operation research

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operation research

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POKOK BAHASAN

Mata

Linear

Programming,

Model

Transportasi,

Model

Penugasan,

Manajemen Proyek, Model Antrian,

Linear Goal Programming dan Dynamic

Programming yang bermanfaat untuk

pengambilan keputusan manajemen.

LITERATUR

Richard,

Keputusan Secara Kuantitatif, Rajawali

Pers Jakarta

Subagyo. P, dkk (1983). Dasar-Dasar

Operation Research. BPFE Yogyakarta

Supranto. J (1988), Riset Operasi

Untuk Pengambilan Keputusan, UI

Press, Jakarta

Operations

research

(OR)

is

a

discipline explicitly devoted to aiding

decision makers. This section reviews

the terminology of OR, a process for

addressing practical decision problems

and the relation between Excel models

and OR.

Linear Programming

A typical mathematical program consists of a single

maximized or a cost to be minimized, and a set of

constraints that circumscribe the decision variables.

In the case of a linear program (LP) the objective

function and constraints are all linear functions of

the decision variables. At first glance these

restrictions would seem to limit the scope of the LP

model, but this is hardly the case. Because of its

simplicity, software has been developed that is

capable of solving problems containing millions of

variables and tens of thousands of constraints.

Countless

real-world

applications

have

been

successfully modeled and solved using linear

programming techniques.

The term network flow program describes a type of

ng

model that is a special case of the more general linear

such problems as the transportation problem, the

assignment problem, the shortest path problem, the

maximum flow problem, the pure minimum cost flow

problem, and the generalized minimum cost flow

problem. It is an important class because many aspects

of actual situations are readily recognized as networks

and the representation of the model is much more

compact than the general linear program. When a

situation can be entirely modeled as a network, very

efficient algorithms exist for the solution of the

optimization problem, many times more efficient than

linear programming in the utilization of computer time

and space resources.

Integer Programming

Integer

problems in which some of the variables are required to take

on discrete values. Rather than allow a variable to assume all

real values in a given range, only predetermined discrete

values within the range are permitted. In most cases, these

values are the integers, giving rise to the name of this class

of models.

Models with integer variables are very useful. Situations that

cannot be modeled by linear programming are easily handled

by integer programming. Primary among these involve

binary decisions such as yes-no, build-no build or invest-not

invest. Although one can model a binary decision in linear

programming with a variable that ranges between 0 and 1,

there is nothing that keeps the solution from obtaining a

fractional value such as 0.5, hardly acceptable to a decision

maker. Integer programming requires such a variable to be

either 0 or 1, but not in-between.

Nonlinear Programming

When expressions defining the objective

model are not linear, one has a nonlinear

programming model. Again, the class of

situations

appropriate

for

nonlinear

programming is much larger than the class

for linear programming. Indeed it can be

argued that all linear expressions are really

approximations for nonlinear ones.

Dynamic Programming

Dynamic

programming

(DP)

models

are

represented in a different way than other

mathematical programming models. Rather than

an objective function and constraints, a DP

model describes a process in terms of states,

decisions, transitions and returns. The process

begins in some initial state where a decision is

made. The decision causes a transition to a new

state. Based on the starting state, ending state

and decision a return is realized. The process

continues through a sequence of states until

finally a final state is reached. The problem is to

find the sequence that maximizes the total

return.

Stochastic Programming

The

mathematical

programming

models, such as linear programming,

network

flow

programming

and

integer

programming

generally

neglect the effects of uncertainty and

assume that the results of decisions

are predictable and deterministic.

This abstraction of reality allows large

and complex decision problems to be

modeled and solved using powerful

computational methods.

Combinatorial Optimizatio

The most general type of optimization problem

nand one that is applicable to most spreadsheet

models

is

the

combinatorial

optimization

problem. Many spreadsheet models contain

variables and compute measures of effectiveness.

The spreadsheet user often changes the variables

in an unstructured way to look for the solution

that obtains the greatest or least of the measure.

In the words of OR, the analyst is searching for

the solution that optimizes an objective function,

the measure of effectiveness. Combinatorial

optimization provides tools for automating the

search for good solutions and can be of great

value for spreadsheet applications.

Stochastic Processes

In many practical situations the attributes

Examples include the number of customers

in a checkout line, congestion on a highway,

the number of items in a warehouse, and

the price of a financial security, to name a

few. When aspects of the process are

governed by probability theory, we have a

stochastic process. The example for this

section is an Automated Teller Machine

(ATM) system and the state is the number

of customers at or waiting for the machine

ins

such as every day or every week. Then the

stochastic process can be described by a matrix

which gives the probabilities of moving to each

state from every other state in one time

interval. Assuming this matrix is unchanging

with time, the process is called a Discrete Time

Markov

Chain

(DTMC).

Computational

techniques are available to compute a variety of

system measures that can be used to analyze

and evaluate a DTMC model. This section

illustrates how to construct a model of this type

and the measures that are available.

Here we consider a continuous time stochastic

hains

process in which the duration of all state

changing activities are exponentially distributed.

Time is a continuous parameter. The process

satisfies the Markovian property and is called a

Continuous Time Markov Chain (CTMC). The

process is entirely described by a matrix showing

the rate of transition from each state to every

other state. The rates are the parameters of the

associated

exponential

distributions.

