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# Fluid Mechanics

Chapter 14
systems
FOSTEM
INTI International University

## Flow in Pipeline Systems

Objectives:
o To analyze the energy losses occurred in pipelines
o To understand total energy and hydraulic grade lines
o To develop understanding of the water flow through
a single pipe, pipes in series, in parallel, and in
branching

o
o
o
o

## Single pipe flow

Pipes in series
Pipes in parallel
Pipes in branching

## Study the given information and data for the

pipeline system including losses
Sketch the pipelines system
Apply Bernoullis equation between two locations of
interest
Apply Continuity equation if necessary
Solve for the unknowns

A

v
B
v

## To determine the mean velocity v and discharge Q:

Applying the Bernoullis equation between A and B:
Total energy/wt at A = Total energy/wt at B + Losses

p A v 2A
p B v 2B
v 2 4flv 2
( z A ) ( z B ) 0 .5
g 2g
g 2 g
2g 2gd
pA and pB = patm = 0

v2
v 2 4flv 2
z A z B 0.5
2g
2g 2gd

vA = 0 (large reservoir)

v=?

vB = v

Q = Av = ?

A

## To determine the mean velocity v and discharge Q:

Applying the Bernoullis equation between A and B:
Total
2
p venergy/wt
p at vA2 = Total energy/wt
v 2 4flv 2 at
v 2 B + Losses

2g

zA ) (

g 2 g

pA and pB = p2 atm = 02

z B ) 0.5

2g

2gd

2g

vA = vB = 0 (large reservoirs)

v 4flv v 2
z A z B 0.5

2g 2gd 2g

v=?

Q = Av = ?

## Example 14.1: Single pipe flow

(a) To determine the mean velocity v:
Applying the Bernoullis equation between A and C:
Total energy/wt at A = Total energy/wt at C + Losses
Losses include entry loss + friction loss in pipe AC

p A v 2A
pC v C2
v 2 4flv 2
(
zA ) (
z C ) 0.5
g 2g
g 2 g
2g 2gd
pA and pc = Patm

vA = 0 (large reservoir)

vc = v

v2
v 2 4flv 2
z A zC
0.5
2g
2g 2gd

0.1 m,
v 2 l1+l2 = l =
4x15
0.08m
x15
4
[1 0.5
]
2x 9.81
0.1

v = 1.26 m/s

## Example 14.1: Single pipe flow

(b) To find the gauge pressure pB :

p A v 2A
p B v 2B
v 2 4fl1v 2
(
zA ) (
z B ) 0.5
g 2 g
g 2g
2g 2gd

## pA = 0, vA = 0, (zA- zB) = -1.5 m, v = 1.26 m/s, f = 0.08, l 1 = 5

m, d=0.1 m
pB
v2
4 x 0.08x5
( z A z B ) (1.5
)
g
2g
0. 1
pB/g = -1.5 1.416 = - 2.916 m
pB = - 28.60x103Nm-2
= 28.60 kN/m2 below atmospheric pressure
= 72.70 kN/m2 (absolute)

## Example 14.2: Pipes in series

(a) Losses of head in the pipeline system are:
1) Loss of head at entry, h1= 0.5 v12/2g
4fl1 v12
hf 1
2) Loss of head in friction in AC,
d1 2g
3) Loss of head at sudden enlargement, h2 = (v1 v2)2/2g

4fl 2 v 22
hf 2
4) Loss of head in friction in CB,
d 2 2g
5) Loss of head at exit, h3 = v22/2g.

