You are on page 1of 26

Fluid Mechanics

Chapter 14
Steady Incompressible Flow in Pipe
systems
FOSTEM
INTI International University

Flow in Pipeline Systems


Objectives:
o To analyze the energy losses occurred in pipelines
o To understand total energy and hydraulic grade lines
o To develop understanding of the water flow through
a single pipe, pipes in series, in parallel, and in
branching

Losses of energy in pipelines

Pipe flow systems


o
o
o
o

Single pipe flow


Pipes in series
Pipes in parallel
Pipes in branching

Study the given information and data for the


pipeline system including losses
Sketch the pipelines system
Apply Bernoullis equation between two locations of
interest
Apply Continuity equation if necessary
Solve for the unknowns

Single pipe flow

[free discharge into atmosphere at B]


A

v
B
v

To determine the mean velocity v and discharge Q:


Applying the Bernoullis equation between A and B:
Total energy/wt at A = Total energy/wt at B + Losses

p A v 2A
p B v 2B
v 2 4flv 2
( z A ) ( z B ) 0 .5
g 2g
g 2 g
2g 2gd
pA and pB = patm = 0

v2
v 2 4flv 2
z A z B 0.5
2g
2g 2gd

vA = 0 (large reservoir)

v=?

vB = v

Q = Av = ?

Single pipe flow

[flow from reservoir A to reservoir B]


A

To determine the mean velocity v and discharge Q:


Applying the Bernoullis equation between A and B:
Total
2
p venergy/wt
p at vA2 = Total energy/wt
v 2 4flv 2 at
v 2 B + Losses

2g

zA ) (

g 2 g

pA and pB = p2 atm = 02

z B ) 0.5

2g

2gd

2g

vA = vB = 0 (large reservoirs)

v 4flv v 2
z A z B 0.5

2g 2gd 2g

v=?

Q = Av = ?

Example 14.1: Single pipe flow

Fig. 14.2: Flow through a Siphon

Example 14.1: Single pipe flow


(a) To determine the mean velocity v:
Applying the Bernoullis equation between A and C:
Total energy/wt at A = Total energy/wt at C + Losses
Losses include entry loss + friction loss in pipe AC

p A v 2A
pC v C2
v 2 4flv 2
(
zA ) (
z C ) 0.5
g 2g
g 2 g
2g 2gd
pA and pc = Patm

vA = 0 (large reservoir)

vc = v

v2
v 2 4flv 2
z A zC
0.5
2g
2g 2gd

By substituting the values of zAzc = 4 m, f = 0.08, d = 100 mm =


0.1 m,
v 2 l1+l2 = l =
4x15
0.08m
x15
4
[1 0.5
]
2x 9.81
0.1

v = 1.26 m/s

Example 14.1: Single pipe flow


(b) To find the gauge pressure pB :

Applying the Bernoullis equation between A and B:


p A v 2A
p B v 2B
v 2 4fl1v 2
(
zA ) (
z B ) 0.5
g 2 g
g 2g
2g 2gd

pA = 0, vA = 0, (zA- zB) = -1.5 m, v = 1.26 m/s, f = 0.08, l 1 = 5


m, d=0.1 m
pB
v2
4 x 0.08x5
( z A z B ) (1.5
)
g
2g
0. 1
pB/g = -1.5 1.416 = - 2.916 m
pB = - 28.60x103Nm-2
= 28.60 kN/m2 below atmospheric pressure
= 72.70 kN/m2 (absolute)

Example 14.2: Pipes in series

Fig. 14.3: Pipes in series

Example 14.2: Pipes in series


(a) Losses of head in the pipeline system are:
1) Loss of head at entry, h1= 0.5 v12/2g
4fl1 v12
hf 1
2) Loss of head in friction in AC,
d1 2g
3) Loss of head at sudden enlargement, h2 = (v1 v2)2/2g

4fl 2 v 22
hf 2
4) Loss of head in friction in CB,
d 2 2g
5) Loss of head at exit, h3 = v22/2g.

