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# FLUID FLOW IN PIPES

Assistant Professor of Mechanical
Power, Faculty of Engineering, KFS
University,
Kafrelsheikh, Egypt.

Objectives
Have a deeper understanding of laminar and
turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully
developed flow.
Calculate the major and minor losses associated
with pipe flow in pipeline with a review both EGL
and HGL, practice some cases and determine
the pumping power. requirements
Understand the simplification and analysis of
network
having
both
series,
parallel,
branching(more than two tanks systems)
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

## Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Our Plan
Review energy relationships in single pipes
Review both EGL and HGL, practice some
cases
Extend analysis to progressively more
complex systems
Pipes in parallel or series
Interconnected pipe loops and reservoirs where
flow direction is not obvious

## Consider key factors in selection of pumps to

add energy to fluid in a system
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

## Overview of Pipe Networks

Pipe flow generally refers to fluid in pipes
and appurtenances flowing full and under
pressure
Examples: Water distribution in homes,
industry, cities; irrigation
System components
Pipes
Valves and bends
Pumps and turbines
Storage (often unpressurized elevated tanks)
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

## Energy Relationships in Pipe Systems

Energy equation between any two points:
E 2 E 1 h pump hturb hL ,f
p2 V22
p1 V12
z2

z1
hpump hturb hL , f
2g
2g

## Analysis involves writing expressions for hL in

each pipe and for each link between pipes
(valves, expansions, contractions), relating
velocities based on continuity equation, and
solving subject to system constraints (Q, p, or
V at specific points).
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

## Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

(HGL)
Graphical interpretations of the energy along a pipeline may be obtained
through the EGL and HGL:

p V 2
EG L
z
2g

p
H G L
z

EGL and HGL may be obtained via a pitot tube and a piezometer tube,
respectively
In our discussion we will be taking atmospheric pressure equal to zero, thus
we will be working with gage pressures
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

(HGL)
p V 2
EG L
z
2g

H G L

p
z

hLh

due to friction

z1

l V2
hL f
D 2g

## For estimating friction factor f the type

of fluid flow in the pipe has to be studied.
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

## LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOWS

Laminar flow: characterized
by smooth streamlines and
highly ordered motion.
Turbulent
flow:
characterized by velocity
fluctuations
and
highly
disordered motion.
The transition from laminar
to turbulent flow does not
occur suddenly; rather, it
occurs over some region in
which the flow fluctuates
between
laminar
and
turbulent flows before it
becomes fully turbulent.
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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## Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Reynolds Number
The transition from laminar to turbulent flow depends on
the geometry, surface roughness, flow velocity, surface
temperature, and type of fluid, among other things.
British engineer Osborne Reynolds (18421912)
discovered that the flow regime depends mainly on the
ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces in the fluid.
The ratio is called the Reynolds number and is
expressed for internal flow in a circular pipe as

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## Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Reynolds Number
At large Reynolds numbers, the inertial forces are large
relative to the viscous forces Turbulent Flow
At small or moderate Reynolds numbers, the viscous
forces are large enough to suppress these fluctuations
Laminar Flow
The Reynolds number at which the flow becomes
turbulent is called the critical Reynolds number, Recr.
The value of the critical Reynolds number is different for
different geometries and flow conditions. For example,
Recr = 2300 for internal flow in a circular pipe.

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## Reynolds Number for Non-circular

Cross-sections
For flow through noncircular
pipes, the Reynolds number
is based on the hydraulic
diameter Dh defined as
Ac = cross-section area
P = wetted perimeter

## The transition from laminar to

turbulent flow also depends
on the degree of disturbance
of the flow by surface
roughness, pipe vibrations,
and fluctuations in the flow.
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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## Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Reynolds Number
Under most practical
conditions, the flow in a
circular pipe is

## In transitional flow, the

flow switches between
laminar and turbulent
randomly.
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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## LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES

We consider steady, laminar, incompressible flow of a fluid with constant
properties in the fully developed region of a straight circular pipe.
In fully developed laminar flow, each fluid particle moves at a constant axial
velocity along a streamline and the velocity profile u(r) remains unchanged in
the flow direction. There is no motion in the radial direction, and thus the
velocity component in the direction normal to the pipe axis is everywhere
zero.There is no acceleration since the flow is steady and fully developed.

