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Original Title: Fluid Mech. Chapter14

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Chapter 14

Steady Incompressible Flow in Pipe

systems

FOSTEM

INTI International University

Objectives:

o To analyze the energy losses occurred in pipelines

o To understand total energy and hydraulic grade lines

o To develop understanding of the water flow through

a single pipe, pipes in series, in parallel, and in

branching

o

o

o

o

Pipes in series

Pipes in parallel

Pipes in branching

pipeline system including losses

Sketch the pipelines system

Apply Bernoullis equation between two locations of

interest

Apply Continuity equation if necessary

Solve for the unknowns

A

v

B

v

Applying the Bernoullis equation between A and B:

Total energy/wt at A = Total energy/wt at B + Losses

p A v 2A

p B v 2B

v 2 4flv 2

( z A ) ( z B ) 0 .5

g 2g

g 2 g

2g 2gd

pA and pB = patm = 0

v2

v 2 4flv 2

z A z B 0.5

2g

2g 2gd

vA = 0 (large reservoir)

v=?

vB = v

Q = Av = ?

A

Applying the Bernoullis equation between A and B:

Total

2

p venergy/wt

p at vA2 = Total energy/wt

v 2 4flv 2 at

v 2 B + Losses

2g

zA ) (

g 2 g

pA and pB = p2 atm = 02

z B ) 0.5

2g

2gd

2g

vA = vB = 0 (large reservoirs)

v 4flv v 2

z A z B 0.5

2g 2gd 2g

v=?

Q = Av = ?

(a) To determine the mean velocity v:

Applying the Bernoullis equation between A and C:

Total energy/wt at A = Total energy/wt at C + Losses

Losses include entry loss + friction loss in pipe AC

p A v 2A

pC v C2

v 2 4flv 2

(

zA ) (

z C ) 0.5

g 2g

g 2 g

2g 2gd

pA and pc = Patm

vA = 0 (large reservoir)

vc = v

v2

v 2 4flv 2

z A zC

0.5

2g

2g 2gd

0.1 m,

v 2 l1+l2 = l =

4x15

0.08m

x15

4

[1 0.5

]

2x 9.81

0.1

v = 1.26 m/s

(b) To find the gauge pressure pB :

p A v 2A

p B v 2B

v 2 4fl1v 2

(

zA ) (

z B ) 0.5

g 2 g

g 2g

2g 2gd

m, d=0.1 m

pB

v2

4 x 0.08x5

( z A z B ) (1.5

)

g

2g

0. 1

pB/g = -1.5 1.416 = - 2.916 m

pB = - 28.60x103Nm-2

= 28.60 kN/m2 below atmospheric pressure

= 72.70 kN/m2 (absolute)

(a) Losses of head in the pipeline system are:

1) Loss of head at entry, h1= 0.5 v12/2g

4fl1 v12

hf 1

2) Loss of head in friction in AC,

d1 2g

3) Loss of head at sudden enlargement, h2 = (v1 v2)2/2g

4fl 2 v 22

hf 2

4) Loss of head in friction in CB,

d 2 2g

5) Loss of head at exit, h3 = v22/2g.

By applying Bernoullis equation at A and B of the surface of two

reservoirs

p A v 2A

p B v 2B

ZA

Z B losses

g 2g

g 2 g

negligible,

ZA ZB = Losses = entry loss + friction loss in pipe AC + sudden

2

2

enlargement v+2 friction

4fl v 2 loss

( v in pipe

v )2 BC4fl+vexit

vloss

Z A Z B 0.5

2g

1 1

2gd1

2g

2gd 2

2g

Q = A1v1 = A2v2 = (/4)d12v1 = (/4)d22v2

Substituting d1 = 0.2 m and d2 = 0.25 m,

v1 = 1.5625 v2 (or) v2 = 0.64 v1

Putting ZA ZB = h = 9 m, f = 0.01, l1 = 15 m, l2 = 45 m,

v12 4x 0.01x15v12 ( v1 0.64 v1 ) 2 4x 0.01x 45(0.64 v1 ) 2 (0.64 v1 ) 2

9 0.5

2g

2gx0.2

2g

2gx0.25

2g

v12 3v12

v12

v12

v12

9 0 .5

0.1296 2.949 0.4096

2 g 2g

2g

2g

2g

v12

9 6.9882

2g

v1 = 5.03 m/s

Q = (/4)d12v1 = (/4) x 0.22 x 5.03

Q= 0.158 m3/s

Hydraulic Gradient

(Hydraulic Grade Line)

Total Energy = Pressure Energy + Kinetic Energy + Potential

Energy

Total Energy Line = Pressure Head + Velocity Head + Elevation

Head

TEL = p/g + v2/2g + z

Hydraulic Grade Line = Total Energy Line Velocity Head

HGL = TEL - v2/2g

(a) For flow by way of pipe 1,

pA v 2A

p B v 2B

v12 4fl v12 v12

Z A

Z B 0.5

2 g d1 2 g 2 g

g 2 g

g 2g

negligible,

Z A Z B 1.5

2

g

d

2

g

1

4x 0.008x100 v12

10 1.5

0

.