Example 14.2: Pipes in series


By applying Bernoullis equation at A and B of the surface of two
reservoirs
p A v 2A
p B v 2B

ZA

Z B losses
g 2g
g 2 g

Since pA = pB = patm = 0 and, if the reservoirs are large, VA and VB will be


negligible,
ZA ZB = Losses = entry loss + friction loss in pipe AC + sudden
2
2
enlargement v+2 friction
4fl v 2 loss
( v in pipe
v )2 BC4fl+vexit
vloss

Z A Z B 0.5

2g

1 1

2gd1

2g

2gd 2

2g

By applying Continuity equation,


Q = A1v1 = A2v2 = (/4)d12v1 = (/4)d22v2
Substituting d1 = 0.2 m and d2 = 0.25 m,
v1 = 1.5625 v2 (or) v2 = 0.64 v1

Example 14.2: Pipes in series


Putting ZA ZB = h = 9 m, f = 0.01, l1 = 15 m, l2 = 45 m,
v12 4x 0.01x15v12 ( v1 0.64 v1 ) 2 4x 0.01x 45(0.64 v1 ) 2 (0.64 v1 ) 2
9 0.5

2g
2gx0.2
2g
2gx0.25
2g
v12 3v12
v12
v12
v12
9 0 .5
0.1296 2.949 0.4096
2 g 2g
2g
2g
2g
v12
9 6.9882
2g

v1 = 5.03 m/s
Q = (/4)d12v1 = (/4) x 0.22 x 5.03
Q= 0.158 m3/s

Hydraulic Gradient
(Hydraulic Grade Line)
Total Energy = Pressure Energy + Kinetic Energy + Potential
Energy
Total Energy Line = Pressure Head + Velocity Head + Elevation
Head
TEL = p/g + v2/2g + z
Hydraulic Grade Line = Total Energy Line Velocity Head
HGL = TEL - v2/2g

Example 14.3: Pipes in parallel

Fig. 14.4: Pipes in parallel

Example 14.3: Pipes in parallel


(a) For flow by way of pipe 1,

pA v 2A
p B v 2B

v12 4fl v12 v12

Z A
Z B 0.5

2 g d1 2 g 2 g
g 2 g
g 2g

Since PA = PB = Patm = 0, and, if the reservoirs are large, V A and VB will be


negligible,

v12 4fl v12

Z A Z B 1.5
2
g
d
2
g
1

Putting ZA ZB = h = 10 m, f = 0.008, l = 100 m, d 1 = 50 mm = 0.05 m,

4x 0.008x100 v12
10 1.5

0
.
05

2g

v12 = 2g x 10/(1.5+64)
v1 = 1.731 m/s
Volume rate of flow through pipe 1, Q 1 = (/4)d12v1 = (/4) x 0.052 x 1.731
Q1 = 0.0034 m3/s

Example 14.3: Pipes in parallel


For flow by way of pipe 2,

pA v 2A
p B v 2B

v 22 4fl v 22 v 22

Z A
Z B 0.5

2g d 2 2g 2g
g 2 g
g 2g

Since PA = PB and both VA and VB can be assumed negligible,

4fl v 22

Z A Z B 1.5
d
2 2g

Putting ZA ZB = h = 10 m, f = 0.008, l = 100 m, d 2 = 100 mm = 0.1


m,

4x 0.008x100 v 22
10 1.5

0
.
1

2g

v22 = 2g x 10/(1.5+32)
v2 = 2.42 m/s
Volume rate of flow through pipe 2, Q 2 = (/4)d22v2 = (/4) x 0.12 x 2.42
Q2 = 0.0190 m3/s

Example 14.3: Pipes in parallel


(b) Replacing the two pipes by the equivalent single pipe
which will convey the same total flow,
o Volume rate of flow through single pipe,
Q = Q1 + Q2 = 0.0034 + 0.0190 = 0.0224 m3/s
v
If v is the velocity in the single pipe, Q = (/4)D2v
Dia:
4Q
4x 0.0224 0.02852

Dv
2
2
2
D

length = 100 m

pA v 2A
p B v 2B

v 2 4fl v 2 v 2

Z A
Z B 0.5

g
2
g

g
2
g
2
g
D
2
g
2g between A and B,

steady

energy

Applying
the
flow
equation
4fl v 2
Z A Z B 1.5

D 2g

Example 14.3: Pipes in parallel

Putting ZA ZB = h = 10 m, f = 0.008, l = 100 m, V = 0.02852/D 2,


4 x 0.008x100 (0.02852) 2
10 1.5

D
2gD4

10 = (1.5D + 3.2)(0.02852)2/2gD5
241 212D5 1.5D 3.2 = 0 (or)

f(D) = 0

This equation can be solved graphically or by successive


approximations.
An approximate answer can be obtained by omitting the second term;
then,
241 212D5 = 3.2 and D = 0.1058 m
If D = 0.1058 m, then f(D) = 3.198 0.159 3.2 = -0.161
If D = 0.107 m, then f(D) = 3.383 0.161 3.2 = +0.022
This result is sufficiently accurate for practical purposes.
Diameter of equivalent single pipe = 0.107 m = 107 mm.