## Free-body diagram of a ring-shaped differential fluid element

of radius r, thickness dr, and length dx oriented coaxially with
a horizontal pipe in fully developed laminar flow.
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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Boundary
conditions

Average velocity

Velocity
profile

## Free-body diagram of a fluid disk element

of radius R and length dx in fully developed
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics
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laminar flow in a horizontal pipe.

Maximim velocity
at centerline
Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

## A pressure drop due to viscous effects represents an irreversible pressure

loss, and it is called pressure loss PL.
pressure loss for all
types of fully developed
internal flows
dynamic
pressure

Darcy
friction
factor

Circular pipe,
laminar
loss

## In laminar flow, the friction factor is a function of the Reynolds number

only and is independent of the roughness of the pipe surface.
The head loss represents the additional height that the fluid needs to be
raised by aofpump
in order to overcome
in18
the 8:pipe.
FLOW IN PIPES
Fundamentals
Fluid Mechanics
18 the frictional lossesChapter

Horizontal
pipe
Poiseuilles
law
For a specified flow rate, the pressure drop and
thus the required pumping power is proportional
to the length of the pipe and the viscosity of the
fluid, but it is inversely proportional to the fourth
power of the diameter of the pipe.

## The relation for pressure loss (and

head loss) is one of the most general
relations in fluid mechanics, and it is
valid for laminar or turbulent flows,
circular or noncircular pipes, and pipes
with smooth or rough surfaces.
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

19

## The pumping power requirement for a laminar

flow piping system can be reduced by a factor
19 diameter.
of 16 by doubling theChapter
pipe
8: FLOW IN PIPES

## Pressure Drop and Head Loss

In the above cases, the pressure drop equals to the head
loss, but this is not the case for inclined pipes or pipes with
variable cross-sectional area.
Lets examine the energy equation for steady, incompressible
one-dimensional flow in terms of heads as

Or

From the above eq., when the pressure drop = the head loss?
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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## Laminar Flow in Noncircular Pipes

Friction factor for fully
developed laminar flow
in pipes of various
cross sections

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## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

Most flows encountered in engineering practice
are turbulent, and thus it is important to
understand how turbulence affects wall shear
stress.
However, turbulent flow is a complex mechanism.
The theory of turbulent flow remains largely
undeveloped.
Therefore, we must rely on experiments and the
empirical or semi-empirical correlations developed
for various situations.
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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23

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES

Most flows encountered in engineering practice are turbulent, and thus it is
important to understand how turbulence affects wall shear stress.
Turbulent flow is a complex mechanism dominated by fluctuations, and it is still
not fully understood.
We must rely on experiments and the empirical or semi-empirical correlations
developed for various situations.

## Turbulent flow is characterized by disorderly

and rapid fluctuations of swirling regions of
fluid, called eddies, throughout the flow.
mechanism for momentum and energy transfer.

## The intense mixing in turbulent flow brings

fluid particles at different momentums into
close contact and thus enhances
momentum transfer.
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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## In turbulent flow, the swirling eddies transport

mass, momentum, and energy to other regions
of flow much more rapidly than molecular
diffusion, greatly enhancing mass, momentum,
and heat transfer.
As a result, turbulent flow is associated with
much higher values of friction, heat transfer, and
mass transfer coefficients
Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

## TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES (Skipped)

Turbulent flow is characterized by random and rapid
fluctuations of swirling regions of fluid, called eddies,
throughout the flow.
These fluctuations provide an additional mechanism for
momentum and energy transfer.
In laminar flow, momentum and energy are transferred
across streamlines by molecular diffusion.
In turbulent flow, the swirling eddies transport mass,
momentum, and energy to other regions of flow much
more rapidly than molecular diffusion, such that
associated with much higher values of friction, heat
transfer, and mass transfer coefficients.
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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## Turbulent Shear Stress

Eddy motion and thus eddy diffusivities are
much larger than their molecular
counterparts in the core region of a turbulent
boundary layer.
The velocity profiles are shown in the
figures. So it is no surprise that the wall
shear stress is much larger in turbulent flow
than it is in laminar flow.