05

2g

v12 = 2g x 10/(1.5+64)

v1 = 1.731 m/s

Volume rate of flow through pipe 1, Q 1 = (/4)d12v1 = (/4) x 0.052 x 1.731

Q1 = 0.0034 m3/s

For flow by way of pipe 2,

pA v 2A

p B v 2B

v 22 4fl v 22 v 22

Z A

Z B 0.5

2g d 2 2g 2g

g 2 g

g 2g

4fl v 22

Z A Z B 1.5

d

2 2g

m,

4x 0.008x100 v 22

10 1.5

0

.

1

2g

v22 = 2g x 10/(1.5+32)

v2 = 2.42 m/s

Volume rate of flow through pipe 2, Q 2 = (/4)d22v2 = (/4) x 0.12 x 2.42

Q2 = 0.0190 m3/s

(b) Replacing the two pipes by the equivalent single pipe

which will convey the same total flow,

o Volume rate of flow through single pipe,

Q = Q1 + Q2 = 0.0034 + 0.0190 = 0.0224 m3/s

v

If v is the velocity in the single pipe, Q = (/4)D2v

Dia:

4Q

4x 0.0224 0.02852

Dv

2

2

2

D

length = 100 m

pA v 2A

p B v 2B

v 2 4fl v 2 v 2

Z A

Z B 0.5

g

2

g

g

2

g

2

g

D

2

g

2g between A and B,

steady

energy

Applying

the

flow

equation

4fl v 2

Z A Z B 1.5

D 2g

4 x 0.008x100 (0.02852) 2

10 1.5

D

2gD4

10 = (1.5D + 3.2)(0.02852)2/2gD5

241 212D5 1.5D 3.2 = 0 (or)

f(D) = 0

approximations.

An approximate answer can be obtained by omitting the second term;

then,

241 212D5 = 3.2 and D = 0.1058 m

If D = 0.1058 m, then f(D) = 3.198 0.159 3.2 = -0.161

If D = 0.107 m, then f(D) = 3.383 0.161 3.2 = +0.022

This result is sufficiently accurate for practical purposes.

Diameter of equivalent single pipe = 0.107 m = 107 mm.

For flow from A to B,

pA v 2A

p B v 2B

4f1l1 v12 4f 2l2 v 22

Z A

Z B

g

2

g

g

2

g

d

2

g

d 2 2g

are large, VA and VB will be negligible,

4f1l1 v12 4f 2l 2 v 22

ZA ZB

d1 2g d 2 2g

Putting ZA ZB = h = 16 m, f = 0.01, l1 = 120 m, d1 = 0.12

m, l2 = 60 m, d22 = 0.075 m, 2

16

4x 0.01x120 v1 4x 0.01x 60 v 2

0.12

2g

0.075 2g

(1)

For flow from A to C,

p A v 2A

pC v C2

4f1l1 v12 4f 3l3 v 32

Z A

ZC

g

2

g

g

2

g

d

2

g

d 3 2g

ZA ZC

d1 2 g d 3 2 g

Putting ZA ZC = 24 m, f = 0.01, l1 = 120 m, d1 = 0.12 m, l3 =

40 m, d3 = 0.062 m,

2

24

4x 0.01x120 v1 4x 0.01x 40 v 3

0.12

2g

0.06

2g

(2)

For continuity of flow at D,

Flow through AD = Flow through DB + Flow through DC,

Q1 = Q2 + Q 3

A 1v1 = A 2v2 + A 3v3

(/4)d12v1 = (/4)d22v2 + (/4)d32v3,

v1 = (d2/d1)2 v2 + (d3/d1)2 v3

Substituting numerical values,

v1 = (0.075/0.12)2v2 + (0.06/0.12)2v3

v1 0.3906v2 0.2500v3 = 0

(3)

simultaneous equations (1), (2) and (3).

From (1), v2 = (9.81 1.25v12)(4)

From (2)

v3 = (17.657 1.5v12)

(5)

Substituting in equation (3),

v1 0.3906 (9.81 1.25v12) 0.25 (17.657 1.5v12) = 0

(6)

approximations.

If the square roots are to be real, the value of V 1 cannot exceed the lowest

value that make one of the terms under the square root signs equal to zero.

This will be given by (9.81 - 1.25v12) = 0;

i.e.,

v12= 9.81/1.25 = 7.848,

so that

v1 must be less than (7.848) = 2.80 m/s.

v1 = 1.9 m/s,

v1 = 1.8 m/s,

Taking v1 = 1.82 m/s as a sufficiently accurate result,

Volume rate of flow in AD,

Q1 = (/4)d12v1 = (/4) x 0.122 x 1.82 = 0.0206 m3/s

From eqn. (4), v2 = (9.81 1.25x1.822) = 2.381 m/s,

Volume rate of flow in DB,

Q2 = (/4)d22v2 = (/4) x 0.0752 x 2.381 = 0.0105 m3/s

From eqn. (5),

Q3 = (/4)d32v3 = (/4) x 0.062 x 3.562 = 0.0101 m3/s

Checking for continuity at D,

Q2 + Q3 = 0.0105 + 0.0101 = 0.0206 = Q 1

O.K.

The End

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