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jT

z

e

Sampling period T ,

INPUT

at the output

OUTPUT

Interpolation by m:

Let the OUTPUT be Y (z ) [i.e. Samples

exist at all instants nT]

m

then INPUT is X ( z ) [i.e. Samples exist

at instants mT]

Professor A G Constantinides

Let Digital Filter transfer function be H (.)

m

then Y ( z ) X ( z ).H (.)

Hence H (.) is of the form H (z ) i.e. its

impulse response exists at the instants mT.

Write

1

h(m).z

h(2m).z

2

2m

h(m 1).z

( m 1)

h(2m 1).z

( 2 m 1)

( m 1)

( 2 m 1)

... h(3m 1) z

( 3m 1)

Professor A G Constantinides

m

1

m

2

m

H

(

z

)

H

(

z

)

z

H

(

z

)

z

H

(

z

) ...

Or

1

2

3

Where

H1 ( z m ) h(0) h(m).z m h(2m).z 2 m ...

m

m

2m

H 2 ( z ) h(1) h(m 1).z h(2m 1).z

...

m

h(2m 2).z

2 m

...

So that

m

Y ( z ) H1 ( z ). X ( z ) z H 2 ( z ). X ( z )

z 2 H 3 ( z m ). X ( z m ) ...

3

Professor A G Constantinides

Hence the structure may be realised as

H1 ( z m )

INPUT

H2 (zm )

+

OUTPUT

H3 (zm )

Samples across here are phased

by T secs. i.e. they do not

interact in the adder.

Can be replaced by a

commutator switch.

Professor A G Constantinides

Hence

H1 ( z m )

m

INPUT

H2 (z )

H3 (zm )

Commutator

OUTPUT

Professor A G Constantinides

Decimation by m:

Let Input be X (z ) (i.e. Samples exist at

all instants nT)

m

Y

(

z

) (i.e. Samples exist at

Let Output be

instants mT)

With digital filter transfer function H (z )

we have

m

Y ( z ) X ( z ).H ( z )

6

Professor A G Constantinides

Set

H ( z ) H1 ( z ) z H 2 ( z ) z H 3 ( z ) ...

... z

( m 1)

.H m ( z )

And X ( z ) X 1 ( z m ) z 1 X 2 ( z m ) z 2 X 3 ( z m ) ...

... z ( m 1) X m ( z m )

subsequences are constructed as earlier.

m

Y ( zThen

) H1 ( z m ) z 1H 2 ( z m ) ... z ( m1) H m ( z m )

7

X (z

1

) z X 2 ( z ) ... z

( m 1)

X (z )

mG Constantinides

Professor A

Any products that have powers of z 1 less

m

than m do not contribute to Y ( z ) , as this

is required to be a function of z m .

Therefore we retain the products

m

H1 ( z ) X 1 ( z ) z m H m ( z m ) X 2 ( z m )

z

H m 1 ( z ) X 3 ( z )...

... z m H 2 ( z m ) X m ( z m )

Professor A G Constantinides

The structure realising this is

Commutator

H1 ( z m )

Hm (zm )

INPUT

H m1 ( z m )

OUTPUT

H2 (zm )

Professor A G Constantinides

For FIR filters why Downsample and then

Upsample?

fs

LOW PASS

fs

LENGTH N

#MULT/ACC N . f s

fs

DOWNSAMPLE M:1

LOW PASS

LENGTH N

N. fs

#MULT/ACC M

TOTAL #MULT/ACC

10

UPSAMPLE 1:M

LOW PASS

fs

M

fs

LENGTH N

N. fs

#MULT/ACC M

2. N . f s

M

Professor A G Constantinides

A very useful FIR transfer function special

case is for : N odd, h(n) symmetric

with additional constraints on h(n) to be

zero at the points shown in the figure.

11

Professor A G Constantinides

For the impulse response shown

1

h(1).z h( 2).z 3 h(3).z 5 h(4).z 7 h(5).z 9

A( ) h(0) h(1).2 cos(T ) h(2).2 cos(3T )

h(3).2 cos(5T )

In general

r 1

A( ) h(0) 2 h

. cos(rT )

r odd

12

Professor A G Constantinides

Now consider 1 2 1 2

T

Then

r 1

A(1 ) h(0) 2 h

. cos(rT )

2

r odd

r 1

A(2 ) h(0) 2 h

. cos r 1 T

2

r odd

T

r 1

h(0) h

. cos(r1T )

2

r odd

13

Professor A G Constantinides

Hence A(1 ) A(2 ) 2h(0)

r 1

Also

A

h(0) 2 h

. cos r. .T

2T

r odd

2T

h ( 0)