Molecular viscosity is
a fluid property;
however, eddy
viscosity is a flow
property.
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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## Turbulent Velocity Profile

Typical velocity profiles for fully
developed laminar and
turbulent flows are given in
Figures.
Note that the velocity profile is
parabolic in laminar flow but is
much fuller in turbulent flow,
with a sharp drop near the
pipe wall.

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## Turbulent Velocity Profile

Turbulent flow along a wall can be considered to consist of
four regions, characterized by the distance from the wall.
Viscous (or laminar or linear or wall) sublayer: where viscous
effects are dominant and the velocity profile in this layer is very
nearly linear, and the flow is streamlined.
Buffer layer: Next to the viscous sublayer, viscous effects are still
dominant: however, turbulent effects are becoming significant.
Overlap (or transition) layer (or the inertial sublayer): the
turbulent effects are much more significant, but still not dominant.
Outer (or turbulent) layer: turbulent effects dominate over
molecular diffusion (viscous) effects.

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## Turbulent Velocity Profile (Skipped)

The Viscous sublayer (next to the wall):
The thickness of this sublayer is very small (typically,
much less than 1 % of the pipe diameter), but this thin
layer plays a dominant role on flow characteristics
because of the large velocity gradients it involves.
The wall dampens any eddy motion, and thus the flow
in this layer is essentially laminar and the shear stress
consists of laminar shear stress which is proportional to
the fluid viscosity.
The velocity profile in this layer to be very nearly linear,
and experiments confirm that.
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

29

resistance

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The Moody
Chart

## The friction factor in fully developed turbulent pipe flow depends

on the Reynolds number and the relative roughness /D.

Explicit Haaland
equation

## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

The friction
factor is
minimum for a
smooth pipe
and increases
31 roughness.
with

31 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Estimating f Graphically

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## The Moody Chart

The Moody chart presents the Darcy friction factor for pipe
flow as a function of the Reynolds number and /D over a
wide range. It is probably one of the most widely accepted
and used charts in engineering. Although it is developed for
circular pipes, it can also be used for noncircular pipes by
replacing the diameter by the hydraulic diameter.
Both Moody chart and Colebrook equation are accurate to
15% due to roughness size, experimental error, curve fitting
of data, etc

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## Observations from the Moody chart

For laminar flow, the friction factor decreases with increasing Reynolds
number, and it is independent of surface roughness.

The friction factor is a minimum for a smooth pipe and increases with
roughness. The Colebrook equation in this case ( = 0) reduces to the
Blasius formula:
Prandtl equation.

f 0.316 / Re1/ 4

## The transition region from the laminar to turbulent regime is indicated

by the shaded area in the Moody chart. At small relative roughnesses,
the friction factor increases and approaches the value for smooth pipes.

At very large Reynolds numbers (to the right of the dashed line on the
Moody chart) the friction factor curves corresponding to specified
relative roughness curves are nearly horizontal, and thus the friction
factors are independent of the Reynolds number. The flow in that region
is called fully turbulent flow or just fully rough flow because the
thickness of the viscous sublayer decreases with increasing Reynolds
number, andit becomes so thin that it is negligibly small compared to
the surface roughness height.The Colebrook equation in the fully rough
zone reduces to the von Krmn equation.

## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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34 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

## 1. Determining the pressure drop (or head loss)

when the pipe length and diameter are given
for a specified flow rate (or velocity)
2. Determining the flow rate when the pipe length
and diameter are given for a specified
3. Determining the pipe diameter when the pipe
length and flow rate are given for a specified

## The three types of problems

encountered in pipe flow.

## To avoid tedious iterations in head loss, flow rate, and diameter

calculations,
these explicit relations are used

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## Types of Fluid Flow Problems (Again)

Explicit relations have been developed which
eliminate iteration. They are useful for quick,
direct calculation, but introduce an additional 2%
error (Swamee- Jain Eqns.)

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## Alternative Equations for Flow - Headloss

Relationships in Turbulent Pipe Flow
Hazen-Williams equation widely used for hL
as function of flow parameters for turbulent
flow at typical velocities in water pipes:
V 0.849CHW R

0.63
h

hL

l

Q1.85 1
hL 10.7l 4.87 1.85
D CHW
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Aflow D 2 4 D R
Rh

Pwetted
D
4 2

0.54

## Coefficients shown are for SI units; for BG

units, replace 0.849 by 1.318 and 10.7 by 4.73.

