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DP SEMINAR

The Principles, Practices and


Problems of Safe DP Operations

Global Maritime

INTRODUCTION TO GM

Jose Vera Vega


Chris Jenman
Walter Rodriguez
Doug Phillips
Jack Mercier
Kees van Beveren

Global Maritime

MORNING SESSION
INTRODUCTION TO GM
DP HISTORY
BASIC PHILOSOPHY
SCOPE OF DP
DP EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DP
DP CAPABILITY
FMEA
OPERATIONS, TRAINING AND DOCUMENTATION
WEATHER PRECAUTIONS
INTERNATIONAL, GOVERNMENT AND REGULATION
ASSESSMENT TOOLS

Global Maritime

AFTERNOON SESSIONS
FOUR GROUPS --- DP PROBLEMS
(KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER)
PIPE LAY
ACCOMMODATION
HEAVY LIFT
DIVING
Closing combined session on the way forward
DP incidents

Global Maritime

Global Maritime
the leading marine, offshore & engineering consultant

Established 1979
Global Maritime

Global Maritime Group


G L O B A L M A R IT IM E
H O L D IN G S L I M IT E D

E a g le L y o n P o p e
L im ite d
(7 S ta ff )

H a li f a x
C anada
(B ra n c h o ffic e )

G lo b a l M a ritim e
C o n s u l t a n c y L im i te d
(3 4 S ta ff )

S i n g a p o re
F a r E a st
(B ra n c h o ffic e )

G lo b a l M a ritim e
S c o tla n d L im ite d
(2 0 S ta ff )

B a ku
A z e rb a ija n
(B ra n c h o ffic e )

A m e ric an
G lo b a l M a ritim e In c
(1 8 S ta ff )

G l o b a l M a r i t i m e A /S
S ta v a n g e r
(3 2 S ta ff )

C iu d a d d e l C a rm e n
M e x ic o
(B ra n c h o ffic e )

Global Maritime

Mariners
18%

Marine
Engineers
11%

Civil/Strucural
Engineers
21%

Others
16%
Administration
8%

Naval
Architects
26%

Global Maritime

Global Maritime and DP

1980 Investigating DP incidents


1981 design review and FMEA of 3 new DP vessels
1994 UK Government contract
1985-1990 DP Incident publication for UK DoE
1990 Formation of DPVOA (GM Secretariat)
1990-91 Guidelines for the design and operation of DP
vessels
1992-3 IMO working group for MSC 645
1994 IMO MSC 645 in force
1995 Petrobras DPPS Group
1995-6 IMO MCS 738 Training and Experience of key DP
Personnel
1996 DPVOA + AODC = IMCA
1996-present Technical Advisors and Committee Members to
IMCA
Global Maritime

Current DP Work
Original Design: New semi,
new heavy lift vessel
Design Advice: Three new
DP drilling semi-subs, One
new Accommodation semi,
One new special semi
Upgrades: One DP DSV,
One DP drilling Semi,
FMEA and Trials, Three DP
tankers, One Drillship, two
DP DSVs
Analysis: 2003 DP
Incidents, 10 years of DP
incident data, Update of
safety of tanker offtake, Data
base for DP drilling units
running WSOG

