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(A Public Sector Enterprise)



000 psi. one master valve two side . The X-Mas tree usually consists of one top valve. Usually two master valves are installed where the pressure expected to be encountered are in the range 5000 psi or above. 50000 psi and 10. 5000 PSIG X-MAS TREE / TUBING HEAD SPOOL S/NO NOMINAL DIA ( INCHES ) STUD DIA & LENGTH (INCHES) NO OF STUDS API RATING OF RING JOINT GASKET 1 2 1/16 7 /8 X 6 8 RX-24 2 2 9/16 1 X 6 1/2 8 RX-27 3 3 1/8 1 1/8 X 7 1/4 8 RX-35 4 7 1/16 1 3/8 X 10 3/4 12 RX-46 5 11 1 7/8 X 13 3/4 12 RX-54 6 13 5/8 1 5/8 X 12 3/4 12 RX-57 10000 PSIG X-MAS TREE / TUBING HEAD SPOOL S/NO NOMINAL DIA ( INCHES ) STUD DIA & LENGTH (INCHES) NO OF STUDS API RATING OF RING JOINT GASKET 1 2 1/16 3 /4 X 5 1/4 8 BX-152 2 2 9/16 7 /8 1 X 6 8 BX-153 3 3 1/ 8 1 X 6 3 /4 12 BX-154 4 7 1/16 1 1/2 X 11 1/4 16 BX-156 5 11 1 3/4 X 15 16 BX-158 6 13 5/8 1 7/8 X 17 1/4 20 BX-159 . Cross piece and bean body. The bean body accommodates bean housing and beans of various sizes can be installed in the bean housing.The X-Mas tree also provides means for wire line operations. The X-Mas trees used by OIL INDIA LTD are of the ratings of 3000 psi.valves two arm valves .CHRISTMAS TREE : The X-Mas tree is a valve assembly installed immediately above the tubing head spool to control the flow from the well.

. The two casing valves provides access to the tubing casing annulus. It acts as a base for the X-Mas tree and also as support for the tubings in the well as it accommodates the Tubing Hanger where the tubings are hanged. The Tubing Head Spool is equipped with Bit Pilot to guide the Tubings as it is lowered and also has assembly of secondary seals which when energised acts as a seal between 5 ½” Casing and 9 5/8” casing.CONVENTIONAL WELL HEAD TUBING HEAD SPOOL : The Tubing Head Spool is installed over the Casing Head Housing/ Spool.

Step 6 : The manifold is screwed at the test port. the plug of the bleed off port is installed. If secondary seal holds. Injection of plastic packing is continued to energise the secondary seal. It is not desirable to subject the 9 5/8” Casing to high pressure as the pressure rating of the 9 5/8” casing is not high. Step 3 : The 5 ½” casing and the annulus between 5½” and 9 5/8” casing are topped up with the available fluid. b) The Ring joint Gasket prevents escape of casing fluid/ gas to atmosphere through the joint between Casing Head Housing & tubing Head Spool. 2) Secondary seal leak –Liquid seen to come out from the casing/ spool – Insert mort plastic packing. Hydraulic pump and pressure recorder is attached to the manifold. Step 5 : The packing gun is screwed at injection port. STEPS FOLLOWED FOR SPOOL TESTING : Step 1 : The 5 ½” Casing is given the final cut of 4 ¼” filed and smoothened. The cut portion Step 2 : The tubing Head Spool is installed and tightened over the Casing Head Spool. the cementing failure of 9 5/8” casing will aggravate the problem by contaminating ground water. enclosed by Primary Seal. Water or hydraulic fluid is pumped through the test port upto desired pressure. primary seal and reing joint gasket are not exposed to casing fluid/ gas. If pressure is holding spool testing is completed. or 3 ½” as required. Secondary Seal. SPOOL NOT HOLDING PRESSURE 1) Leaky Ring joint –Liquid seen to come out between the flanges of Tubing Head Spool and Casing Head Spool –Retighten the studs. Plastic packing are inserted in the packing gun and injected is started. Step 7 : Pressure is monitored for a duration of at least half an hour. 3) Primary seal Leak – Liquid seen coming out through the Annulus Valve – Drilling to reinstall / replace primary seal. When the plastic packing starts coming out from the bleed off port. NECESSASITY OF SPOOL TESTING: a) The Primary seal prevents casing fluid/ gas from entering 5 1/2 & 9 5/8 casing annulus. c) The secondary seal works as back up to both of the above sealing components.SPOOL TESTING : Spool testing means hydraulic testing of the space between Casing Head Housing and Tbg Head Spool. Moreover. . Step 4 : Bleed off port is opened by removing the plug. and the Ring Joint Gasket.

TYPES OF WELL COMPLETION (A) OPEN COMPLETION NO PACKER . It is easier and less damaging to reservoir to kill by circulation.0 Suspended tubing can be used as a kill string.0 The production casing is not protected against pressure effects during normal operations GAS LIFT VALVE PERFORATION (OPEN) BRIDGE PLUG PERFORATION (P/B) FLOAT COLLAR CASING SHOE . NO STANDING VALVE ADVANTAGES 1. 3. 2.0 Easy Hook up LIMITATIONS 1.0 Casing is exposed to corrosive fluid 2.0 Tubing can be used to inject corrosion inhibitor.

0 The high gas pressure in case of gas lift completion does not act on the reservoir.0 Stable flow.TYPES OF WELL COMPLETION (B) SEMI CLOSED COMPLETION WITH PACKER .0 Suitable for artificial lift.0 Isolation of casing from well bore pressure and temperature. 3. NO STANDING VALVE ADVANTAGES 1. LIMITATIONS 1. 4.0 Work over may be required in case of packer leak and the packer may not get unset. 2.0 Quick enlivening of well by restricting volume to be removed for enlivening the well to tubing volume only. 4.0 SSD ( Sliding Slide Door) is required to permit circulation between tubing and casing and this necessitates wire line operation. 2. GAS LIFT VALVE PACKER PERFORATION (OPEN) BRIDGE PLUG PERFORATION (P/B) FLOAT COLLAR CASING SHOE .

0 Suitable for very low BHP wells as the standing valve does not allow the well fluid from tubing to fall back to the formation. GAS LIFT VALVE STANDING VALVE PACKER PERFORATION (OPEN) BRIDGE PLUG PERFORATION (P/B) FLOAT COLLAR CASING SHOE . 2.0 The standing valve is to be removed every time any job in perforations are done.0 ALL the advantages as in semi closed completion.TYPES OF WELL COMPLETION (C) CLOSED COMPLETION WITH PACKER . LIMITATIONS 1.0 Same as in semi closed completion 2. WITH STANDING VALVE ADVANTAGES 1.

TALLY FOR GAS LIFT VALVE 2763 M GLV 1 687 M GLV 2 1318 M GLV 3 1880 M GLV 4 2380 M 2132 M 1570 M 1071 M 5 ½” “ F/B HOOK WALL PACKER Baker R3 to be set at 3450 m Perforation 3547.3549.4.4 ( m) .7 m Float collar at 3582.

5) WATER DISPOSAL / WATER INJECTION CONVERSION 6) CASING REPAIR JOB 7) ISOLATION REPAIR 8) PRODUCTION FROM NEW ZONE 9) WATER SHUT OFF JOB 10) RECOVERY OF PRODUCTION FISH . NEED FOR WORK-OVER : During the course of the life of a well drilled for the purpose of production of oil/gas. water injection and water disposal get sick resulting in decline in production of oil/gas or decrease in injection of water in water disposal well / water injection well. turning the pipe string while it is in the hole. The work over rig is equipped to perform operations of pulling out and running in pipe strings. A Work-Over rig is scaled down drilling Rig with which the operations can be carried out at a sick well. to circulate fluids in a well and to carry out fishing operations. The various types of jobs that are required to be carried be carried out are listed below TYPES OF WORK-OVER : 1) SERVICING OF WELLS – SAND CLEANING 2) PUTTING ON ARTIFICIAL LIFT 3) ABANDONONG THE WELL 4) PREPARATION OF WELL FOR GRAVEL PACK.WORK OVER OPERATION The work over is the oil field term for any work that attempts to increase production from old well.

jet pump.g. down hole heater etc. 10) To hold kill fluid in casing tubing annulous 11) To anchor tubing in rod pump wells 12) To prevent build up of gas in annulous due to miscreant activities . 4) To isolate casing leaks 5) To protect casing during acid jobs 6) To isolate higher up perforations 7) To increase efficiency of gas lifting 8) For use in multi zone production e. dual string. 9) For use in conjunction with sub-surface safety valve. gravel packing etc. e. hydraulic fracturing. commingling production etc. FUNCTIONS : 1) To protect casing from high pressure during production e. gas well 2) To prevent charging effect in low pressure wells 3) To protect casing from high pressure during injection.g.PACKER DEFINITION : It is a downhole equipment used to seal off the annulus between tubing and casing. standing valve.g.


Needed for mechanical packers only. Zone pressure activates them. HYDRAULIC HOLD DOWN – To provide extra grip if the differential from below is more. FRICTION BLOCKS – To provide drag and to prevent rotation of packers . . harder end elements are used as back up seals to prevent extrusion and effect of high temperature and pressure. SAFETY JOINT – To guard against stuck packer.COMPONENTS OF A PACKER : SEALING ELEMENTS – Most packers use multiple seal with a softer middle seal and harder outer seals. Opposed slips are provided in permanent packers CIRCULATING PORTS OR VALVES – To circulate or equalize pressure. The soft center element serves to seal off at lower pressure differential. SLIPS – To hold the packer in position.

A) MECHANICAL COMPRESSION SET PACKER ( HOOK WALL PACKER) The HOOK wall packer consists of slip and cone arrangement as shown. . The slips are attached to friction block. There is a “J” slot in the inside surface of the friction block assembly along with the friction block slides and the friction block has to be engaged in the J hook for the packer getting engaged. Calculation for weight released on hook wall packer Hook’s Law : Stress  Strain Stress/ Strain = Constant (Modulus of Elasticity ) E = F/A L/L Here in the above equation E : 3 X107 lbs/ sq inch F : Weight desired to be loosened on packer in lbs L : Length of the Tubing in inch A : Cross section area of the tubing in sq inch L : Elongation in inch.

The pack off is mechanical and loss of pressure does not affect it.0 The packer is run on tubing to the desired depth. Settings shear : The setting pressure is adjusted generally to around 1000 psi to 1200 psi Pump Out : The pump out is set to around 2400psi to 2600 psi Release : The release is adjusted to around 25. The setting pressure and the Pump out of the plug are kept high in case of low BHP wells and are kept low in case of wells with high BHP. The actual setting is actuated by trigger movement of piston which energizes the sealing element to seal off and the slips to hold on to the casing. All the above three settings are dependent on the STATIC BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE of the well.000 lbs to 30. The setting of the packer is accomplished with the help of screws as shown which are to be sheared off for it to accomplish the desired purpose.0 The CHRISTMAS TREE is rigged up and the change over to water is done if required . 2.B) HYDRAULIC PACKER : This type of packers are set by hydraulic pressure. SETTING PROCEDURE : 1. The packer is provided with the following shear pins a) Setting b) Pump out c) Release.000 lbs pull.

The traveling time is dependent on the depth and deviation. 5. 7.0 The pressure has to be retained for few minutes for the seals and the slips to engage in the casing.0 The tubing is slowly topped up with the fluid and the casing is kept open to confirm the ball being set in the Pump Out Plug. There is slight drop in pressure after the setting pins are sheared.0 The tubing is pressurized hydraulically very slowly considering the detrimental affect of the hammering action which may result in shearing of the pins without any surface indication and also without actualizing the trigger movement of the piston.0 The packer actuating ball needs about 2 to 3 hours to reach the desired depth. . No return of fluid from the casing confirms the setting of the packer. 6. If there is no return through the casing the ball has occupied its position in the Pump Out Pug.4. 8.0 The pressure is further increased till the ball shears off the pump out plug and the pump out plug along with the ball falls to the sump.

C) PERMANENT PACKER / RETAINER PACKER These type of packers incorporate design and construction features which give them long life and improved performance under high pressure and temperature. 2. 3.0 The tubing may be landed in tension. . These are generally wire line set . The main features of these packers are as under 1. 4.0 They can withstand high differential pressures and high temperatures. suspension or compression.0 Tubing can be pulled without unsetting the packer. These are heavy duty packers equipped with two way slips for permanent installation. These can be removed economically by milling or drilling.0 in These can be used as temporary or permanent bridge plugs by running a retrieval or Expandable plug in tubing and setting it in the packer.