37

38

## Comparison of Equations for Transitional and

Turbulent Curves on the Moody Diagram
Darcy - Weisbach

hf 1
2 gD
l f

2g D

0.50

0.50

0.50

D S f
4

hL (=S*l)

8f l
2
Q
2 g D 5

Hazen-Williams*

Manning*

1 0.67 0.50
Rh S
n

## 0.354 D 0.63 S 0.54CHW 0.397D 0.67 S 0.50 1

0.278 D

10.7

2.63

0.54

4.87

1.85
HW

CHW

0.312D

1.85

10.3

2.67

D 5.33

0.50

1
n

1 2
Q
2
n

Coefficients shown are for SI units (V in m/s, and D and Rh in m); for BG units (ft/s and ft), replace 0.849 by 1.318; 0.354
by 0.550; 0.278 by 0.432; 10.7 by 4.73;1/n by 1.49/n; 0.397 by 0.592; 0.312 by 0.465; and 10.3 by 4.66.

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## Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Summary

hf k Q

hf KQ
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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1.85

## Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Minor Losses
Piping systems include fittings, valves, bends, elbows,
tees, inlets, exits, enlargements, and contractions.
These components interrupt the smooth flow of fluid and
cause additional losses because of flow separation and
mixing.
The head loss introduced by a completely open valve
may be negligible. But a partially closed valve may cause
the largest head loss in the system which is evidenced
by the drop in the flow rate.
We introduce a relation for the minor losses associated
with these components as follows.

41

Minor Losses

## KL is the loss coefficient (also called

the resistance coefficient).
Is different for each component.
Is assumed to be independent of Re
(Since Re is very large).
Typically provided by manufacturer
or generic table.
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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## Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Minor Losses
The minor loss occurs locally across the minor loss
component, but keep in mind that the component
influences the flow for several pipe diameters downstream.
This is the reason why most flow meter manufacturers
recommend installing their flow meter at least 10 to 20
pipe diameters downstream of any elbows or valves.
Minor losses are also expressed in terms of the
equivalent length Lequiv, defined as

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## Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Nomogram of
fitting equivalent
length

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## Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Minor Losses
Total head loss in a system is comprised of
major losses (in the pipe sections) and the minor
losses (in the components)

i pipe sections

j components

45

## Head loss at the inlet of a pipe

The head loss at the inlet of a pipe is
a strong function of geometry. It is
almost negligible for well-rounded
inlets (KL = 0.03 for r/D = 0.2), but
increases to about 0.50 for sharpedged inlets (because the fluid
cannot make sharp 90 turns easily,
especially at high velocities;
therefore, the flow separates at the
corners).
The flow is constricted into the vena
contracta region formed in the
midsection of the pipe.
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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47

## Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES

Whether laminar or turbulent, the fluid leaving the pipe loses all of its kinetic energy as it mixes with the
reservoir fluid and eventually comes to rest

48

49

## Gradual Expansion and Contraction (based on the velocity in the

smaller-diameter pipe)

## Typos in the text

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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51

## Some Examples on Energy

and Energy Losses

52

2
p
V
E
LG
LTE
L2gz

pressure

velocity

elevation
datum)

## For a fluid flow without any losses due to either friction or

minor losses - the energy line would be at a constant level.
In a practical, the energy line decreases along the flow due
to losses (except for pump).
A turbine in the flow reduces the energy line and a pump in
the line increases the energy
line.
Chapter 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics
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p
H
G
L
z

## Hydraulic gradient line is the sum of pressure

where
below the energy line and parallel to it.

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## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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55 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

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## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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57 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

with cross crack

## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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58 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

## Case 4: pipe flow connecting two tanks

with a fitted valve
Valve may be either:
a) Fully Opened (hv assumed negligible ).

c) Fully Closed.