The

analytical results are very similar to those of a

DTMC. The ATM example is continued with

illustrations of the elements of the model and the

statistical measures that can be obtained from it.

Terminology

OPERATIONS

related to attaining its goals and objectives.

RESEARCH

The process of observation and testing

characterized by the scientific method. The

steps of the process include observing the

situation and formulating a problem statement,

constructing

a

mathematical

model,

hypothesizing that the model represents the

important aspects of the situation, and

validating the model through experimentation.

ORGANIZATION

for which the solution is important. The

organization may be a corporation, a

branch of government, a department within

a firm, a group of employees, or perhaps

even a household or individual.

DECISION MAKER

An individual or group in the organization

capable of proposing and implementing

necessary actions.

ANALYST

solving process. The analyst typically has special skills in modeling,

mathematics, data gathering, and computer implementation.

TEAM

A group of individuals bringing various skills and viewpoints to a

problem. Historically, operations research has used the team

approach in order that the solution not be limited by past experience

or too narrow a focus. A team also provides the collection of

specialized skills that are rarely found in a single individual.

MODEL

An abstract representation of reality. As used here, a

representation of a decision problem related to the operations of the

organization. The model is usually presented in mathematical terms

and includes a statement of the assumptions used in the functional

relationships. Models can also be physical, narrative, or a set of

rules embodied in a computer program.

SYSTEMS

APPROACH

An approach to analysis that attempts to ascertain and include the

broad implications of decisions for the organization. Both quantitative

and qualitative factors are included in the analysis.

OPTIMAL SOLUTION

A solution to the model that optimizes (maximizes or minimizes)

some objective measure of merit over all feasible solutions -- the best

solution amongst all alternatives given the organizational, physical and

technological constraints.

OPERATIONS RESEARCH TECHNIQUES

A collection of general mathematical models, analytical procedures,

and optimization algorithms that have been found useful in

quantitative studies. These include linear programming, integer

programming, network programming, nonlinear programming, dynamic

programming, statistical analysis, probability theory, queuing theory,

stochastic processes, simulation, inventory theory, reliability, decision

analysis, and others. Operations research professionals have created

some of these fields while others derive from allied disciplines.

Process

Recognize the Problem

Formulate the Problem

Construct a Model

Find a Solution

Establish the Procedure

Implement the Solution

The OR Process

abstract, it may involve current operations or proposed

expansions or contractions due to expected market

shifts, it may become apparent through consumer

complaints or through employee suggestions, it may be

a conscious effort to improve efficiency or a response to

an unexpected crisis. It is impossible to circumscribe

the breadth of circumstances that might be appropriate

for this discussion, for indeed problem situations that

are amenable to objective analysis arise in every area

of human activity

The first analytical step of the solution process is to formulate the problem in

more precise terms. At the formulation stage, statements of objectives, constraints

on solutions, appropriate assumptions, descriptions of processes, data

requirements, alternatives for action and metrics for measuring progress are

introduced. Because of the ambiguity of the perceived situation, the process of

formulating the problem is extremely important. The analyst is usually not the

decision maker and may not be part of the organization, so care must be taken to

get agreement on the exact character of the problem to be solved from those who

perceive it. There is little value to either a poor solution to a correctly formulated

problem or a good solution to one that has been incorrectly formulated.

Construct a Model

would hope to study the broad implications of the problem using a

systems approach, a model cannot include every aspect of a situation. A

model is always an abstraction that is, by necessity, simpler than the

reality. Elements that are irrelevant or unimportant to the problem are to

be ignored, hopefully leaving sufficient detail so that the solution

obtained with the model has value with regard to the original problem

Find a Solution

powerful solution methods can be applied to the simplest, or most

abstract, model. Here tools available to the analyst are used to

obtain a solution to the mathematical model. Some methods can

prescribe optimal solutions while other only evaluate candidates,

thus requiring a trial and error approach to finding an acceptable

course of action. To carry out this task the analyst must have a

broad knowledge of available solution methodologies.

usually

ongoing

rather

than

unique.

Solutions

are

implemented as procedures to be used repeatedly in an almost

automatic fashion under perhaps changing conditions. Control

may be achieved with a set of operating rules, a job

description, laws or regulations promulgated by a government

body, or computer programs that accept current data and

prescribe actions.

organization. Because resistance to change is common, the implementation

of solutions is perhaps the most difficult part of a problem solving exercise.

Some say it is the most important part. Although not strictly the

responsibility of the analyst, the solution process itself can be designed to

smooth the way for implementation. The persons who are likely to be

affected by the changes brought about by a solution should take part, or at

least be consulted, during the various stages involving problem

formulation, solution testing, and the establishment of the procedure

The OR Process

steps may not be executed in a strict order. Rather there

are many loops in the process, with experimentation and

observation at each step suggesting modifications to

decisions made earlier. The process rarely terminates with

all the loose ends tied up. Work continues after a solution

is proposed and implemented. Parameters and conditions

change over time requiring a constant review of the

solution and a continuing repetition of portions of the

process. It is particularly important to test the validity of

the model and the solution obtained. Are the computations

being performed correctly? Does the model have relevance

to the original problem? Do the assumptions used to obtain

a tractable model render the solution useless? These

questions must be answered before the solution is

implemented in the field.

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