After the Hook wall or the hydraulic packer are set the compression of the tubing shears of the screws on to the body of the straddle packer and with the movement of the cone the sealing elements expand and the packer sets .D) STRADDLE PACKER : These packers are used for zone isolation and are run in conjunction with either Hook Wall packer or Hydraulic packer.



3) Boiler facilities for steam jacket to avoid freezing of the line 4) A Non return valve in the kill line to avoid back flow of fluids from the well.0 For the work-over of the well if the well falls sick 2.0 Killing of Gas/Oil wells with Open completion 2. 5) Flare to be placed at least 90m from the well head.0 For abandonment of the well. 3. separator and tanks. 6) Kill pump at a distance of at least 45m from well head. so that no formation fluid can enter the well bore. due to damage of well head by miscreants.0 Killing of Gas /Oil wells with Closed/ Semi-closed completion KILLING OF A GAS WELL WITH OPEN COMPLETION : a) Requirements – 1) High pressure kill pump depending on the expected pressure to be encountered. 7) Separators and tanks to be placed at least 45m from well head. TYPES OF KILLING OPERATIONS : 1. 2) Stand by Fire tender to cater for any emergency. . NEED FOR KILLING : 1.0 On safety consideration.KILLING A WELL : Killing of a well is a operation to increase the hydrostatic head of the fluid column in the well bore above the formation pressure. In other words the process of deactivating the well so that the well cannot displace any fluid on its own.

to take care for any fluid loss during the operation. The kill fluid available should be at least 10% percentage more than the hole volume. . 6) Pressurize the kill line with water by above 200 – 300 psi above the tubing pressure open the master valve of the XMas tree. connections required and the safety distances along with the pressure ratings as shown. 7) After the complete change over to water the tubing and casing pressure drops and the well fluid is changed over completely to kill fluid. This choke is gradually increased as the fluid starts entering the casing. 5) Test the kill line for a pressure above the expected pressure to be encountered.STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED IN GAS WELL KILLING – 1) Check for all the necessary equipments. If no displacement is observed the well is killed. At this stage the casing valve is to be opened through a suitable choke in the ground X-Mas tree. 4) Check tubing and casing pressure. 3) Calculate the hole volume and check the availability of the required amount of kill fluid with proper weight. As the pumping of the water is carried on the tubing pressure initially drops as the gas gets compressed and after it is compressed the tubing pressure starts to increase. The back pressure is required to be applied to arrest the entry of fluid from the formation to the well bore. 2) Ensure check valve in the kill line and stand by fire tender. 8) Keep the well opened to pit and observe for any displacement.

KILLING OF A OIL/GAS WELL WITH SEMI-CLOSED / CLOSED COMPLETION – The killing of a well with semi closed or closed completion can be carried out simply by circulation as explained earlier if the well is equipped with Sliding Slide Door above the packer. 2) Ensure availability of fire service. 5) Top up tubing and casing with kill fluid. 3) Check for the proper availability of the kill fluid in volume and weight. The standing valve has to be removed in case of the closed completion Steps : 1) Check all the the fittings for the suitable pressure ratings. . 7) In case of no displacement Rig down X-Mas tree. 6) Open well to pit and observe for any displacement. 4) Check and bleed tubing and casing pressure till it becomes zero or liquid appears. Rig up BOP.

The purpose of artificial lift is to lift out the well fluid by various methods available. but the Bottom Hole Pressure is not sufficient to overcome the Hydrostatic Head exerted by the fluid column of the well and thus the well can not flow on its own . CONTINUOUS GAS (Low BHP Low PI) INTERMITTENT GAS LIFT LIFT . if the Reservoir Pressure of the PerforatedPUMP Formation is sufficient to make the reservoir fluid flow from the reservoir to the well bore up to a certain height.ARTIFICIAL LIFT : TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL LIFT SUCKER ROD PUMP JET PUMP GAS LIFT ELECTRICAL HYDRAULI The SUBMERSIBLE C PUMP need for Artificial Lift in a well arises. This also helps by maintaining a reduced Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure so that Reservoir Fluids can flow into the Wellbore.

