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TUTORIAL LABORATORY 1

MULTICELLULAR ORGANIZATION OF ANIMALS

Levels of organization
cells --> tissues --> organs --> organ systems

Histology
the study of tissues.

Tissue
group of similar cells performing a common activity

Organ
group of tissues collectively performing a specific
function

Organ system
group of organs performing a major body function

ANIMAL TISSUES
Four basic animal tissue types with
respect to their structure, location,
and function

1)
2)
3)
4)

epithelial tissue
connective tissue
muscle tissue
nervous tissue

EPITHELIAL TISSUE
the covering or lining of free body
surfaces, both internal and external
Functions:
protection (as on the surface of skin and in the lining of many
internal organs)
absorption of nutrients (as in intestines)
secretion (as in kidneys, salivary glands, intestines, thyroid
gland),
lubrication(as in areas where mucus production occurs), and
exchange of materials by diffusion (as in lungs and blood
capillaries)
barrier against mechanical injury, pathogens, and fluid loss

Classification of Epithelial
Tissue

epithelial tissue are tightly packed and rest on a thin basement


membrane
apical or luminal surface = free surface of the tissue is exposed to
air (as in skin) or fluid (as in stomach)
cilia, microvilli and stereocilia are located on this surface.
classified according to the shape of the cells at the outermost
layer and the arrangement of the cells into one or more layers.
i) squamous -- flat, scale-like cells (fried-egg appearance).
ii) cuboidal -- cells appear square in side view with nucleus in a
central position.
iii) columnar -- cells appear rectangular in side view withthe
nucleus displaced toward the base of the cell.

EPITHELIAL TISSUE
How do epithelial tissue appear?
one single layer = _____?
two or more layers =_____?

EPITHELIAL TISSUE
one single layer = simple
two or more layers = stratified

List the 6 types of EPITHELIAL


TISSUE
Hint: One layer epithelium and the Different
multilayer epithelial.

1
2
3
4
5
6

EPITHELIAL TISSUE
1.
2.
3.
4.

Simple Squamous Epithelium


Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
Simple Columnar Epithelium
Non-Keratinized Stratified Squamous
Epithelium
5. Keratinized Stratified Squamous
Epithelium
6. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
epithelium

1. Identify the Epithelium.


List the possible location and its function.

1. Simple Squamous
Epithelium
single row of flat cells
resemble fried eggs, with a bulging oval
nucleus
Location:
Kidneys around glomeruli (singular, glomerulus)
it lines internal surfaces of the ventral body cavities, blood
vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart
it forms the entire wall of capillaries
forms the walls of the alveoli of the lungs

Function: exchange of materials by


diffusion (as in lungs and blood capillaries)

Name, Location and


Function?

1. Simple Squamous
Epithelium

Name, Function and


Location?

What is Difference in location of this type of cell and function


compare d to simple squamous epithelium?
Hint: They can be found in the same organ but one of the two can
only be found in another organ.

2. Simple Cuboidal
Epithelium
appears as a single row of cubeshaped cells
Location: kidneys nephrons tubules
Function: secretion and absorption
Simple squamous= gas exchange,
glomerli of kidney.

Identify which type of cell exist in


both places.

Simple squamous in the


Glomerulus
Simple cuboidal in the Nephron
tubules

Identify the type of cell,


location,fuction

Kidney

Name, Location, Function

Identify A,B,C
What is the purpose of microvilli and the function of A

3. Simple Columnar
Epithelium

Single layer of tall, column-shaped cells with oblong nuclei


Location: walls of villi in small intestine
Function: absorption of nutrients, secretion of digestive
juices as well as secretion of mucus by goblet cells
Goblet produce mucus to lubricate varies tissues

known respectively as villi and crypts


The apical surface microvilli = increase the surface area for
absorption of nutrients

Name, Location and fuction?

3. Simple Columnar
Epithelium

Name, Location, Fucntion?

