping Water through Two


Parallel Pipes
Water at 20C is to be pumped from a reservoir (zA = 5
m) to another reservoir at a higher elevation (zB = 13 m)
through two 36-m-long pipes connected in parallel.

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

EXAMPLE Pumping Water through Two


Parallel Pipes
Water is to be pumped by a 70 percent efficient motor
pump combination that draws 8 kW of electric power
during operation. The minor losses and the head loss in
pipes that connect the parallel pipes to the two reservoirs
are considered to be negligible. Determine the total flow
rate between the reservoirs and the flow rate through each
of the parallel pipes.
Solution:
Assumptions:
1 The flow is steady and incompressible.
2 The entrance effects are negligible, and the flow is fully
developed.
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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

EXAMPLE 87 Pumping Water through


Two Parallel Pipes
Solution:
3 The elevations of the reservoirs remain constant.
4 The minor losses and the head loss in pipes other than
the parallel pipes are said to be negligible.
5 Flows through both pipes are turbulent (to be verified).
The useful head supplied by the pump to the fluid is
determined from

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

EXAMPLE soln: Pumping Water through


Two Parallel Pipes
The energy equation for a control volume between these
two points simplifies to

or
Where
We designate the 4-cm-diameter pipe by 1 and the 8-cm-diameter
pipe by 2. The average velocity, the Reynolds number, the friction
factor, and the head loss in each pipe are expressed as
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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

EXAMPLE 87 Pumping Water through


Two Parallel Pipes

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

EXAMPLE 87 Pumping Water through


Two Parallel Pipes

This is a system of 13 equations in 13 unknowns, and


their simultaneous solution by an equation solver gives
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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

EXAMPLE 87 Pumping Water through


Two Parallel Pipes

Note that Re > 4000 for both pipes, and thus the
assumption of turbulent flow is verified.
Discussion The two parallel pipes are identical, except
the diameter of the first pipe is half the diameter of the
second one. But only 14 percent of the water flows
through the first pipe. This shows the strong dependence
of the flow rate (and the head loss) on diameter.

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Branching
Pipe
systems

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Branching Pipe systems

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Branching Pipe systems

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

= 24

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=8

Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Graphical solution for 3 reservoir prob.


1) Intially, guess hD value (avg. of all heads is good
guess).
2)find Q1, Q2, Q3 from:

3)Calculate Q,
4) recalculate Q with another hD
4) Plot hD verus Q

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Pipe Equivalence Simplifcation


Two general types of
networks connections
are
Pipes in series
Volume flow rate is
constant
Head loss is the
summation of parts

Pipes in parallel
Volume flow rate is the
sum of the components
Pressure loss across all
branches is the same

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Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES