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How Do I Reach All These

Kids?
Accommodations,
Modifications, Differentiation,
and Universal Design for
Learning
TIRP III, Summer 2014

Objectives:

Identify key components of learning


differences, and the impact these may
have on students learning
Design appropriate accommodations or
modifications for a student
Determine adaptations consistent with
universal design to meet the needs of a
variety of learners

Agenda

Accommodations and modifications


Differentiation of instruction
Universal design for learning
as applied to students with disabilities,
gifted and talented students, or anyone
who is not your average Josh or Jenny

Back in the day

All kids got exactly the same curriculum


and methods of instruction
If a student couldnt hang with the
curriculum, they failed, flunked, or
dropped out
This is not an option in todays
environment of accountability and high
expectations

Phase One: Adaptations


Youll hear two terms:

Accommodations
and

Modifications

Why adaptations?

Not all tomatoes ripen at the


same time.
D. Montgomery
Shortcut to tomato_heirloom.lnk

The 5 Step Process


1. Expect all students to achieve grade level
content standards.
2. Learn about accommodations for instruction and
assessment.
3. Select accommodations that are appropriate for
individual students.
4. Administer accommodations during instruction
and assessments.
5. Evaluate and improve the use of
accommodations.

1. Expect all students to achieve


grade level content standards.

2. Learn About Accommodations

Accommodations change the


how of instruction

INPUT or OUTPUT

Reduce or eliminate the effects of a


students unique learning needs and
do not reduce learning expectations

Presentation
accommodations

Books on tape
Braille
Visual schedule
Graphic organizers

Response accommodations

Scribe
Speech-to-text software
Brailler
Materials used to solve or organize
responses (calculator, spell check)
Oral tests or reports
Poster instead of book report

Setting accommodations

Reduce distractions to student, or


to other students (separate
setting, preferential seating)
Allow use of equipment or
technology (wheelchair, elevator)

Timing and scheduling


accommodations

Additional time
Frequent breaks
Change in schedule

Modifications change the


what of instruction

Modify content expectations; that is,


what the student is expected to know
and be able to do

Adapt the skill level


Alternate goals
Different content
Participation

Interventions

Are neither accommodations nor


modifications
Are explicit instructional strategies or
techniques whose goal is to teach
Are used in conjunction with
accommodations and/or modifications
Are designed to assist students in
developing new skills

Commonly held beliefs

ACCOMMODATIONS can be for


anyone that needs them

MODIFICATIONS are for students in


special education, who are working
towards alternate achievement
standards (Extended Evidence
Outcomes, or EEOs)

Activity

What accommodations or
modifications would you suggest in
this scenario?

3. Select an appropriate
accommodation

Team decision, involving parents


Individualized
Documented
Involve students
as much as
possible

4. Implement during instruction


AND assessment.

Accommodations for instruction and


assessment go hand-in-hand
Teach the student to use the
accommodation effectively
Ethical issues:

Not providing an accommodation whose


need is substantiated
Providing one where its not warranted

Be sure to document
accommodations!

504 plan
IEP
English Language Acquisition (ELA)
plan
RtI plan
Advanced Learning Plan (ALP)
READ Plan

5. Evaluate and monitor.

How did they work for the student?


Are there combinations that seem to
be effective?
What difficulties did we encounter?
What are the perceptions of others?
(teachers, parents, admin, etc.)
Did we implement with fidelity?

Phase Two: Differentiation

Content what is taught, or what we


want students to know and be able to
do
Process how students go about
making sense of what they are
learning
Product how students demonstrate
what they have learned

Phase Three: Universal


Design for Learning

Education takes its cues from


architecture

Retrofitting

Architectural retrofitting occurred when the


design of a building or area was not
accessible to certain individuals
Curb

cuts
Ramps
Elevators

Universal design in
architecture

Underlying concept is to solve the problem


before it appears so that the structure is as
accessible as possible to the greatest
number of people

Door handles
Automatic doors
Water fountain height
Doorway width
Braille signage
Closed captioning TV

Educational retrofitting

Educators find themselves developing


accommodations and modifications for
individual students who enter a preexisting
educational situation

Particular materials
Videos?
Typical way of delivering instruction
Lecture?
Typical way of assessing students
Spelling bee?

Partner up!
Think of a group of students for whom the
instructional approach on the previous
slide would be ineffective.
Now brainstorm two ways that you can reconceptualize that approach to make it
more effective for the greatest number
of students.

Universal Design for Learning


helps meet the challenge of
diversity by suggesting flexible
instructional materials, techniques,
and strategies that empower
educators to meet these varied
needs

A universally designed
curriculum is designed from the
outset to meet the needs of the
greatest number of users, making
costly, time-consuming, and afterthe-fact changes to curriculum
unnecessary.

Universal design for learning


(UDL)

Differentiated materials, methods, and


assessment alternatives are
considered and created in advance
with the full range of students
differences in mind
Basically, eliminates barriers to the
curriculum and the instruction

So why is this important?


Neuroscience shows that each brain
processes information differently. The
way we learn is as different as our
fingerprint or our DNA.
David Rose, Ed. D.
Chief Scientist, Cognition and Learning
CAST

Instruction for whom might


these adaptations be helpful?

Books on tape
Alternative reading materials with multiple
levels of difficulty
Natural peer supports
Cooperative learning
Integrated thematic units
Partner learning
Technologies
Hands-on learning
Closed caption TV
Sound field systems

Universal design for


assessment

Curriculum-based assessment
Portfolios
Individual learning contracts
Demonstrations
Permanent products/ projects
Traditional assessments and teacher-made
tests
Oral tests

Key components of UDL:

Content what is taught, or what we


want students to know and be able to
do
Process how students go about
making sense of what they are
learning
Product how students demonstrate
what they have learned

High tech textbooks

Textbook companies are now required


to provide digital formats to any public
school that requires or requests it

Braille
eReader (Kindle, Nook)
Translate to audio book

Other technologies in reading (CAST)

More on UDL

www.cast.org
The Access Center: Strategies to
Improve Access to the General
Education Curriculum

Lets see UDL in action

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDv
KnY0g6e4&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pGL
TJw0GSxk&feature=related

Lets look at some examples

Primary science

Intermediate science

Middle school science

Identify those elements of your lesson that


demonstrate UDL principles.