3. Simple Columnar Epithelium

Simple Columnar epithelium

Simple Columnar epithelium

stratified squamous epithelium


What are the two type of stratified
squamous epithelium?

stratified squamous epithelium


There are two types of stratified
squamous epithelium:
non-keratinized (also known as wet)
keratinized (also known as dry)

4. Non-Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium

What is the function of stratified


squamous Epithelium? Hint: also aids
in health.
What are the location and what are
they subjected to?

4. Non-Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium

composed of several to many layers of


cells
Location:
in places subjected to abrasion
moist areas of the body, on surfaces that are
subjected to abrasion, such as oral cavity,
pharynx, esophagus, vagina, and anus

Function:
protection against abrasion and pathogens to
underlying tissues.

4. Non-Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Identify A,B, and C.

4. Non-Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium

4. Non-Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Explain the process in which cells are


replenished and what type of cells
are in the deepest layer close to
the basement membrane?
Explain the significance of the
movement of these cells and its
significance. What does this process
ensure to

4. Non-Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium

the deeper layer (close to the basement


membrane) of the stratified squamous epithelium
is composed of cuboidal cells that are actively
dividing by mitosis to produce new cells.
Newly produced cells are pushed upward toward
the surface of the tissue and are gradually
transformed into flat, squamous cells.
These cells are continually sloughed off. Thus, the
organization of the stratified squamous epithelium
ensures that abrasion affects the oldest
(outermost) cells, while protecting the underlying
tissues.

Name, location, and function.


Be specific with the name. there are two types of this epithelium

Identify which type of epithelium would be at each


ends of the double arrow. Which is young and
which side is old.

4. Non-Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium


Left is cuboidal shaped and young.
Right squamous shaped old and
inactive.

4. Non-Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium

keratinized stratified epithelium.


In what location of the body are you
most likely to find this cell. Hint they are
subjected to .?
Describe how the very top layer establishes
a waterproof and microbe-proof barrier.
Describe the reason why Thick
keratinized epithelium and thin
keratinized epithelium are found in different
locations.

5. Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Location: found on dry surfaces, such as the surface of skin.


Specifically, it composes the most superficial layer skin, known
as epidermis.
As the epithelial cells produced at the base get pushed to the
surface, they die and undergo changes, including accumulation
of the protein, known as keratin.
Function: These dead (or cornified) cells infused with keratin
provide a waterproof and microbe-proof barrier
There are two types of keratinized epithelium: thick and thin.
The thick one is found on the surface of the soles of your feet and on
the surface of the palms of your hands since these areas are exposed
to abrasion and require a thick layer of keratin for protection.
The thin one is found everywhere else on the surface of the skin of
your body

Identify.

5. Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar


Epithelium
Identify the location of this Epithelium
What is the function of this cell in
these specific locations?
Explain why this epithelium is called
Pseudostratified.what types of
shapes does it consist of and what
does this mean overall about the cells?

6. Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar


Epithelium
Location: lines the nasal cavity, trachea, and bronchi
Function: to protect these structures, secrete mucus
by goblet cells, and move mucus by cilia.
This type of epithelium consists of a single row of
cells. Most of these cells have a columnar shape,
while other, shorter cells, are more cuboidal. The
term pseudostratified literally means falsely
stratified.
In other words, the epithelium looks as if it has
multiple layers but it only has one layer. This is due
to the fact that the cells are of differing heights.

Identify the name epithelium, ABC and D. What is the fucntion of A


and C?
what is the function of mucus?

6. Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar


Epithelium
Goblet cells
oval cells scattered throughout this epithelium
secrete mucus into the respiratory tree.
function of mucus is to trap foreign material

Identify the blank space.

6. Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar


Epithelium

Identify the epithelium and A & B and


its function.

6. Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar


Epithelium

CONNECTIVE TISSUE
The most widespread and abundant
type of tissue in the human body.
Function: primarily to support, anchor
and connect various parts of the body.
All types have three basic structural
elements: cells, fibres and intercellular
substance (ground substance).
Both fibres and ground substance make
up the extracellular matrix.