Global Maritime

EMERGENCY
EMERGENCY
DISCONNECT
DISCONNECT

NO
NO
RECOVERY
RECOVERY
LIKELY
LIKELY

or
or

LOSS OF
LOSS OF
POSITION
POSITION

OPERATOR
OPERATOR
ERROR
ERROR
0.130
0.130
0.130

and
and

INSUFFICIENT
INSUFFICIENT
POWER OR
POWER OR
THRUST
THRUST

OPERATOR
OPERATOR
ERROR
ERROR

and
and

OPERATOR
OPERATOR
ERROR
ERROR

or
or

ENVIRONMENTAL
ENVIRONMENTAL
FORCE
FORCE
0.109
0.109
0.109

ELECTRICAL
ELECTRICAL
FAULT
FAULT
0.087
0.087
0.087

NEW
NEW
FAILURE
FAILURE
MODE
MODE

LOSS OF
LOSS OF
POSITION
POSITION

DP
DP
EQUIPMENT
EQUIPMENT
FAULT
FAULT

or
or

POWER OR
POWER OR
THRUST
THRUST
FAULT
FAULT

or
or

POWER
POWER
GENERATION
GENERATION
FAULT
FAULT
0.174
0.174
0.174

SOFTWARE
SOFTWARE
FAULT
FAULT

HARDWARE
HARDWARE
FAULT
FAULT

REFERENCE
REFERENCE
FAULT
FAULT

0.152
0.152
0.152

0.022
0.022
0.022

0.261
0.261
0.261

THRUSTER
THRUSTER
FAULT
FAULT
0.065
0.065
0.065

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DP HISTORY

Global Maritime
Courtesy of Fugro GEOS

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DP HISTORY

1961 Mohole Project


Mohorovici discontinuity
Cuss 1 La Jolla California (manual)
Eureka for drilled in 500 ft for Shell
(automatic)
1968 Glomar Challenger drill in 5000 m

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What is the Mohorovicic


Discontinuity?
The surface of the earth is
called the crust, which is
the uppermost part of the
Lithosphere (which
includes the upper portions
of the mantle). The "Moho"
is the boundary between
the crust and upper
mantle.
Global Maritime
Courtesy of Fugro GEOS

15

DP DEVELOPMENT
1970s Drilling then Diving
1980s More Diving then ROV Vessels
1990 More Construction, Accommodation, 5th Gen
Drilling Vessels and many other applications Pipe lay, heavy lift, mine hunt, buoy tender, rock dump,
dredge, well stim, offtake tankers, FPSO, cruise liners,
cable layers, offshore supply, seismic, diamond
mining, treasure hunting, etc.

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SUPPLIERS
Early 1970s Honeywell then1990s Nautronix
Mid to Late 1970s GEC and Kongsberg
Cegelec and Simrad, Alstom and Kongsberg,
Acoustics Honeywell and Simrad, Later
Sonardyne and then Nautronix
DGPS Racal, John E Chance, Fugro now
Thales

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Basic Philosophy
Dynamic
Dynamic
Positioning??
Positioning??

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DP Definition
May be defined as a system which
automatically maintains the position and
heading exclusively by means of active
thrust

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DP Definition
A dynamically positioned vessel (DPvessel) means a unit or a vessel
which automatically maintains its
position (fixed location or
predetermined track) exclusively by
means of thruster force.

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UNLIKELY IDEA?

Wind

Waves

Current Forces

Global Maritime
Courtesy of Fugro GEOS

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Rotational about the Vertical Axis


Linear along the
Athwartship Axis

Rotational about
the Longitudinal
Axis

Rotational about the


Athwartship Axis

Linear along
the Longitudinal Axis

Linear along the


Vertical Axis

Courtesy of Petroleum Extension


Service, U at Austin

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What DP Does
External forces (wind,waves,current move
the vessel away from desired position.
DP system controls vessel motion in the
Surge, Sway and Yaw axis.
Commands are sent to the thrusters such
that the vessel returns to the desired set
point.
It all revolves around knowing where you
were, where you want to be, (how fast you
are getting there) and where you are now.
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Basic Philosophy
A fully operational DP system shall
Reliably keep a vessel in position.
Have a max. excursion = or < than 1/2 the
critical excursion for work carried out.
All necessary equipment is working.
Provide adequate information to operators.
Have a permanently manned DP & ECR.

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Basic Philosophy
Safe working limits be determined for
Location
Type of task to be performed
Known failure modes
Time to restore the DP system and/or
move to a safe situation.

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Basic Philosophy
'safe situation' where the work could immediately cease
and there are no serious consequences from position loss.
'safe working limits' are the environmental limits that
would make a critical excursion from a single fault very
unlikely, because
adequate control and power remaining,
environmental loads are small
the time to reach a safe situation is short in comparison to the
speed of position loss
because in the existing circumstances and conditions position
loss does not have any serious consequences.

