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THE BRAIN UNFOLDED

V.VYTHEESHWARAN
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WHATS UP FOR TODAY???
• Nervous system – A bird’s eye view • Brain – An overview of the anatomy • Ventricles of the brain – A special focus • Cerebrospinal fluid – The lifeline of the CNS
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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM A BIRD’S EYE VIEW
• The nervous system is unique in the vast complexity of thought processes and control actions it can perform. • Receives literally millions of bits of information each minute from different sensory nerves and sensory organs and then integrates all these to determine responses to be made by the body. • The nerves are made up millions of minute components known as neurons.
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A LONG JOURNEY

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CLASSIFICATION OF NERVE FIBRES

Adapted from Medical PhysiologyGuyton & Hall

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THE BRAIN – ANATOMY
• Consists of 3 major regions – Cerebrum, Cerebellum and medulla oblongata. • Divided into 4 lobes: Frontal lobe, Parietal lobe, Occipital lobe, and Temporal lobe

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THE BRAIN AN INSIDE STORY

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VENTRICLES OF THE BRAIN
• The ventricles of the brain are hollow chambers filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which supports the tissues of the brain.

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VENTRICLES OF THE BRAIN
• There are 4 ventricles in the brain; 2 Lateral ventricles, third ventricle & fourth ventricle. • Other important components are the Choroid plexus, Foramen of Monro, Aqueductus sylvius, Foramen of Luschka and Foramen of Magende
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LATERAL VENTRICLES
• The lateral ventricles are two curved shaped cavities located within the cerebrum. • Separated by a thin medial partition (septum pellucidum). • Protects the Brain From Trauma. • Provides Pathway for the Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid.
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LATERAL VENTRICLE
2. Posterior horn of lateral ventricle 3. Anterior horn of lateral ventricle 4. Thalamus 5. Head of caudate nucleus 6. Genu of corpus callosum 7. Choroid plexus 8. Tela choroidea 9. Septum pellucidum 10. Vermis of cerebellum

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THIRD VENTRICLE
• The third ventricle is a narrow cavity located between the two hemispheres of the diencephalon. • Serves as a route for transportation of CSF from the lateral ventricle to the fourth ventricle.

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FORAMEN OF MONRO
• Intraventricular foramen • Lateral ventricles Communication between lateral ventricles and the third ventricle.

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FOURTH VENTRICLE
• The fourth ventricle is a diamond shaped cavity located behind the pons and medulla oblongata. • Extends into medulla oblongata. • Becomes continuous with central canal of the spinal cord. • Protects the Brain From Trauma.

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AQUEDUCTUS SYLVIUS
• It is an interventricular aqueduct, also known as the mesencephalic aqueduct. • The Aqueduct Sylvius is a canal that is located between the third ventricle and the fourth ventricle.

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CSF – WHO AM I???
• Clear tissue fluid that forms a protective cushion around and within the CNS. • It is stored within the central canal of the spinal cord and in the brain’s ventricles, which are interconnecting chambers that also produce cerebrospinal fluid. • Normally, any excess cerebrospinal fluid drains away into the cardiovascular system.
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THE BIRTH OF CSF
• • • • • Formed in the choroid plexus. CSF secreted into ventricles. Remove waste products from CSF Adjust composition of CSF Produces about 500 ml of CSF/day

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CHOROID PLEXUS
• A cluster of specialized capillaries enclosed by specialized cells that line the brain ventricles. • The choroid plexus is located behind the pons and medulla oblongata. • Produces Cerebrospinal Fluid. • Barrier Between Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid.

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THE JOURNEY OF CSF

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WHY CSF???
• • •
• • •

Cushions delicate neural structures. Supports brain. Transports
Nutrients Chemical messengers Waste products.

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WAKE UP FOLKS!!!! ITS QUESTIONS TIME
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THANK YOU!!!
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