59

60

Pump Terminology
Pump discharge Q
Pump speed n
Pump power P

## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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61 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Centrifugal Pump

## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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62 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Pump Terminology
Power P
Motor
efficiency m
Q, H
Pump
Efficiency p

## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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63 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Pump Terminology
Pump Output (Water) Power (Q in m3, H in m,
is specific gravity and dimensionless, and P in
horsepower)
Pw Q Hp
Pump Input (Brake) Power

BP

## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

Q Hp

64

64 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Pump Terminology
Electric Motor Power

MP

Q Hp

## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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65 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Pump Performance
Variable-Speed pumps may be desirable
when different operating modes require
Similarity laws
Q1/Q2 = n1/n2
H1/H2 = (n1/n2)2
P1/P2 = (n1/n2)3

## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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66 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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67 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Pump Terminology
Static Lift (Suction head - Hs)
elevation difference between pump centerline
and the suction water surface. If the pump is
higher, static lift is positive. If pump is lower,
static lift is negative.
Static Discharge (Discharge head - hd) elevation
difference between the pump centerline and the
end discharge point. If pump is higher, static
discharge is negative.
Total Static Head (Hst) sum of static lift and
static discharge. H H H
st

## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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68 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Pump Terminology
Operating point the point where the pump
curve and the system curve intersect.
A system curve is a curve describing the headflow relationship of the pipeline system.

H sys H st H dyn

## A pump performance curve is a curve

describing the head-flow relationship of the
2
pump
H a b Q c Q
p

## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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69 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Hsys

System Curve

friction losses

Hdyn

Hst

## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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70 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Operating Point

## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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71 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Preventing Cavitation

## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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Chapter

## Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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73 8: FLOW IN PIPES
Chapter

Multiple-Pump combination

74

75

76

and B

## Since p is the same for all branches, head loss in all

branches is the same

77

Pipe
systems
in Parallel

78

## EXAMPLE : Pumping Water through Two

Parallel Pipes
Water at 20C is to be pumped from a reservoir (zA = 5
m) to another reservoir at a higher elevation (zB = 13 m)
through two 36-m-long pipes connected in parallel.

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## EXAMPLE Pumping Water through Two

Parallel Pipes
Water is to be pumped by a 70 percent efficient motor
pump combination that draws 8 kW of electric power
during operation. The minor losses and the head loss in
pipes that connect the parallel pipes to the two reservoirs
are considered to be negligible. Determine the total flow
rate between the reservoirs and the flow rate through each
of the parallel pipes.
Solution:
Assumptions:
1 The flow is steady and incompressible.
2 The entrance effects are negligible, and the flow is fully
developed.
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

80

## EXAMPLE 87 Pumping Water through

Two Parallel Pipes
Solution:
3 The elevations of the reservoirs remain constant.
4 The minor losses and the head loss in pipes other than
the parallel pipes are said to be negligible.
5 Flows through both pipes are turbulent (to be verified).
The useful head supplied by the pump to the fluid is
determined from

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## EXAMPLE soln: Pumping Water through

Two Parallel Pipes
The energy equation for a control volume between these
two points simplifies to

or
Where
We designate the 4-cm-diameter pipe by 1 and the 8-cm-diameter
pipe by 2. The average velocity, the Reynolds number, the friction
factor, and the head loss in each pipe are expressed as
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

82

## EXAMPLE 87 Pumping Water through

Two Parallel Pipes

83

## EXAMPLE 87 Pumping Water through

Two Parallel Pipes

## This is a system of 13 equations in 13 unknowns, and

their simultaneous solution by an equation solver gives
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

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## EXAMPLE 87 Pumping Water through

Two Parallel Pipes

Note that Re > 4000 for both pipes, and thus the
assumption of turbulent flow is verified.
Discussion The two parallel pipes are identical, except
the diameter of the first pipe is half the diameter of the
second one. But only 14 percent of the water flows
through the first pipe. This shows the strong dependence
of the flow rate (and the head loss) on diameter.

85

Branching
Pipe
systems

86

87

88

= 24

89

=8

## Graphical solution for 3 reservoir prob.

1) Intially, guess hD value (avg. of all heads is good
guess).
2)find Q1, Q2, Q3 from:

3)Calculate Q,
4) recalculate Q with another hD
4) Plot hD verus Q

90

91

## Pipe Equivalence Simplifcation

Two general types of
networks connections
are
Pipes in series
Volume flow rate is
constant