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DP EQUIPMENT CLASSES

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DP Class
4 Classes (levels) of redundancy
Class 0 No redundancy
Class 1 Limited redundancy (a back up joystick
control)
Class 2 Redundant No single failure, hidden
failure, or act of mal-operation
Class 3 As with class 2, plus redundancy in event
of loss of compartment due to fire or flooding.

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DP Class 2
Additional requirements
DP system must have full Failure Modes
and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
Automatic bump less changeover
Consequence analysis.

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DP Class 3
All of Class 2 plus:
Able to maintain position in the event of the
loss of ANY one compartment.
Separate engine rooms (fuel supplies, air,
cooling)
Separate switchboard rooms
Separate cable runs for all DP systems
Back up DP control system and necessary
equipment in separate room with A60 bulkhead
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DP Class
.

Body
IMO
ABS
LRS
DNV
BV
IMCA

Class 2
Class 2
DPS-2
AA
AUTR
MAR
Class 2

Class 3
Class 3
DPS-3
AAA
AUTRO
MARS
Class 3

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Some Differences
IMO and Lloyds require 3 gyrocompasses
for class 2 certification
ABS require 2 gyrocompasses
DNV now include hidden failures
GL and BV do not have many DP vessels
Class relies on local surveyors
Notation is not weather related

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IMO DP Class
IMO in MSC Circular 645 (Ref. 1),
recommends that DP vessels built after 1st
July 1994 be assigned an Equipment
Class.

Class 1.
Class 2.
Class 3.
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IMO DP Class 1
Loss of position may occur in the event of
a single fault.

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IMO DP Class 2

Loss of position should not occur from a single


fault of an active component or system such as
generators, thruster, switchboards remote
controlled valves etc. A loss of position is
possible from a fire of water ingress or after
failure of a static component such as cables,
pipes, manual valves etc.
.

&
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IMO DP Class

Class 3 - Loss of position should not occur


from any single failure including a
completely burnt fire sub division or
flooded watertight compartment.
NOTE - A single fault includes a single
inadvertent act by any person on board the
DP Vessel.

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The boundaries are uncertain

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SCOPE
OF A
DYNAMIC POSITIONING
SYSTEM

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Scope of Dynamic Positioning


A Dynamic Positioning system comprises
All equipment that directly or indirectly effects the
position keeping ability
The DP comprise three main areas:areas
Power generation,
generation distribution & consumption (by
thrusters) Control - power management and position control
References - sensors for position, environmental
and vessel attitude

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DP SYSTEM

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Wind
WindSensor
Sensor
Power
Power
System
System
DP
DP
Controller
Controller
Current
Current
Estimator
Estimator

Wind
Wind
Comp
Comp
Thruster
Thruster
Allocate
Allocate

Thruster
Thruster
Curves
Curves

Barred
Barred
Zones
Zones

VRS
VRS
Gyro
Gyro

Thrusters
Thrusters

Wind
Wind
Waves
Waves
Current
Current
Vessel
Vessel

Position
PositionMeasure
Measure
Per
PerAxis:
Axis:Surge
SurgeSway
Sway--Yaw
Yaw

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Scope of Dynamic Positioning


Equipment that provides redundancy has
to be on line or immediately available
Such that
sudden failure of one item will not cause an
unexpected position excursion
transfer of control between redundant
equipment should be smooth.
So no unwanted thruster activity occurs .
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Deepwater Horizon

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DP Equipment

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FUEL
PRIME MOVER

ENERGY
TRANSLATION

GENERATOR
DISTRIBUTION
DRIVE
PROPELLER
OPPOSE WEATHER
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COFFEE BREAK!!!!

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DP Equipment
Power Generation prime movers, generators, fuel,
sea water cooling, fresh water cooling, lube oil,
compressed air, ventilation.
Power Distribution high voltage, medium voltage,
low voltage, control voltage, DC voltage, UPS
Thrusters drives, azimuth control, thrust control,
cooling, ventilation, feedbacks, emergency stops,
direct manual controls.