## Example 14.2: Pipes in series

By applying Bernoullis equation at A and B of the surface of two
reservoirs
p A v 2A
p B v 2B

ZA

Z B losses
g 2g
g 2 g

## Since pA = pB = patm = 0 and, if the reservoirs are large, VA and VB will be

negligible,
ZA ZB = Losses = entry loss + friction loss in pipe AC + sudden
2
2
enlargement v+2 friction
4fl v 2 loss
( v in pipe
v )2 BC4fl+vexit
vloss

Z A Z B 0.5

2g

1 1

2gd1

2g

2gd 2

2g

## By applying Continuity equation,

Q = A1v1 = A2v2 = (/4)d12v1 = (/4)d22v2
Substituting d1 = 0.2 m and d2 = 0.25 m,
v1 = 1.5625 v2 (or) v2 = 0.64 v1

## Example 14.2: Pipes in series

Putting ZA ZB = h = 9 m, f = 0.01, l1 = 15 m, l2 = 45 m,
v12 4x 0.01x15v12 ( v1 0.64 v1 ) 2 4x 0.01x 45(0.64 v1 ) 2 (0.64 v1 ) 2
9 0.5

2g
2gx0.2
2g
2gx0.25
2g
v12 3v12
v12
v12
v12
9 0 .5
0.1296 2.949 0.4096
2 g 2g
2g
2g
2g
v12
9 6.9882
2g

v1 = 5.03 m/s
Q = (/4)d12v1 = (/4) x 0.22 x 5.03
Q= 0.158 m3/s

Total Energy = Pressure Energy + Kinetic Energy + Potential
Energy
TEL = p/g + v2/2g + z
HGL = TEL - v2/2g

## Example 14.3: Pipes in parallel

(a) For flow by way of pipe 1,

pA v 2A
p B v 2B

v12 4fl v12 v12

Z A
Z B 0.5

2 g d1 2 g 2 g
g 2 g
g 2g

negligible,

Z A Z B 1.5
2
g
d
2
g
1

## Putting ZA ZB = h = 10 m, f = 0.008, l = 100 m, d 1 = 50 mm = 0.05 m,

4x 0.008x100 v12
10 1.5

0
.
05

2g

v12 = 2g x 10/(1.5+64)
v1 = 1.731 m/s
Volume rate of flow through pipe 1, Q 1 = (/4)d12v1 = (/4) x 0.052 x 1.731
Q1 = 0.0034 m3/s

## Example 14.3: Pipes in parallel

For flow by way of pipe 2,

pA v 2A
p B v 2B

v 22 4fl v 22 v 22

Z A
Z B 0.5

2g d 2 2g 2g
g 2 g
g 2g

4fl v 22

Z A Z B 1.5
d
2 2g

## Putting ZA ZB = h = 10 m, f = 0.008, l = 100 m, d 2 = 100 mm = 0.1

m,

4x 0.008x100 v 22
10 1.5

0
.
1

2g

v22 = 2g x 10/(1.5+32)
v2 = 2.42 m/s
Volume rate of flow through pipe 2, Q 2 = (/4)d22v2 = (/4) x 0.12 x 2.42
Q2 = 0.0190 m3/s

## Example 14.3: Pipes in parallel

(b) Replacing the two pipes by the equivalent single pipe
which will convey the same total flow,
o Volume rate of flow through single pipe,
Q = Q1 + Q2 = 0.0034 + 0.0190 = 0.0224 m3/s
v
If v is the velocity in the single pipe, Q = (/4)D2v
Dia:
4Q
4x 0.0224 0.02852

Dv
2
2
2
D

length = 100 m

pA v 2A
p B v 2B

v 2 4fl v 2 v 2

Z A
Z B 0.5

g
2
g

g
2
g
2
g
D
2
g
2g between A and B,

energy

Applying
the
flow
equation
4fl v 2
Z A Z B 1.5

D 2g

## Putting ZA ZB = h = 10 m, f = 0.008, l = 100 m, V = 0.02852/D 2,

4 x 0.008x100 (0.02852) 2
10 1.5

D
2gD4

10 = (1.5D + 3.2)(0.02852)2/2gD5
241 212D5 1.5D 3.2 = 0 (or)

f(D) = 0

## This equation can be solved graphically or by successive

approximations.
An approximate answer can be obtained by omitting the second term;
then,
241 212D5 = 3.2 and D = 0.1058 m
If D = 0.1058 m, then f(D) = 3.198 0.159 3.2 = -0.161
If D = 0.107 m, then f(D) = 3.383 0.161 3.2 = +0.022
This result is sufficiently accurate for practical purposes.
Diameter of equivalent single pipe = 0.107 m = 107 mm.

