30 views

Uploaded by sridhardelcam

scalars and vectors

- M1Lmarks
- Solutions_to_Exercises.pdf
- c Mug Lectures
- Inestability of Infinitesimal Wrinkling Against Folding
- Calculation Super Gravity
- Basic Tutorial 7_2D Slope Stability Analysis SRM
- Example 4_Frame.pdf
- Bar-spring system - Structural Stability.docx
- Program
- Heat Exchanger Foundation
- Poissonslab_phart
- 000074xa Record
- Assign 3
- we
- sinisa_santa-barbara.pdf
- Evaluation of Trajectory Model for Differential Steering Using Numerical Method
- motionmountain-volume1
- W5_UserGuide
- 0000003670-Chapter 1 PHYSICAL QUANTITIES.ppt
- 1.)Report Ctr - Office

You are on page 1of 46

Introduction

and vectors (sections 1-10)

Figures

Magnitude

January 21, 2015

and energy. Common language is mathematics.

Physics is based on experimental observations and

quantitative measurements.

The study of physics can be divided into six main areas:

Classical mechanics

Electromagnetism

Optics

Relativity

Thermodynamics

Quantum mechanics

equilibrium of material bodies and the action of forces.

Classical Mechanics

Classical Mechanics: Theory that predicts qualitatively &

quantitatively the results of experiments for objects that

are NOT

Too fast: objects close to the speed of light Special Relativity

Too dense: black holes, the early Universe General Relativity

are large relative to atoms and move at speeds much

slower than the speed of light

Chapter 1 Measurement

measurements

How tall is Ming Yao? How about

his weight?

Height: 2.29 m (7 ft 6 in)

Weight: 141 kg (310 lb)

Number

Unit

Both numbers and units necessary for

any meaningful physical quantities

January 21, 2015

Type Quantities

Many things can be measured: distance,

speed, energy, time, force

These are related to one another: speed

= distance / time

Choose three basic quantities:

LENGTH

MASS

TIME

January 21, 2015

Many possible choices for units of Length,

Mass, Time (e.g. Yao is 2.29 m or 7 ft 6 in)

In 1960, standards bodies control and

define Systme Internationale (SI) unit as,

LENGTH: Meter

MASS: Kilogram

TIME: Second

Units

Length

meter

Mass

kilogram

kg

Time

second

Electric Current

ampere

Thermodynamic Temperature

kelvin

Luminous Intensity

candela

cd

mole

mol

Amount of Substance

Mars Climate Orbiter:

http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msp98/orbiter

French Revolution Definition,

1792

1 Meter = XY/10,000,000

1 Meter = about 3.28 ft

1 km = 1000 m, 1 cm =

1/100 m, 1 mm = 1/1000 m

Current Definition of 1

Meter: the distance traveled

by light in vacuum during a

time of 1/299,792,458

second.

time taken for 9,192,631,770 oscillations of the light

emitted by a 133Cs atom.

Defining units precisely is a science (important, for

example, for GPS):

years.

January 21, 2015

specific platinum-iridium alloy kept

at International Bureau of Weights

and Measures near Paris. (Seeking

more accurate measure:

http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21569417-ki

logram-it-seems-no-longer-kilogram-paris-worth-ma

ss

)

Copies are kept in many other

countries.

Yao Ming is 141 kg, equivalent to

weight of 141 pieces of the alloy

cylinder.

3,000 m = 3 1,000 m

= 3 103 m = 3 km

1,000,000,000 = 109 =

1G

1,000,000 = 106 = 1M

1,000 = 103 = 1k

141 kg = ? g

1 GB = ? Byte = ? MB

see appendix B.1 of the text

10x

Symb

Prefix

ol

x=1

exa

E

8

15

12

9

peta

tera

giga

6

3

2

mega

kilo

January 21, 2015

hecto

P

T

G

M

k

h

Symb

Prefix

ol

x=deci

d

10x

1

-2

-3

centi

milli

-6

micro

-9

nano

-12

pico

-15

c

m

n

p

f

0.003 s = 3 0.001 s

= 3 10-3 s = 3 ms

0.01 = 10-2 = centi

0.001 = 10-3 = milli

0.000 001 = 10-6 = micro

0.000 000 001 = 10-9 =

nano

0.000 000 000 001 = 10-12

= pico = p

1 nm = ? m = ? cm

3 cm = ? m = ? mm

January 21, 2015

Units

Multiply and divide units just like numbers

SI unit for area = m 2

Volume = Length Length Length SI unit for volume = m 3

Speed = Length / time

SI unit for speed = m/s

Density = Mass / Volume

SI unit for density = kg/m 3

9.69 s in Mens 100 m Final. What is his average speed

?

100 m 100 m

speed

10.32 m/s

9.69 s 9.69 s

January 21, 2015

Cgs system: cm, gram, second

We will use SI units in this course, but it is useful to

know conversions between systems.

1

1

1

1

1 ft = 0.3048 m = 30.48 cm

m = 39.37 in. = 3.281 ft

1 in. = 0.0254 m = 2.54 cm

lb = 0.465 kg1 oz = 28.35 g

1 slug = 14.59 kg

day = 24 hours = 24 * 60 minutes = 24 * 60 * 60 seconds

Unit Conversion

Example: Is he speeding ?

a speed of 38.0 m/s. Is the driver exceeding the speed limit?

Since the speed limit is in miles/hour (mph), we need to convert

the units of m/s to mph. Take it in two steps.

Step 1: Convert m to miles. Since 1 mile = 1609 m, we have two

possible conversion factors, 1 mile/1609 m = 6.215x10 4 mile/m,

or 1609 m/1 mile = 1609 m/mile. What are the units of these

conversion factors?

Since we want to convert m to mile, we want the m units to

m 1mile

38.0 mile

factor:

2.36 10

2 mile/s

38.0

s 1609

=1609

Step 2: Convert s to hours.

Since

1m

hr

3600s s, again we could

have 1 hr/3600 s = 2.778x104 hr/s, or 3600 s/hr.

Since we want to convert s to hr, we want the s units to cancel

=>

mile 3600 s

38.0 m/s 2.36 102

s

hr

January 21, 2015

Summary

mechanics are length, mass and time, which in the SI

system have the units meter (m), kilogram (kg), and

second (s), respectively

The method of dimensional analysis is very powerful

in solving physics problems.

Units in physics equations must always be consistent.

Converting units is a matter of multiplying the given

quantity by a fraction, with one unit in the numerator

and its equivalent in the other units in the

denominator, arrange so the unwanted units in the

given quantity are cancelled out in favor of the

desired units.

January 21, 2015

A library is located 0.5 mile from you.

Can you point where exactly it is?

You also

need to

know the

direction in

which you

should

walk to the

library!

vector

A vector quantity has both magnitude (value + unit) and direction

A scalar is completely specified by only a magnitude (value + unit)

January 21, 2015

Vectors

Displacement

Velocity (magnitude

and direction!)

Acceleration

Force

Momentum

Scalars:

Distance

Speed (magnitude of

velocity)

Temperature

Mass

Energy

Time

describe a scalar! Therefore vectors are more

complex!

January 21, 2015

Important Notation

The bold font: Vector A is A

A

In the pictures, we will always

show vectors as arrows

Arrows point the direction

To describe the magnitude of a

vector we will use absolute

value sign:

or just A,

Magnitude is always positive ,

the magnitude of a vector is

equal to the length of a vector.

A

B

;A

0

Properties of Vectors

Two vectors are equal if they have

the same magnitude and the same

direction

Movement of vectors in a diagram

Any vector can be moved parallel

to itselfVectors

without being affected

Negative

same magnitude but are 180 apart (opposite

directions)

A

B

January 21, 2015

Adding Vectors

must be taken into account

Geometric Methods

Algebraic Methods

More convenient

January 21, 2015

A

BB

(Triangle

Method)

with

the appropriate length and in

the direction specified, with

respect to a coordinate

system

B with

Draw the next vector

the appropriate length and in

the direction specified, with

respect to a coordinate system

A

vector

and parallel to the

coordinate

A system used for :

tip-to-tail.

The resultant

is drawn from

A

of to the end of

the origin

the lastBvector

ABC

B

A

When you have

many vectors, just

keep repeating the

process until all are

included

The resultant is still

drawn from the

origin of the first

vector to the end

of the last vector

A

ABA

(Polygon

Method)

A

Draw the first vector

with the appropriate length

and in the direction

specified, with respect

to a

coordinate system B

Draw the next vector

with the appropriate length

and in the direction

specified, with respect to

the same coordinate

system

Draw a parallelogram

The resultant is drawn as a

diagonal from the origin

A

ABB

Vector Subtraction

addition

Add the negative of

the subtracted vector

r r

r

r

A B A B

vector addition

procedure

Vectors: Described by the number, units and

direction!