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DP Equipment
Power Management Redundancy, Auto Start and
Stop, Start Blocking, Load Sharing kW, Load
Sharing kVAR, Black Out Recovery, Load Shed,
Phase Back, DP Power Limiting
Position Control Arrangement, Networks (number,
topography), Operator Stations, Outstations, Power
Supplies (diodes), Control Modes, Thruster Modes,
features (consequence analysis, fast current
update), DP Interruptible Power Supplies, distribution
(batteries, duration, distribution)

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DP Equipment
Position Reference Systems DGPS,
Acoustics, Taut Wire, Artemis, Fan Beam,
Gangway, - Pos Ref Processing (weighting,
voting, median test)
Sensors
Gyro compasses, Vertical
Reference Sensors, Wind Sensors, - Voting

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DP Equipment
For Class 3
Cabling and Physical Separation

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DP Equipment Human Factors


Control Position - view of work area, radar, Manual
Controlnearby, e stops, CCTV monitors, cameras,
layouts, night, sun
Communications DP alerts, VHF, SPT, telephone, talk
back
Operations Manual, Standing Orders, Emergency
Procedures, Check Lists DP, ECR,
Qualifications, Shift Pattern and DP watch, ECR
manning when on DP.

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Consequence Analysis
Real-time station keeping monitoring
program
Predicts if vessel would be able to
maintain current position if single worst
failure occurs
Thruster failure
Generator failure
Switchboard failure
Compartment failure (class 3 only)
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Position Reference System


Class 2 and 3 Operations require 3 or
more position references, preferably
different types.
Older system used only 1 at a time and
switched to the standby system upon
failure
Currently systems are weighted together
to form a blended position with a Median
Test (voter).
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Ships Course
Hydrophone

Ship
Fix

Acoustic Signal
Transmission
from Hydrophone

Subsurface
Reference
Beacon No. 2

Long Base Line System

Transponded
Acoustic
Signal from
Beacon

Phase del ay used to


c ompute position
Phase
measuring
rec eiver
Phase
measuring
rec eiver

Subsurface
Reference
Beacon No. 3

Positi on
Computer

Phase
measuring
rec eiver

Subsurface
Reference
Beacon No. 1

Ultrashort
Base Line
System

Courtesy of Nautronix
Single
Hydrophone

Three
c losely
spac ed
sensors

Tone
Burst
Free running
Beacon

Individual
cyc le of tone
burst
Single Hydrophone phase c omparison system

Courtesy of Nautronix

Short Base Line System

Types of Acoustic Systems


Global Maritime
Courtesy of Nautronix

Pages

63

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SECTION SLIDE

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Laser Based

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DGPS
(REF)

T.W.

ference Sensor Processing

Sensor Validation

Laser Radar

Beacon 1

Beacon 2

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Sensor Calibrati

Processing of Position Signals


Redundant Operations require 3 or more
position references, preferably different types.
Older system used only 1 at a time and
switched to the standby system upon failure
Currently systems are automatically weighted
together to form a blended position
Then used by to update the Kalman Model and
come up with a best position error and
velocity estimate.
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Median Check (voting)


Problem with seemingly perfect
measurements
Requires a minimum of 3 position feedbacks
Compares all feedbacks to the middle
(median) value
Any that exceed an operator determined set
point are rejected from the weighted average
So rejects perfectmeasurement
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Interactions
VRS Acoustic, Taut Wire, DGPS, Fan
Beam, Artemis
Gyro position calculation, HPR,
DGPS, survey
Thruster Feedbacks into Kalman
UPS through these
Power info to DP
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Other Control Systems

Pitch, Speed and Rudder Servos


AVR
Governors
Power Management System
(phase back, thrust reduction, DP limit
- predictive or reactive)
SW, LTFW, HTFW Cooling
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Weak Points

Auto Manual Changeover


Power Interface
Networks
Diodes
Consistent worse case failure

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DP ADVANTAGES
&
DISADVANTAGES

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WHY DP?

