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Organ of Speech

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Anatomical and
Physiological correlates

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Overview

For the production of speech, there are four processes


1. Respiration : the process of modifying air from the lungs for the use in breathing
and speaking
2. Phonation : the modification of the airstream from the lungs by the movement of the
structures in the laryngeal area.
3. Resonation : the shading and modification of the airstream from the lungs by the
size, shape, and movement of the structures of the nasal, oral, and pharyngeal
areas.
4. Articulation is the modification of the airstream from the lungs by various
articulators.

These processes work together to produce various vowels and diphthongs,


instrumental in determining voice and voiceless aspects of consonants, and
facilitates the production of consonants.

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Figure of organ of speech

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Respiration : The Structures


The structures of respiration include pulmonary system,
the chest wall, the major and minor thoraic muscle
groups and the abdominal muscle.

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The outline of
Respiration
A. Structures
1. Pulmonary system : Brings oxygen
to the body
trachea, bronchi, and lungs
2. Chest wall : framework respiratory
system
vertebra, clavicles, scapulas,
ribs, sternum, hip bones
3. Major Muscle
diaphragm : chief muscle of
inspiration
external intercostals : aid in
inspiration
internal intercostals : aid in
expiration

4. Minor muscle : elevate and depress ribs


scaleness, tranverse thoraic,
quadratus lumborum, pectoralis major,
pectoralis minor
5. Abdominal Muscles: effect size of
thorax
rectus abdominis, external obelique,
internal obelique, tranverse abdominis
B. Process : Respiration
1. Inspiration
a. ventilation: air from atmosphere to
the lungs
b. external respiration: gas exchange
lungs and blood
c. internal respiration: gas exchange
blood and body cells
2. Expiration

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Phonation : The Structures


The structure of phonation includes the larynx and its
membrane and muscles.
The larynx is composed of four important cartilages and
several minor cartilages.
The muscles are divided into two main groups called extrinsic
and intrinsic muscles.
The vocal folds are comprised of a vocal ligament and the
thyroarytenoid muscle. The glottis is the name given to the
space between the vocal folds. There are numerous postures
of the vocal folds including open and closed.

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Vocal folds

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Phonation : The Process


Phonation is the production of the sound at the level of the larynx
According to myoelastic-aerodynamic theory, the steps are
1. the glottis is constricted (not necessarily completely closed) by the
construction of the muscles of adduction.
2. upon reaching the constriction, the air from the lungs increase the
amount of pressure against the glottis and creates a negative
pressure.
3. the pressure at the glottis continues to increase as the folds closed
from negative pressure
4. the folds are blown apart and air is emitted causing repeated open
and closing automatically.

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The outline of Respiration


A.

Structures
1. Larynx:
tyroid cartilage, cricoid
cartilage, and arytenoid cartilage
2. Muscles
Extrinsic : movement of the
larynx within the neck
a. suprahyoids : laryngeal
operators
b. infrahyoids: laryngeal
depressor

intrinsic : production of
sound
vocal folds
a. vocal ligament
b.Thyrorytenoid muscle
c. glottis

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B. Process : Myoelastic
Aerodynamic muscle.

Resonation : The Structures


The structures of resonation are nasal, oral, and pharyngeal
cavities
Nasal cavity is composed of nose and nasal cavities.
There are several small nasal muscles. The primary role of these
muscles is to alter facial expression
The mouth cavity consists of structures in the mouth inside the
teeth, including the hard and soft palate.
The oral cavity is important to both the process of resonation and
articulation.
Pharyngeal cavity is a tube muscle and mucous membrane
connecting the larynx and oral/nasal cavity. the pharyngeal area is
extremely important to the resonance of the voice.
The muscles of pharyngeal area all serve to change the size and
the shape of pharyngeal area.

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Resonation : The Process


The process of modifying sound from the larynx
is accomplished by the air stream moving
through the nasal, oral, and pharyngeal cavities.
Each phoneme has a distinct pattern of
formants. Formants are the overtone or
resonance of the vocal tract.
The air enters the nose via the nares (nostrils)
and goes directly into the nasal concha or into
the respiratory path to the lungs.

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The outline of Resonation


A. Structures
1. Nasal cavity
Subdivision (Nose and nasal
cavity)
Bony Structures
muscles
2. Oral Cavity
Subdivisions
a. mouth cavity
b. buccal cavity , and
c. pharyngeal cavity
pharyngeal muscles

B. Process
1. Formants
2. Warm, moisten and clean air
3. Swallowing

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Articulation : The Structures &


The process
The structures of resonation are called articulators
The articulators are the tongue, lips, teeth, hard palate, soft
palate, and glottis.
Articulation is the process of modifying the air stream by the
articulators.
Velopharyngeal closure, which is the basic to the production
of speech sound, is accomplished by the movement of the
velum backward and upward to meet the back wall of the
pharynx. The movement is used in our language fir the
production of all phonemes except the nasal.

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Articulators (in English)


The active articulators
lower lip
tongue
The passive Articulators
upper lip
upper teeth
roof of the mouth

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Area of the tongue

Tip of the tongue


Blade of the tongue
Front of the tongue
Center/middle of the tongue
Back of the tongue

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Area of the roof the mouth

Alveolar ridge
Alveopalatal
Hard palate/palatum
Soft palate/velum

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The outline of Articulation


A. Structures :
articulators
1. Nasal cavity
2. Lips
3. Teeth
4. Tongue
5. hard palate
6. soft palate
7. glottis

B. Process
1. Velopharyngeal
functioning
2. Tonsil ring

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The outline of Articulation

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Articulatory System

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articulatory system.flv

How to produce the sounds

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How the Body Works Speech and Voice.flv

Vocal cords

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Beth's First Laryngoscopy - Vocal Cords in Action.flv