Vectors:

Can

Can

be described by components?

x direction

January 21, 2015

Components of a Vector

A component is a part

It is useful to use

rectangular

components These are

a cos(90 )

vector along the x a sin

and y-axes

a cos

Components of a Vector

The x-component of a

vector is the projection

alongAxthe x-axis

Ax A cos

cos

A

The y-component of a

Ay is the projection

vector

Ay A sin

sin

alongAthe y-axis

A Ax Ay

Then,

Components of a Vector

The previous equations are valid only if is

measured with respect to the x-axis

The components can be positive or negative

and will have the same units as the original

vector

=0, Ax=A>0, Ay=0

ax < 0

ay > 0

ax > 0

ay > 0

ax < 0

ay < 0

ax > 0

ay < 0

=90, Ax=0, Ay=A>0

=135, Ax=Acos135<0, Ay=Asin135>0

=180, Ax=-A<0, Ay=0

=225, Ax=Acos225<0, Ay=Asin225<0

=270, Ax=0, Ay=-A<0

=315, Ax=Acos315<0, Ay=Asin315<0

January 21, 2015

of the right triangle whose

hypotenuse is A

Ax A cos( )

Ay A sin( )

A A 2 A 2

x

y

Ay

Ay

1

or tan

tan

Ax

Ax

A

xA

y

Unit Vectors

vectors A A A

x

Unit vectors

y j-hat,

k zk-hat

i x j i-hat,

direction

Unit vectors

A Ax ihave

Ay ja magnitude

of 1

Then

Magnitude

+ Sign Unit vector

y

j

i

x

A

xA

y

Then

A Ax i Ay j

B Bx i B y j

A B ( Ax i Ay j ) ( Bx i B y j )

( Ax Bx )i ( Ay B y ) j

If C A B ( Ax Bx )i ( Ay B y ) j

so

C x Ax Bx

C y Ay B y

vector B is (4, -2). Find the value of magnitude and

direction of the sum (C) of the vectors A and B.

B 4i 2 j

A 3i 5 j

C A B (3 4)i (5 2) j 1i 3 j

Cx 1

Cy 3

2

Cy

1

tan

tan 1 3 71.56

Cx

January 21, 2015

Vectors

of two

r r vectors is

written

A B as

r r

A B A B cos

dot product

is the angle

between A and B

Applied to work,

this means

r r

W F r cos F r

January 21, 2015

Dot Product

something about how

parallel two vectors are.

The dot product (scalar

product) of two vectors can

be thought of as the

projection of one onto the

direction of the other.

A B AB cos

A i A cos Ax

Components

A B Ax Bx Ay B y Az Bz

( A cos ) B

A

A( B cos )

Product

something about how

parallel two vectors are.

The dot product (scalar

product) of two vectors can

be thought of as the

projection of one onto the

direction of the other.

A B AB cos

A i A cos Ax

Components

A B Ax Bx Ay B y Az Bz

i j 0; i k 0; j k 0

i i 1; j j 1; k k 1

Projection is zero

Derivation

A

How do we show that B Ax Bx Ay B y Az Bz

Start with A Ax i Ay j Az k

B Bx i B y j Bz k

Then A B ( Ax i Ay j Az k) ( Bx i B y j Bz k)

Ax i ( Bx i B y j Bz k) Ay j ( Bx i B y j Bz k) Az k ( Bx i B y j Bz k)

But

So

i j 0; i k 0; j k 0

i i 1; j j 1; k k 1

A B Ax i Bxi Ay j B y j Az k Bz k

Ax Bx Ay B y Az Bz

Scalar Product

Determine the scalar product

A B ?

A B Ax Bx Ay B y 2 (-1) 3 2 -2 6 4

vectors

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

A Ax Ay 2 3 13

A B

4

4

cos

AB

13 5

65

4

1

cos

60.3

65

B Bx B y (1) 2 2 5

Cross Product

C A B

something about how perpendicular they

are.