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Benefits of DP
Reduced deployment time & no anchors
Increased mobility of the unit (survey work,
dive work) and DP drill ships are self
propelled (No tugs) Escape from hurricanes
Accurate station keeping, independent of
water depth, in nearly all weather (2-3
meters accuracy)
Greater freedom in design phase of the
vessel. Greater deck loads, Able to carry all
the required equipment all the time
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Drawbacks of DP
Increased CAPEX
Higher OPEX (balanced by quicker
deployment time)
Increased maintenance and equipment
requirements
Not a passive system, DP control room
requires 24 hours a day manning.
Requires additional skilled labor (ETs and
DPOs)
Can go wrong dramatically
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APPLICATIONS
Once used only when mooring was not an option
Used worldwide for numerous applications
Crane ,Dive,
Dive ROV, Buoy Handling,
Pipe lay,
lay rock dumping, dredging
Cable Lay, Accommodation
Offshore Offloading Tankers, FPSO
Platform Support, Drilling
Seismic, Cruise

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DP CAPABILITY

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DP CAPABILITY
The purpose of is to have a plots for
the operators that shows the limit that
cannot be exceeded if position is to
be kept when the
most effective thruster suddenly
stops
or the worse case failure occurs.

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The max. operational station keeping capability for


the DP system be calculated for:
All thrusters operational with maximum
thrust
All thrusters, except the most effective
operational with max. effective thrust
The maximum number of thrusters
and/or power units that could be
operational after the worst single
failure.

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DP Capability Plot

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CAPABILITY CASES
Polar plot form for various current speeds,
e.g.1.0, 1.5 and 2 knots
Co-incident with wind and associated wave
loads fully developed sea
Realistic allowance for losses - thruster
interaction, tunnel length, high current,
control system response, etc.
Footprints and full scale confirmation

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FMEA
FMEA?
FMEA?
!!!!
!!!!

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FMEA
FAILURE
MODES
&

EFFECTS
ANALYSIS

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FMEA and Trials


Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
Required by IMO, IMCA and Classification
Societies for class 2 and class 3 vessels
Seeks to ensure no single fault that could
result in loss of position
Needs to be proven in practice during
FMEA proving trials
Failures are simulated and results
documented
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OBJECTIVES OF DP FMEA
DRIFT OFF
DRIVE OFF
LARGE EXCURSION
HIDDEN FAILURE
SINGLE ACT OF MAL OPERATION
In principle can any of the known DP
incidents happen on this vessel?

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FMEA

A formal FMEA study.


The modes that should be considered are;
Sudden loss of major items of equipment
Sudden or sequential loss of several items of
equipment with a common link
Control instability failures and their method of
detection and isolation
Faults that can be hidden until another fault occurs
should also be considered
The likely operator responses

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FMEA
Operator responses to the failures should be in the
operations manual for operational scenarios for which
the vessel is intended.
The FMEA should also consider likely operational
scenarios
shallow water
high tidal streams
working close to installations
FMEA updated if modifications are made that are
likely to effect the FMEA

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FMEA Proving Trials

DP vessels have to undergo FMEA proving trials, in addition to


and after, dockside testing, commissioning and customer
acceptance trials.
Failure modes should be simulated to prove the FMEA
Results of such tests independently documented by a 3rd party
Performance should be demonstrated in both the intact and
various failed conditions
Proving trials be properly documented and the results available
Value lost if findings not transferred to operators

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ANNUAL TRIALS
Re checks redundancy of the system
Demonstrate DP to potential clients
Prevent repetition of tests when taken
on hire
Introduce problems newly found by
the industry
BUT the system is not perfect!!!!!!!!