Example 14.4: Pipes in branching

Fig. 14.5: The three reservoir problem

Example 14.4: Pipes in branching


For flow from A to B,
pA v 2A
p B v 2B
4f1l1 v12 4f 2l2 v 22

Z A
Z B

g
2
g

g
2
g
d
2
g
d 2 2g

Since PA = PB = atmospheric pressure and, if the reservoirs


are large, VA and VB will be negligible,
4f1l1 v12 4f 2l 2 v 22
ZA ZB

d1 2g d 2 2g
Putting ZA ZB = h = 16 m, f = 0.01, l1 = 120 m, d1 = 0.12
m, l2 = 60 m, d22 = 0.075 m, 2
16

4x 0.01x120 v1 4x 0.01x 60 v 2

0.12
2g
0.075 2g

16 2.0387 v12 1.6310 v 22

(1)

Example 14.4: Pipes in branching


For flow from A to C,
p A v 2A
pC v C2
4f1l1 v12 4f 3l3 v 32

Z A
ZC

g
2
g

g
2
g
d
2
g
d 3 2g

4f1l1 v12 4f 3l3 v 32


ZA ZC

d1 2 g d 3 2 g
Putting ZA ZC = 24 m, f = 0.01, l1 = 120 m, d1 = 0.12 m, l3 =
40 m, d3 = 0.062 m,
2
24

4x 0.01x120 v1 4x 0.01x 40 v 3

0.12
2g
0.06
2g

24 2.0387 v12 1.3592 v 32

(2)

Example 14.4: Pipes in branching


For continuity of flow at D,
Flow through AD = Flow through DB + Flow through DC,
Q1 = Q2 + Q 3
A 1v1 = A 2v2 + A 3v3
(/4)d12v1 = (/4)d22v2 + (/4)d32v3,
v1 = (d2/d1)2 v2 + (d3/d1)2 v3
Substituting numerical values,
v1 = (0.075/0.12)2v2 + (0.06/0.12)2v3
v1 0.3906v2 0.2500v3 = 0

(3)

Values of v1, v2, and v3 are found by solution of the


simultaneous equations (1), (2) and (3).
From (1), v2 = (9.81 1.25v12)(4)
From (2)

v3 = (17.657 1.5v12)

(5)

Example 14.4: Pipes in branching


Substituting in equation (3),
v1 0.3906 (9.81 1.25v12) 0.25 (17.657 1.5v12) = 0

(6)

Equation (6) can be solved graphically or by successive


approximations.
If the square roots are to be real, the value of V 1 cannot exceed the lowest
value that make one of the terms under the square root signs equal to zero.
This will be given by (9.81 - 1.25v12) = 0;
i.e.,
v12= 9.81/1.25 = 7.848,
so that
v1 must be less than (7.848) = 2.80 m/s.

Ifv1 = 2.8 m/s,

f(v1) = 2.8 0.0391 0.6071 = + 2.1538;

v1 = 1.9 m/s,

f(v1) = 1.9 0.8990 0.8747 = + 0.1263;

v1 = 1.8 m/s,

f(v1) = 1.8 0.9374 0.8943 = - 0.0317;

v1 = 1.82 m/s, f(v1) = 1.82 0.9300 0.8905 = -0 .0005

Example 14.4: Pipes in branching


Taking v1 = 1.82 m/s as a sufficiently accurate result,
Volume rate of flow in AD,
Q1 = (/4)d12v1 = (/4) x 0.122 x 1.82 = 0.0206 m3/s
From eqn. (4), v2 = (9.81 1.25x1.822) = 2.381 m/s,
Volume rate of flow in DB,
Q2 = (/4)d22v2 = (/4) x 0.0752 x 2.381 = 0.0105 m3/s
From eqn. (5),

v3 = (17.657 1.5x1.822) = 3.562 m/s,

Volume rate of flow in DC,


Q3 = (/4)d32v3 = (/4) x 0.062 x 3.562 = 0.0101 m3/s
Checking for continuity at D,
Q2 + Q3 = 0.0105 + 0.0101 = 0.0206 = Q 1

O.K.

The End