. as the name suggests. ii) INTERMITTENT LIFT : In intermittent lift. The volume of injected gas expands and in the process displaces the slug of well fluid to surface. sufficient volume of gas is injected as quickly as possible into the tubing under a liquid column and then gas injection is stopped.A) GAS LIFT : Compressed Natural Gas at high pressure (1500 psig) from Gas Compressor Station is supplied to a number of wells through a set of Gas Lift Valves run on the tubings. In this manner. a pause or idle period is provided. intermittent gas lift works on the principle of intermittent injection in a regular cycle. which depends on Reservoir Pressure and PI of the well. as in continuous flow. to a point where the flowing BHP for a desired rate of production is sufficient to lift the well fluid to surface. Thus the well fluid is produced continuously from the well. and this valve should be as deep as possible as per available normal gas injection pressure. In this period the well is allowed to build up the level of liquid. In continuous gas lift. when no gas injection takes place. The gas either mechanically lifts the well fluid as in intermittent flow or aerates the well fluid so that the well can flow more or less naturally. Intermittent Lift does not require assistance of flowing BHP. This valve is termed as operating valve. In this system. i) CONTINUOUS LIFT : The basic principle of continuous lift is to inject the gas into the tubing at some predetermined depth at a controlled rate. Then again the next gas injection cycle is initiated. This aerates and thus reduce the density the well fluid column above it. only one valve will accomplish the gas injection work.

The cavity formed between spiral surface of rotor and stator moves up progressively on relative rotation between them. . D) PRGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP : This essentially is submersible screw pump. The produced fluid itself is used as power fluid. having inside spirals. transferring momentum and energy from power fluid to produced fluid.B) ROD PUMP : They consist of of the simple combination of a cylinder and piston or plunger with suitable intakes and discharge valves. The combined fluid enters a throat area where complete mixing takes place. which converts the pressure head of the power fluid into velocity head (a jet). and a rotor. powered through cable run along with tubing. The production rate will depend on Deliverability and can be varied by varying stroke length For scrapping purpose. The resultant fluid then enters a diffuser. This low pressure jet enters a inlet chamber. run on tubing. having surface spirals. scrappers are provided at the parafinated zone. It consist of a stator. E) HYDRAULIC PUMP : It essentially consists of a hydraulic pumping system to run a subsurface production unit actuated by hydraulic pressure. where velocity head is converted to pressure head allowing flow to surface through casing. where power fluid enter through tubing into a nozzle. where it entrains the formation fluid. C) ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMP : These are essentially large and fixed volume multistage centrifugal pumps and are run on the end of the tubing. The pump is driven by submersible electrical motors. F) JET PUMP : It is a submersible pump. carrying and pushing up the well fluid to surface. hanged and run with rods coupled to a electric motor at surface.


FORCE BALANCE EQUATIONS OF A GAS LIFT VALVE OPENING PRESSURE OF VALVE UNDER OPERATION CONDITIONS FORCES TRYING TO HOLD THE VALVE CLOSED Fc = PdAb FORCES TRYING TO OPEN THE VALVE Fo = Pc(Ab_Ap) + PtAp ………………… ( A ) The valve at closed position at the instant before opening. The forces trying to open the valve are equal to the forces trying to hold it closed. The spread controls the amount of gas that passes through the valve . The difference between the opening and closing pressure at valve depth is called spread. Where R = Ap / Ab Pc – Casing pressure at depth required to open the valve CLOSING PRESSURE OF VALVE UNDER OPERATION CONDITIONS FORCES TRYING TO CLOSE THE VALVE Fc = PdAb FORCES TRYING TO HOLD THE VALVE OPEN Fo = Pc (Ab – Ap) + PcAp Fo = Fc Pc (Ab – Ap) + PcAp = PdAb Pc = Pd Therefore the casing pressure at valve must be reduced to dome pressure at valve depth for the valve to close. Solving the equations Pc(Ab – Ap) + PtAp = PdAb Pc = (Pd – Pt R) / ( 1-R) .

Suitable for variable flow. Suitable for low volume production . Can handle waxy crude and some sand Can handle some sand Suitable for high volume production. Suitable for high volume production.COMPARISION OF DIFFERENT ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS ROD PUMP Simple design HYDRAULIC PUMP SUBMERSIBL E PUMP GAS LIFT Complex design complicated design simple design Cannot be used in deviated hole Can be used in deviated hole Can be used in deviated hole Can be used in deviated hole Volume and depth limitations Clean power fluid imperative Needs high fluid level Needs high pressure gas source. Can handle some sand and waxy crude Can handle waxy crude but sand and water create problem of providing clean power fluid.