Lalyn L. Quiamno (n_n)
What is Programmed Instruction?
a Computer-based training that comprises of graphics, multimedia, text that is connected to one another and is stored in memory. Programmed instruction is the procedure of guiding the participants strategically through the information in a way that facilitates the most effective and efficient learning. It provides the participant with content, information, asks questions, and based on the answer goes to the next level of information i.e. if the trainee gives the correct answer; one branch moves the trainee forward to the new information. And if the trainee gives the wrong answer then different branch is activated, taking the trainee back to the review relevant information in more elaborate manner
Two Approaches to Programmed Instruction:
- all trainees follow from the identical program in the same sequence. The learning steps are very simple that trainees rarely make incorrect responses. So they receive frequent positive reinforcement.
- designed to conform more to individual differences in the level of liability. Trainees are allowed to skips steps if they are learning the material well or to go back for the remedial work if they are not learning it well.
Advantages of Programmed instruction
Programmed instruction provides for continuous active participation on the part of the trainees, who must record their answers to one item before proceeding to the next. In machine- assisted programmed instruction; it may be impossible to move on to the next item until the current one is answered. Programmed instruction provides constant and immediate feedback or knowledge of results. After each item, the trainees are informed of the adequacy of their response. Positive reinforcement is provided. The items are purposely constructed to increase the probability that the trainees will be able to learn the correct response.
Proponents of Programmed Instruction have additional advantages:
Programmed instruction eliminates the need for an instructor. Because of programmed instruction caters to individual differences, brighter trainees may complete a course of instruction more quickly than in a group- teaching situation, which would have to geared to the average level of the class. The course of instruction is standardized. All trainees are exposed to the same material. A complete record of progress is provided each trainee that could aid in the future counseling of those who might experience difficulties.
Disadvantages of Programmed instruction
The kind of material that can be taught by programmed instruction is limited. Programmed instruction techniques can be costly to develop and operate. Programmed instruction has been shown to be a faster method of training but the level of learning is no higher than traditional teaching method.
CAI (Computer- assisted Instruction)
can be used in conjunction with a training instructor who introduces the material and then directs the trainee to the computer for specific topics program of instructional material presented by means of a computer or computer systems
Advantages of computerAssisted Instruction
The greater amount of individualized instruction is offers as compared to programmed instruction. CAI assumes complete record- keeping functions and always has an up- to- date performance analysis of each trainee, instructors has more time to devote to individual problems. It allows trainee to participate actively in the learning process, and it provides positive reinforcement and immediate knowledge of result.
Research indicates that CAI trained students performed at the same level or higher those who were trained by traditional or even by programmed instruction and that learning took place in a much shorter period of time.
A performance audit is conducted periodically in a organization to determine the existence of specific problems or employee behavior that should be changed A program positive reinforcement is introduced whereby employees are reinforced when they display the desired behavior. Punishment is not used; instead of being punished for displaying undesirable behaviors, trainees are rewarded for displaying desirable behaviors.
TRAINING METHODS FOR MANAGERS
Two Goals in Management Training
There is training in the general skills required for leadership roles: decision making, problem solving, delegation of responsibility, and other abilities necessary for managerial success. There are human relations trainings directed toward optimizing the interpersonal relation vital to managers employee harmony.
TECHNIQUES USED FOR MANAGEMENT TRAINING
JOB ROTATION CASE STUDY METHOD INCIDENT PROCCESS IN- BASKET TARINING ROLE PLAYING
BEHAVIOR MODELLING SENSITIVITY TRAINING
It involves exposing trainees to different jobs and departments within the organization to acquaint them with all facets of the business. It offers continuing challenge of adapting to and learning about, many kinds of operations and responsibilities.
Disadvantages of Job Rotation
If the rotation is too short I each job, there may not be sufficient time for the trainee to learn it before it is time to move on. If top management is more interested in the trainees some sort of temporary office help instead of rising managers in need of their guidance and example, the purpose of the rotation program is not being served. The trainee may not have the chance to acquire necessary skills to transfer to higher levels of management.
CASE STUDY METHOD
It was developed School of Business by the Harvard
The purpose of the case study method is to teach trainees the skills of group problemsolving and decisionmaking, the ability to analyze and criticize their own assumptions and interpretations and the ability to be amenable to points of view other than their own.
a modification of presentation of brief incident in a management situation rather than a complex problem. More formalized training procedure, in that the instructor takes an active role in the discussion.
Intended primarily to develop problem- solving and decision- making skills and to provide practice in exercising these skills in a situation in which mistakes will not harm the organization.
Two types of business games
Top management games
- dealing with the decision ± making problem faced by high- level corporate officers
- dealing with the operation of single aspects of a company such as production control or marketing.
IN- BASKET TARINING
A method of selection Is conceptually a business game in that is stimulates the job of a manager. The trainee operates alone rather than a part of a group.
Management trainees project themselves into a particular role and act out the behavior they believe is appropriate in that situation. Can provide the trainees with a greater sensitivity to others, particularly subordinates. Many management supervisor gain an appreciation of the worker¶s viewpoint , which they would never experience
It involves having trainees model their behavior on example of exemplary management performance.
FOUR FEATURES OF MODELLING
Modeling- is the core of the training. Trainee¶s watch a film or video tape of a manager who is effectively handling particularly job performance with a subordinates.
Behavior rehearsal ± practicing behaviors performed by the model. Trainees are to role playing in this case they are rehearsing the actual behaviors they will use on the job, the behaviors they witnessed in the film.
Feedback- telling each trainee how well he or she was able to imitate the behavior of the model. trainees become increasingly confident in displaying the modeled behaviors under the social reinforcement conditions provided by the feedback Transfers of training- refers to a variety designed to assure that what is being learned in the modeling sessions transfers or carries over to the job.
Known as group training, laboratory training, encounter groups and actions group Designed to develop an understanding of interpersonal communication and interaction. The techniques shows individuals how others react to, perceive, them and what effects their behavior has on others.