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OPERATION, TRAINING
AND DOCUMENTATION

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OPERATION
Every DP vessel should have an
operations manual that is particular to
that DP system and the operating
practice of the owners or operators of
the vessel.
Cover all the work for which the vessel is
designed or likely to be used. It should
not be what the DP vendor supplies but
reference this document (not repeat it)

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OPERATIONS MANUAL
include but not be limited to
Capability plots and verification trials data
Proving trials data
Working profiles and capabilities of equipment
DP alerts, emergency responses and procedures
Responsibilities and communications
Approach, setting up, checking and testing of the DP system
Reporting and recording
DP footprints
Manning

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DOCUMENTATION
Job Specific Documentation
In addition to the operations manual each work location, task or operation
of the DP vessel may require a
document particular project if the
general document will not suffice e.g.
project safety plan HAZOP/HAZID
exercises and close out
documentation.
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DOCUMENTATION
Check Lists, Tests and Trials
Vessel acceptance trials results
Annual trials for quality assurance of the DP
system
Mobilisation checks for new charter
DP bridge check list for new location
ECR check list for new location
Watch status check lists
Acoustic and Taut Wire Logs
Schematics of DGPS options .

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DOCUMENTATION
Reporting and recording
DP log books
Data logging
Print outs
Incidents
Maintenance, modifications & service

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TRAINING
IMO MSC 738 - Training and Experience of Key DP
Personnel
Nautical Institute accredited DP log books and certificates
A shore based induction course 4 to 5 days
At least one month as an under study trainee DPO
Shore based simulator training 4 to 5 days
Six months supervised training as Junior DPO
Apply to Nautical Institute assessed and signed of by
Captain
Requirements for familiarization when on a new vessel

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WEATHER PRECAUTIONS

???????
???????

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WEATHER PRECAUTIONS
DPOs should pay attention to any
indications of impending weather
changes - sudden shifts in wind force
and direction, and tidal changes
to ensure that timely action is taken
to reduce the possibility of a critical
excursion that exceeds the safe
working limits.

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WEATHER PRECAUTIONS
Obtain regular & frequent weather forecasts for
the area, use of fax facilities and charts.
Info.from other units in the vicinity about
prevailing weather conditions in their areas.
Use of experience to assess the prevailing
conditions and likely trends.
The environmental information measured by the
DP system and any trends
Use of onboard meteorological instruments
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WEATHER PRECAUTIONS
Notes: Vessel is to work to upwind (or up current) of
a platform or obstruction the additional power
that might be required to reach a safe situation
DP capability based on fully developed sea so
wrong impression at beginning of a storm
Any doubt the vessel should move clear
deselect thrusters according to the worst
case failure and see if position is maintained.

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INTERNATIONAL, GOV. & REG

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INTERNATIONAL, GOV. & REG


Class Societies ABS, BV, DNV
and Lloyds
IMO DP guidelines
Flag State
Port Authority
IMCA Design and Operation of
Dynamically Positioned Vessels
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ASSESSMENT TOOLS
???????
???????

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BASIC ASSESSMENT TOOLS


IMCA/UKOAA Marine and DP Audit
Black Book
FMEA and Trials
IMCA Membership
Capability Plots Proven
Incident Reporting
Independent Third Party for Annual Trials
No warning Audits
Personnel,Qualifications,assessment
ownership

and

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AFTERNOON SESSION

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AFTERNOON SESSION
FOUR GROUPS --- DP PROBLEMS (KNOWLEDGE
TRANSFER)

PIPE LAY
ACCOMMODATION
HEAVY LIFT
DIVING

Closing combined session on the way forward


DP Incidents Chris Jenman

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AFTERNOON SESSION

Equipment Failure, Drift Off, Drive Off, or Excursion


Operator Error
Three reference systems
Proximity of platform - clearances
Anchor Wires
Clearances
Use of tugs and of safety anchors
DP Simultaneous operations
Acoustic Frequencies
Communications

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ACCOMMODATION

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ACCOMMODATION
Gangway instrumentation
Gangway
possible
damage
platform
Alarms and Auto lift

to

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HEAVY LIFT

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HEAVY LIFT
Lifting wire tension
Simultaneous operations with Ballasting
Heavy Lift Mode

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PIPELAY

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PIPE LAY
Time to abandon pipe
Pipe tension interface
Pipe tension effect on DP
Backing over the pipe

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DIVING

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DIVING
Umbilical
Down Lines (inc acoustics and
taut wires)
Shallow Water
Taut Wires
Movements

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LUNCH BREAK!!!!

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Related Interests