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Noun

Verb
Adjective
Adverb

Pronoun
Determiner
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection

The conventional definitions are faulty


e.g. Adjective modifies Noun
The big train (Adj)
The evening train (Noun)
The in group (Preposition)
The definitions are based on two different
criteria (Noun and Verb are based on
meaning, The rest are based on function or
the use in the sentence)

Form Classes
Positional Classes
Structure Classes

Noun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb,


Uninflected Words
The membership is determined by form of
a word
Large and Open
Noun, Verb, Adjective, and Adverb are
identified by (1) inflectional Morpheme
and (2) Derivational Morpheme
Uninflected Words cant be inflected

Nominal, verbal, Adjectival,


Adverbial
The membership is determined by
position or word order
e.g. We enjoyed the ______ (nominal)

Preposition, Auxiliary,
Conjunction
The membership is fixed and
closed

1.

2.
3.

The members are recognized mainly by


position, as they have no characteristics
of form in common and, excepting a few,
do not change form.
A Structure class is small, the largest one,
preposition, have only fifty members.
A structure class has a stable membership
and is a closed class, that is rarely admits
new members.

It occurs in the position just before an


adjectival or an adverbial.
The functions is to modify . The word
following the qualifier is called the head.
e.g. The dinner was _________good.
Most qualifiers are uninflected words.
A few qualifiers have the same form as
adjectives.
Some qualifiers are not used before all
adjectivals and adverbial, but have a
limited distribution.

It is followed by noun, noun phrase,


personal pronoun, or object of
preposition.
Some prepositions are monosyllabic,
while the others consist of two
syllables.
There is a group of ing prepositions
that have a verb as a stem.
There is a group of compound
prepositions.

It is a word that patterns with a noun.


It precedes noun and serves as a signal
that a noun is soon to follow.
e.g. The gymnasium
The new gymnasium
The members are: demonstrative,
possesive adjective, and articles

It is closely associated with the verb


and are of three kinds.
Modal Auxiliary

e.g. can, could, may, might


Primary Auxiliary
e.g. have, be
Periphrastic Auxiliary
e.g. do

e.g. I, you, we, her, him, etc.


The framework terms
Number
Function terms

subject, object, prenominal possesive,


substitutional possesive.
Person
Sex Reference

Interrogative Pronoun: Who, whom, whose


e.g. Who borrowed my tie?
Whose book is this?
Relative Pronoun: Who, whom, whose,
which, that
e.g. The girl who found the money calls
me
The tree which fell was a large oak