# Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

y Single Phase Motors are the most common of all motors.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

y A single phase induction motor is composed of a Squirrel-Cage rotor and a Stator.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

y The Stator carries a main winding, which creates a set of North and South Poles y It also carries a smaller auxiliary winding that only operates during motor start up. y The main and auxiliary windings have the same number of poles.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

y The following Slides show the progressive steps in winding a 4- pole, 36 slot stator.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

y Starting with the laminated iron stator, paper insulators- called Slot Liners are first inserted in the slots.
The SquirrelCage Rotor is Identical to that of a 3-phase motor.
Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

The main winding is then laid in the slots.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

 Next, the Auxiliary winding is embedded so that its poles straddle those of the main winding.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

 Each pole of the main winding consists of a group of four concentric coils, connected in series.

Adjacent poles are connected so as to produce alternate North/ South Polarities.
Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

 The empty slot in the center of each pole- shown as a vertical line- and the partially filed slots on either side of it are used to lodge the auxiliary winding.

 The latter has only 2 concentric coils per pole.
Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

The Synchronous speed of all single phase induction motors
y Equation: ns= 120£ P y Where: NS= Synchronous Speed [rpm]
y

y

£ = Frequency of the Source [Hz] P = # of Poles

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

y Synchronous Speed: the speed at which an alternatingcurrent machine must operate to generate electromotive force at a given frequency.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

y The rotor turns at slightly less than synchronous speed. The full-load slip is typically 3 percent to 5 percent in fractional HP motors.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

y Slip is given by:
y S=

*100%

(ns-n) ns

Where: S= Slip Ns= Synchronous Speed n= Motor Speed

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

y Thus, motor speed may be found by:

n=Ns(1-s/100%) Where: n= motor speed Ns= Synchronous Speed s= slip

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

y Problem: Calculate the speed of the 4 pole single phase motor if the slip at full load is 3.4%, and the frequency is 60 Hz.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

Torque Speed Characteristics
y Under locked rotor conditions, when a voltage is applied to the stator, a large current develops in the rotor which acts like the shorted secondary of a transformer. Consequently, the motor has no tendency to start by itself.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

y However, if the motor is spun in either direction, it will continue to spin. y In fact, the motor will accelerate until it reaches a speed slightly less than synchronous speed.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

y The motor develops a torque as soon as it starts to spin. The torque increases as the motor nears synchronous speed, as shown in the Torque-Speed Curve.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

Principle of Operation
y Due to the inductance of the rotor, the flux in the rotor lags the flux in the stator by 90°.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

Locked-Rotor Torque
y To produce a starting torque in a single-phase motor, a revolving field must be created.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

Locked-Rotor Torque
y This is done by adding an auxiliary winding that is out of phase with the main winding. An impedance is placed in series with the auxiliary winding. y The Impedance may be resistive, capacitive or inductive and determines the type of split-phase motor.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

Locked-Rotor Torque
y A speed-sensitive centrifugal switch is also connected in series with the auxiliary winding. When the motor reaches 75% of its synchronous speed, the switch opens and the auxiliary winding is no longer energized.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

y The main winding of a single phase motor is made of large wire and a large number of turns. This causes the main winding (stator) current to lag the source voltage.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

Principle of Operation
y The rotor flux increases with the motor speed and is nearly equal to the stator flux when the speed is nearly synchronous speed. The combination of the two fluxes produces a revolving field that rotates at synchronous speed.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

y The auxiliary winding of a resistance split phase motor- most commonly split phase motor- is a small wire and a small number of turns. This causes the auxiliary winding current to be in phase with the source voltage.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

y Thus the main winding current lags the auxiliary winding current by 25° and the phase shift between the two generates the motor s starting torque.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

y The starting period should not last longer than five seconds- to prevent the auxiliary winding from melting under the starting current- six to seven times the full load current.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

y The low cost makes resistance split-phase induction motors the most popular single-phase motors. They provide moderate torque for infrequent starts. They are 1/3 hp to ½ hp motors that drive fans, pumps, small tools and other residential machines.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

Capacitor Start Motor
y The design of the capacitor start motor is the same as that of the split phase motor, except that the auxiliary winding has about as many turns of wire as the main winding and a capacitor and a centrifugal switch are in series with the auxiliary winding.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

Capacitor Start Motor
y The capacitor is chosen so that the current in the auxiliary winding leads the current in the main winding by 80°. The larger phase shift between the two reduces the starting current in the auxiliary winding to half that in a split phase motor with the same starting torque.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

Capacitor Start Motor
y The design allows for a high starting torque with a lower starting current- four to five times the full load current. There is less heating in the auxiliary winding allowing it to be energized more often- frequent starting.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

Capacitor Start Motor
y Once the centrifugal switch of the capacitor start motor opens it behaves the same as the running split phase motor, because the main windings are identical.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

Capacitor Start Motor
y Capacitor-start motors are used when high starting torque is required. They are built in sizes ranging from 1/6 hp to 10 hp. Typical applications are compressors, large fans, pumps and other high inertia loads.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

Capacitor Start Motor
y Electrolytic Capacitors are used in capacitor star motor.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

Efficiency and Power Factor of Single Phase Induction Motors
y The efficiency of fraction horsepower single phase AC motors is typically low due to losses 1 hp or larger during starting. It improves to 80% for motor.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

Vibration
y There is greater vibration in the single phase AC motor than there is in the three phase AC motor due to the pulsating power supplied to the AC motor while it produces constant power.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010

Vibrations
y Rubber rings at the motors end bells are used to reduce vibrations.

Athens Tech Electrical Department 2010