Magnitude: C A B AB sin

A sin

Cross product of any parallel vectors = zero

Cross product is maximum for

z

perpendicular vectors

Cross products of Cartesian unit vectors:

i j k; i k j; j k i

i i 0; j j 0; k k 0

B sin

i

j

Cross Product

Direction: C perpendicular

to both A and B (right-hand

rule)

Right hand, not left hand

Four fingers are pointed

along the first vector A

sweep from first vector

A into second vector B

through the smaller angle

between them

Your outstretched thumb

points the direction of C

A B B A ?

A B - B A

First practice A B B A ?

January 21, 2015

the parallelogram formed by A

and B

The direction of C is perpendicular

to the plane formed by A and B

is not

commutative

Cross product

A B - B A

A (B C) A B A C

d dA dB

A B

B A

The derivative of cross product

dt

dt

dt

cross product

Calculate

A B ( Ay Bz Az B y )i ( Az Bx Ax Bz ) j ( Ax B y Ay Bx )k

January 21, 2015

Derivation

A B ( Ay Bz Az B y )i ( Az Bx Ax Bz ) j ( Ax B y Ay Bx )k

A Ax i Ay j Az k

?

Start with B Bx i B y j Bz k

A B ( Ax i Ay j Az k) ( Bx i B y j Bz k)

Then

Ax i ( Bx i B y j Bz k) Ay j ( Bx i B y j Bz k) Az k ( Bx i B y j Bz k)

i j k; i k j; j k i

But

i i 0; j j 0; k k 0

So

A B Ax i B y j Ax i Bz k Ay j Bx i Ay j Bz k

i

A B Ax

j

Ay

k

Az

Bx

By

Bz

Az k Bx i Az k B y j

Find: A B

Where:

A 2i 3 j

B i 2 j

Solution: A B (2i 3 j ) (i 2 j )

2i (i) 2i 2 j 3 j (i) 3 j 2 j

0 4i j 3 j i 0 4k 3k 7 k

i

j

F (2i 3 j ) N

r (4i 5 j )m

Solution: r F (4i 5 j ) (2i 3 j )

4i 2i 4i 3 j 5 j 2i 5 j 3 j

0 4i 3 j 5 j 2i 0 12k 10k 2k (Nm)

January 21, 2015

Summary

Polar coordinates of vector A (A, )

Cartesian coordinates (Ax, Ay)

Ax A cos( )

Ay A sin( )

A Ax Ay

Relations between them:

A

A

Beware of tan 180-degree ambiguity

tan y or tan 1 y

Ax

Ax

Unit vectors:

A Ax i Ay j Az k

Addition of vectors:

C A B ( Ax Bx )i ( Ay B y ) j

C y Ay B y

C x Ax Bx

aA aAxand

i aAcross

Product of two vectors: scalar product

y j

product

Dot product is a scalar: A B AB cos Ax Bx Ay B y Az Bz

Cross product is a vector ( A and B ):

A B AB sin

January 21, 2015

- M1LmarksUploaded bydasha962
- Solutions_to_Exercises.pdfUploaded byJordan Dimov
- c Mug LecturesUploaded byjojo
- Inestability of Infinitesimal Wrinkling Against FoldingUploaded byMaría Ester Oyarzún Guzmán
- Calculation Super GravityUploaded byfajaraminwahyullah
- Basic Tutorial 7_2D Slope Stability Analysis SRMUploaded byDario Manrique Gamarra
- Example 4_Frame.pdfUploaded byZazliana Izatti
- Bar-spring system - Structural Stability.docxUploaded byAnonymous Sl60bL
- ProgramUploaded byAnonymous HJ7hmihh
- Heat Exchanger FoundationUploaded byLandon Mitchell
- Poissonslab_phartUploaded byphart010
- 000074xa RecordUploaded byأبو محمد بن أحمد
- Assign 3Uploaded byKevin Le
- weUploaded bysathiyasuthan
- sinisa_santa-barbara.pdfUploaded byAntonio Martín Alcántara
- Evaluation of Trajectory Model for Differential Steering Using Numerical MethodUploaded byNaufal Rachmatullah
- motionmountain-volume1Uploaded byFernando Molina
- W5_UserGuideUploaded byargon39
- 0000003670-Chapter 1 PHYSICAL QUANTITIES.pptUploaded bySyaza Ismail
- 1.)Report Ctr - OfficeUploaded byAlfie Angelo Reyes
- D.1 Typical MullionUploaded byHarry Gacutan
- eosc211-3Uploaded bySamantha
- Asset Pricing NotesUploaded byasdf
- 21.4 Results ManipulationUploaded byjingyong123
- History Solid MechanicsUploaded byessy_ab
- Frames (Method of Members) (1)Uploaded byRohan Sonal
- Chapter 1Uploaded byemc2fqqr2
- Fluid Mechanics Problems and Solution by Joseph H. Spurk (1)Uploaded byGertjan Duniceri
- Theory of Plates & Shells (1)Uploaded byNandeesh Sreenivasappa
- Kisssoft-Anl-072-E-Contact Analysis in the Cylindrical Gear CalculationUploaded byAnush Swaminathan