A(1 ) A(2 ) 2 A

2T

Or

For a normalised response

A

A(0) 1

T

14

Professor A G Constantinides

Thus 2h(0) 1 1

The shifted response

1

~

A( ) A( )

2

is useful

15

1

h(0)

2

Professor A G Constantinides

Interpolator

Example Develop the specs suitable for the

design of a decimator to reduce the

sampling rate of a signal from 12 kHz to

400 Hz

The desired down-sampling factor is

therefore M = 30 as shown below

16

Professor A G Constantinides

Multistage Design of

Decimator and Interpolator

Specifications for the decimation filter H(z)

are assumed to be as follows:

Fp 180 Hz , Fs 200 Hz ,

p 0.002 , s 0.001

17

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

The Decomposition

Consider an arbitrary sequence {x[n]} with

a z-transform X(z) given by

X ( z ) n x[n]z n

We can rewrite X(z) as

M 1 k

M

X ( z ) k 0 z X k ( z )

where

n

n

X k ( z ) n xk [n] z n x[Mn k ] z

18

0 k M 1

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

The subsequences {xk [n]} are called the

polyphase components of the parent

sequence {x[n]}

The functions X k (z ), given by the

z-transforms of {xk [n]}, are called the

polyphase components of X(z)

19

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

The relation between the subsequences {xk [n]}

and the original sequence {x[n]} are given

by

xk [n] x[Mn k ], 0 k M 1

In matrix form we can write

X ( z ) 1

.... z ( M 1)

20

X 0(zM )

M

X 1( z )

..

..

X M 1( z M )

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

A multirate structural interpretation of the

polyphase decomposition is given below

21

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

The polyphase decomposition of an FIR

transfer function can be carried out by

inspection

For example, consider a length-9 FIR

transfer function:

H ( z)

22

h[n] z

n 0

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

Its 4-branch polyphase decomposition is

given by

4

1

4

2

4

3

4

H ( z ) E0 ( z ) z E1( z ) z E2 ( z ) z E3 ( z )

where

1

2

E0 ( z ) h[0] h[4]z h[8]z

E1( z ) h[1] h[5]z 1

23

E2 ( z ) h[2] h[6]z

1

E3 ( z ) h[3] h[7]z

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

The polyphase decomposition of an IIR

transfer function H(z) = P(z)/D(z) is not that

straight forward

One way to arrive at an M-branch polyphase

decomposition of H(z) is to express it in the

M

P

'

(

z

)

/

D

'

(

z

)by multiplying P(z) and

form

D(z) with an appropriately chosen

polynomial and then apply an M-branch

polyphase decomposition to P '( z )

24

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

1 2 z 1

H ( z)

13 z 1

Example - Consider

rewrite H(z) as

H ( z)

(1 2 z 1 )(13 z 1 )

(13 z 1 )(13 z 1 )

15 z 1 6 z 2

19 z 2

1 6 z 2

19 z 2

5 z 1

19 z 2

Therefore,

where

25

H ( z ) E0 ( z ) z E1( z )

1 6 z 1

E0 ( z )

,

1

19 z

E1( z )

19 z 1

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

The above approach increases the overall

order and complexity of H(z)

However, when used in certain multirate

structures, the approach may result in a

more computationally efficient structure

An alternative more attractive approach is

discussed in the following example

26

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

Example - Consider the transfer function of

a 5-th order Butterworth lowpass filter with

a 3-dB cutoff frequency at 0.5:

H ( z)

27

0.0527864 (1 z 1 )5

1 0.633436854 z 2 0.0557281z 4

as

2

2

1 0.52786 z

1 0.105573 z

H ( z)

z

2

2

2 1 0.105573 z

1 0.52786 z

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

Therefore H(z) can be expressed as

2

1

2

H ( z ) E0 ( z ) z E1( z )

where

E0 ( z )

E1( z )

28

1

1 0.105573 z

2 1 0.105573 z 1

1

1 0.52786 z

2 1 0.52786 z 1

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

In the above polyphase decomposition,

branch transfer functions Ei (z ) are stable

allpass functions (proposed by

Constantinides)

Moreover, the decomposition has not

increased the order of the overall transfer

function H(z)

29

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

We shall demonstrate later that a parallel

realization of an FIR transfer function H(z)

based on the polyphase decomposition can

often result in computationally efficient

multirate structures

Consider the M-branch Type I polyphase

decomposition of H(z):

H ( z)

30

M 1 k

M)

z

E

(

z

k

k 0

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

A direct realization of H(z) based on the

Type I polyphase decomposition is shown

below

31

Professor A G Constantinides

Polyphase Decomposition

The transpose of the Type I polyphase FIR

filter structure is indicated below

32

Professor A G Constantinides

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