Connective Tissue
Connective Tissue Proper
encompasses all organs and body cavities
connecting one part with another and, equally
important, separating one group of cells from
another.
areolar (loose) tissue
adipose tissue(fat)

Specialized Connective Tissues


cartilage
bone
blood

Connective Tissue
The most common cell types are:
fibroblasts, which produce fibres and other
intercellular materials.
The two most common types of fibres are:
collagen (collagenous) = strength
elastic = elasticity

Both the cells and the fibres are embedded in


the intercellular substance (ground substance).
The consistency of this substance is highly
variable from liquid to gelatin-like to a much
more rigid material.

Areolar (Loose) Connective Tissue


What is the location and function of Areolar
connective tissue? Hint this is also why it is
the most widespread connective tissue.
This connective tissue is called areolar
loose connective tissue what part of its
structure contributes to this name.
Identify the color and appears of Collagen
fibres, Elastic fibres, and mast cells.

1. Areolar (Loose) Connective Tissue


the most widespread connective tissue of the body.
Location/Function:
To attach the skin to the underlying tissue.
It also fills the spaces between various organs and thus holds
them in place as well as cushions and protects them.
It also surrounds and supports the blood vessels.

The fibres of areolar connective tissue are arranged in no


particular pattern but run in all directions and form a loose
network in the intercellular material.
Collagen fibres = predominant, appear as broad pink
bands
Elastic fibres = appear as thin, dark fibres are also present
Mast cells = dark-staining granules in their cytoplasm

Identify AB and C

1. Areolar (Loose) Connective Tissue

Adipose Connective Tissue


What is one definite physical characteristic
of adipose connective tissue? It has ..?
As a result of the above answer where is
the location of the nucleus.
What is the location and function of
adipose tissue?

2. Adipose Connective
Tissue
Characterized by a large internal fat droplet.
The nucleus is displaced to the edge of the cell.
When they accumulate in large numbers, they
become the predominant cell type and form
adipose (fat) tissue.
Location/Function: storage site for fats (lipids),
also pads and protects certain organs and
regions of the body. As well, it forms an
insulating layer under the skin which helps
regulate body temperature

2. Adipose Connective
Tissue

2. Adipose Connective
Tissue

Cartilage: Hyaline cartilage


Is cartilage a vascular tissue or nonvascular tissue?
What are the 3 characteristics of Hyaline
cartilage?
What is the primary skeletal structure of a
fetus?
Where in the human body does Hyaline
cartilage?
Illustrate the function of Hyaline cartilage?

3. Cartilage: Hyaline
cartilage
Cartilage is a non-vascular tissue
Pliable, compact type of connective tissue.
Characterized by three traits:
lacunae
chondrocytes,
rigid matrix
The matrix is a firm gel material that contains fibres and ground substance.

There are three basic types of cartilage in the human body:


hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage. In this

Location:
of the skeleton of the mammalian fetus is composed of hyaline cartilage. As the
fetus grows, the cartilage is gradually replaced by more supportive bone.
nasal septum, rings of trachea and bronchi, ends of the ribs (costal cartilage), and
the articulating surfaces of most joints

Function:
provide strong yet flexible support and to reduce friction within joints.
structural reinforcement.

Identify this epithelium


Locate the Chondrocyte , Lacuna and
matrix?
What are the chondrocyte trapped in?

3. Cartilage: Hyaline
cartilage
Chondrocytes
the large cartilage cells, which are
trapped within the matrix in spaces
called lacunae

3. Cartilage: Hyaline
cartilage

Blood
What are the three components that
make up blood? Which of the three
are most abundant and are
responsible for the transport of
oxygen, carbon dioxide and
nutrients.

4. Blood
liquid extracellular matrix called plasma, which
contains water, salts, proteins, glucose, lipids,
glycoproteins, hormones, amino acids, and
vitamins.
Erythrocytes (red blood cells)
Leucocytes (white bloodcells)
Thrombocytes or Platelets

Erythrocytes are the most abundant blood cells and


are responsible for transport of oxygen, some
carbon dioxide, and nutrients.
Note that most carbon dioxide, though, is carried
byplasma.