- Collision of BodiesUploaded bysridhardelcam
- Units and DimensionsUploaded bysridhardelcam
- dcUploaded byMinu Suraj
- Keplers LawsUploaded bysridhardelcam
- Motion in Two DimensionsUploaded bysridhardelcam
- Sound -9Uploaded bysridhardelcam
- Lesson 1(Com)Uploaded bysridhardelcam
- Units and DimensionsUploaded bysridhardelcam
- Force -9Uploaded bysridhardelcam
- FrictionUploaded bysridhardelcam
- Unit 1Uploaded byAmeer Basha
- physic_xi_2011Uploaded byAshok Pradhan
- DynamicsUploaded bysridhardelcam
- cbse notes law of motion (phy).pdfUploaded byhahirwar35
- Key DesignUploaded byyogwani79
- Kinematics-2Uploaded bysridhardelcam
- D-GroupUploaded bysridhardelcam
- light-1Uploaded bysridhardelcam
- 4-6_lightUploaded bysridhardelcam
- electromagneticspectrum_wkstUploaded bysridhardelcam
- Networking Interview QuestionsUploaded byapi-3827584
- ElectricityUploaded bysridhardelcam
- Floatation - 9Uploaded bysridhardelcam
- Ix ScienceUploaded bysridhardelcam
- C-GroupUploaded bysridhardelcam
- Reflection RefractionUploaded bysridhardelcam
- Electromagnetic Spectrum QuestionsUploaded byAshani0001
- E-GroupUploaded bysridhardelcam
- E-GroupUploaded bysridhardelcam

- 121csdigUploaded bylzazueta
- 10.10Uploaded byRahul Shrvastava
- Lab Manual for Control Lab.pdfUploaded byrakheep123
- text featuresUploaded byapi-284671701
- Daftar Pustaka ProposalUploaded bypio ari prasasti
- Punch Strippers AcrotechUploaded byvisiondesign
- placeta previaUploaded byZahidah Zakaria
- The Food Lab Better Home CookingUploaded byWilhem Mar
- Estágio - DocumentoUploaded byRodrigo Sousa
- professional development planUploaded byapi-282712060
- 11th - Basic Chemistry, KinematicsUploaded byRam Krishna
- Active TransportUploaded byDale Gunong
- COSTA RICA International Political EconomicsUploaded bypigrodrafts
- L & t Personnel Selection ProcessUploaded bymanisha_mithibai
- Controlled Demolition of BuildingsUploaded byNigam Meher
- User ExitsUploaded byAnvit Sah
- Basic Life Support (BLS) and Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS)Uploaded byRizki Yulianto
- DialogoUploaded byBismarck Bravo
- FusionUploaded byAdil Kasmani
- 35875177-Ppt-of-Nbfc-sUploaded bysagarkharpatil
- Stats Test IIUploaded byLourdes1991
- Triple Tee Golf v. Tayor-Made/AdidasUploaded byPriorSmart
- Line Follower and Obstacle AvoidingUploaded byFaisal Nouman
- thing which Motivates You to Do Good Job_ -Uploaded byMansaram Mansa
- SEMCO - A maverick organisationUploaded byrakeshb11
- Interview Capsule By Bankers AddaUploaded byDevendra Singh Tomar
- What I Wish I Knew About the AP and AR Aging Snapshot TablesUploaded byKrishnendu Sengupta
- Automatic PVC Pipe Cutting MachineUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- Dutta and GoshUploaded byAditya Arya
- Applied Numerical MethodsUploaded bysameer9j