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NAME:

VIPUL KUMAR MISHRA (014)


PARAS BRAHMBHATT (001)
ENROLMENT NUMBER:
130950111014
140953111001
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND
COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING, ITM
UNIVERSE, VADODARA.
5Th Semester.
SUBJECT : ENGINEERING
ELECTROMAGNETICS (2151002)

Ampere
Circuit Law
and Its
Application

Ampre's
Circuital
Law
Magneto statics is the branch of

electromagnetics dealing with the effects of


electric charges in steady motion (i.e.,
steady current or DC).

The fundamental law of magneto statics is


Amperes law of force.
Amperes law of force is analogous to
Coulombs law in electrostatics.

Amperes Law of
Force
Amperes law of force is the law of action
between current carrying circuits.

Amperes law of force gives the magnetic force


between two current carrying circuits in an
otherwise empty universe.
Amperes law of force involves complete circuits
since current must flow in closed loops.

Amperes Law of
Force (Contd)

Experimental facts:

F21 F12

Two parallel wires


carrying current in
the same direction
attract.

I1

F21

I2

F12

I1

Two parallel wires


carrying current in

I2

Amperes Law of
Force (Contd)
Experimental
facts:

F12 = 0

A short currentcarrying wire


oriented
perpendicular
to a long
currentcarrying wire

I1

I2

Amperes Law of
Force (Contd)

Experimental facts:

The magnitude of the force is


inversely proportional to the
distance squared.
The magnitude of the force is
proportional to the product of the

Amperes Law of
(Contd)
Force
The direction
of the force

established by the experimental


facts can be mathematically
represented
by.
unit vector in direction
unit vector in direction
of current I2

of current I1

a F12 a 2 a1 a R12

unit vector in
direction of force on
I2 due to I1

unit vector in
direction of I2 from I1

Amperes Law of
Force
(Contd)
The force acting on a current element
I2 dl2 by a current element I1 dl1 is
given by

0 I 2 d l 2 I1d l 1 a R1 2
F 12
2
4
R12

Permeability of free space


0 = 4 10-7 F/m

Amperes Law of
Force (Contd)
The total force acting on a circuit C2
having a current I2 by a circuit C1
having current I1 is given by

d l 2 d l 1 a R1 2
0 I1 I 2
F 12
2

4 C2 C1
R12

Amperes Law of Force


(Contd)
The force on C1 due to C2 is equal in
magnitude but opposite in direction
to the force on C2 due to C1.

F 21 F 12

Amperes Law
Applied to a Long
Wire

Symmetry suggests that H will be circular, constant-value


at constant radius, and centered on the current (z) axis.
Choosing path a, and integrating H around the circle
of radius gives the enclosed current, I:

So that:

as before.

Coaxial Transmission Line


In the coax line, we have two concentric
solid conductors that carry equal and opposite
currents, I.

The line is assumed to be infinitely long, and the


circular symmetry suggests that H will be entirely
- directed, and will vary only with radius .
Our objective is to find the magnetic field
for all values of

Field Between
The inner conductor
can be thought of as made up of a
Conductors
bundle of filament currents, each of which produces the
field of a long wire.
Consider two such filaments, located at the same
radius from the z axis, , but which lie at symmetric
coordinates, and -Their field contributions
superpose to give a net H component as shown. The
same happens for every pair of symmetrically-located
filaments, which taken as a whole, make up the entire
center conductor.
The field between conductors is thus found to be the same
as that of filament conductor on the z axis that carries current,
I. Specifically:
a < < b

Field Within the


Inner Conductor

With current uniformly distributed inside the


conductors, the H can be assumed circular
everywhere.

Inside the inner conductor, and


at radius we again have:

But now, the current enclosed is

so that

or finally:

Field Outside Both


Conductors
Outside the transmission line, where > c,
no current is enclosed by the integration path,
and so

As the current is uniformly distributed, and since we


have circular symmetry, the field would have to
be constant over the circular integration path, and so it
must be true that:

Field Inside the Outer


Conductor

Inside the outer conductor, the enclosed current consists


of that within the inner conductor plus that portion of the
outer conductor current existing at radii less than
Amperes Circuital Law
becomes

..and so finally:

THANK YOU