## Example 14.4: Pipes in branching

For flow from A to B,
pA v 2A
p B v 2B
4f1l1 v12 4f 2l2 v 22

Z A
Z B

g
2
g

g
2
g
d
2
g
d 2 2g

## Since PA = PB = atmospheric pressure and, if the reservoirs

are large, VA and VB will be negligible,
4f1l1 v12 4f 2l 2 v 22
ZA ZB

d1 2g d 2 2g
Putting ZA ZB = h = 16 m, f = 0.01, l1 = 120 m, d1 = 0.12
m, l2 = 60 m, d22 = 0.075 m, 2
16

4x 0.01x120 v1 4x 0.01x 60 v 2

0.12
2g
0.075 2g

(1)

## Example 14.4: Pipes in branching

For flow from A to C,
p A v 2A
pC v C2
4f1l1 v12 4f 3l3 v 32

Z A
ZC

g
2
g

g
2
g
d
2
g
d 3 2g

## 4f1l1 v12 4f 3l3 v 32

ZA ZC

d1 2 g d 3 2 g
Putting ZA ZC = 24 m, f = 0.01, l1 = 120 m, d1 = 0.12 m, l3 =
40 m, d3 = 0.062 m,
2
24

4x 0.01x120 v1 4x 0.01x 40 v 3

0.12
2g
0.06
2g

(2)

## Example 14.4: Pipes in branching

For continuity of flow at D,
Flow through AD = Flow through DB + Flow through DC,
Q1 = Q2 + Q 3
A 1v1 = A 2v2 + A 3v3
(/4)d12v1 = (/4)d22v2 + (/4)d32v3,
v1 = (d2/d1)2 v2 + (d3/d1)2 v3
Substituting numerical values,
v1 = (0.075/0.12)2v2 + (0.06/0.12)2v3
v1 0.3906v2 0.2500v3 = 0

(3)

## Values of v1, v2, and v3 are found by solution of the

simultaneous equations (1), (2) and (3).
From (1), v2 = (9.81 1.25v12)(4)
From (2)

v3 = (17.657 1.5v12)

(5)

## Example 14.4: Pipes in branching

Substituting in equation (3),
v1 0.3906 (9.81 1.25v12) 0.25 (17.657 1.5v12) = 0

(6)

## Equation (6) can be solved graphically or by successive

approximations.
If the square roots are to be real, the value of V 1 cannot exceed the lowest
value that make one of the terms under the square root signs equal to zero.
This will be given by (9.81 - 1.25v12) = 0;
i.e.,
v12= 9.81/1.25 = 7.848,
so that
v1 must be less than (7.848) = 2.80 m/s.

v1 = 1.9 m/s,

v1 = 1.8 m/s,

## Example 14.4: Pipes in branching

Taking v1 = 1.82 m/s as a sufficiently accurate result,
Volume rate of flow in AD,
Q1 = (/4)d12v1 = (/4) x 0.122 x 1.82 = 0.0206 m3/s
From eqn. (4), v2 = (9.81 1.25x1.822) = 2.381 m/s,
Volume rate of flow in DB,
Q2 = (/4)d22v2 = (/4) x 0.0752 x 2.381 = 0.0105 m3/s
From eqn. (5),

## Volume rate of flow in DC,

Q3 = (/4)d32v3 = (/4) x 0.062 x 3.562 = 0.0101 m3/s
Checking for continuity at D,
Q2 + Q3 = 0.0105 + 0.0101 = 0.0206 = Q 1

O.K.

The End