A. Erythrocytes
Using the correct term illustrate the
structure of Erythrocytes that increases
its efficiency transport of oxygen?
What is extremely special from this cell
and other organelle cells?
What is the approximate life span of
Erythrocytes?
Where are erythrocytes destroyed via
macrophages.

B. Leukocytes(white
bloodcel)
What are some of the difference of
erythrocytes and Leukocytes? Where
does it usually reside in the blood or
outside of the blood in other tissues?
What is the function of Leukocytes?

B. Leukocytes
larger, nucleated, and although
found in the blood during transport,
they usually function outside of
blood, in other tissues
Function: defence of the organism
against bacteria, parasites, and
pathogenic microorganisms, such as
viruses, fungi and protists.

C. Platelets
Define the simple structure of platelet
and what is its significant function how
does its size assists in its function?

C. Platelets
Small cell fragments, which aid in blood
clotting
Function:
is to stop the loss of blood from
wounds
this purpose, they aggregate and
release factors which promote the
blood coagulation.

4. Blood

4. Blood

4. Blood

Muscle Tissue
3 types of muscle tissue are
distinguished on the basis of
structural, functional
and locational differences:
1. Skeletal
2. Smooth
3. Cardiac

Muscle Tissue
Muscle cells are highly specialized for
contractions.
Such contractions may result in the movement of
the whole body or a portion of it, if the muscles
are attached to a movable part of the skeleton.

Several specific terms are used exclusively


for muscle tissue. For example, muscle
Cells = fibres
Cytoplasm = sarcoplasm
Cell membrane = sarcolemma

1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue


movement of the bones of the skeleton.
For example, the biceps brachii and pectoralis are skeletal muscles.

Voluntary muscles = As the contraction of the skeletal


muscles is under conscious control
highly modified, giant, multi-nucleate cell (fibre).
Each fibre = cylindrical in shape with blunt, rounded ends.
The flattened nuclei and periphery of the cell, just inside the
sarcolemma.
The "cross-striped" (or striated) appearance of light and dark
banding results from the arrangement of myofibrils, small
protein contractile units embedded in the sarcoplasm
Note the position of the nuclei and the prominent, regular
cross-striations

1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue

1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue

1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue

2. Smooth Muscle Tissue


throughout the internal organs of the body especially
in regions such as the digestive tract.
involuntary muscle= contraction is not under
conscious nervous control
shorter in length and they do not exhibit striations
(individual fibres)
within organs or as groups of fibres closely interlaced
in sheets or bands.
lack of cross-striations is usually apparent
central location of the nucleus
Note the characteristic spindle cell shape, the absence
of cross-striations and the prominent nucleus.

2. Smooth Muscle Tissue

Location: in the wall of a hollow


organ, its contractions may cause
the contents of the organ to move,
e.g. peristaltic movement of material
through the digestive tract.

3. Cardiac Muscle Tissue


highly specialized tissue restricted to the wall of the heart
involuntary type of muscle = contraction is not
consciously controlled.
cardiac fibres tend to form long chains of cells which
branch and intertwine.
This arrangement results in the peculiar "wringing" action
of the heart.
intercalated disc = heavy dark line running across the
fibre.
cylindrical shape with one centrally-located, oval nucleus.
Cross-striations are apparent but they are not as regular
nor as prominent as those of skeletal muscle

3. Cardiac Muscle Tissue

3. Cardiac Muscle Tissue

3. Cardiac Muscle Tissue

Nervous Tissue
There are two divisions of the nervous system:
1) The central nervous system = brain and spinal
cord
2) The peripheral nervous system = all nervous
tissue outside the brain and spinal cord
The components of nervous tissue are specialized
for the conduction of electrical
impulses, which allow communication among
other tissue types
The major structural and functional "unit" of
nervous tissue is the nerve cell called neuron

Neurons
Each neuron is composed of a
cell body containing a nucleus and one or more
long cytoplasmic extensions known as fibres.

Highly branched fibres, called dendrites,


bring impulses toward the cell body,
while a single, unbranched fibre, the axon,
carries information away from the cell body
The overall length of a neuron, including
dendrites, cell body and axon.

Nervous Tissue

Nervous Tissue