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Office of

the
Biomass
Program

DOE/EE/OBP
Biomass Program
Overview and Products
R&D
Western Regional
Sun Grant Initiative

Dr. Todd Werpy


PNNL/DOE
August 16, 2004
Office of
Mission of OBP the
Biomass
Program

“The mission of OBP is to partner with U.S.


industry to foster research and
development on advanced technologies
that will transform our abundant biomass
resources into clean, affordable, and
domestically-produced biofuels, biopower
and high-value products. The result will
be improved economic development,
expanded energy supply options, and
increased energy security”

 
Office of
Program Goals the
Biomass
Program

Develop biorefinery-related
technologies to the point that they are
cost and performance competitive and
are used by the nation’s
transportation, energy, chemical, and
power industries to meet their market
objectives
2005: Demonstrate an
integrated process for
fuels production from
biomass
2007: Complete technology
development necessary to
enable start-up demonstration of
a biorefinery producing fuels,
chemicals, and power
2010: Help U.S. industry to
establish the first large-scale
  integrated biorefinery based on
agricultural residues
Strategy: Office of
the
Remove Biomass
Technical Program

Barriers
Advanced Biomass Process R&D

Sugar Feedstocks & Lignin Residues


Sugar
Platform
Mixed Sugars
Fuels,
Chemicals
Biomass ,
Materials,
Thermo- Heat &
Chemical Power
Platform
Syngas, Pyrolysis-
oils
CO, H2, Bio-
oils

Technology Validation and Systems


 
Integration “The Integrated
Biorefinery”
Office of
Program Strategy the
Biomass
Program

• Analysis is used to identify major cost barrier


areas in each element of the program
• Research is dedicated to overcoming these
barriers and reducing the cost of each process as
well as the final integrated biorefinery
• Program is driven by private public partnerships
to ensure integrity of the program
• Regular reviews are undertaken to ensure
progress and fiduciary responsibility
• Program is based on both near term and long
R&D objectives

 
Office of
Program Structure the
Biomass
Program

Congressional Mandates -
$41MM
$6MM $16.9 $5MM $20 MM $21.7
MM MM

 
Office of
Biomass Program Funding the
Biomass
Program

Earmarks and Total Funding


Millions of Dollars per Year
$150
Legend
$140
$130 Earmarks
• Three-fold increase in
$120
Total Funds for Planned R&D
earmarks since 2000
$110
$100
• EWD Earmarks have
$90 grown from 18% to
$80 over 47% of the total
$70
$60 funding
$50 74 80 61
• Real decline in the
$40
$30
81 94 available funds used
$20 in support planned
$10
$0
13 18 39 30 41 R&D
FY00 FY 01 FY 02 FY 03 FY 04

 
Building the Bio-refinery Office
the
of

Biomass
Program

• Maximize the value from the existing


infrastructure
• Bring lignocellulosics into those
existing facilities
• Build stand alone lignocellulosic
facilities

 
An Example of a Office of
the
Grains Bio-refinery Biomass
Program

Corn Wet Mill

corn gluten corn gluten


starch corn oil
feed meal

hydrolysis
Phytochemicals
food & industrial food oils
C-5 Products glucose industrial oils glycerol
starches feed oils
Xylitol & polyols
hydrogenation fermentation

sorbitol
sorbitol high fructose Other other
citric acid lactic acid fuel corn syrup sweeteners
lysine
ethanol
xanthan gums
itaconic acid
& other PLA
• foodstuffs polymers Bio-diesel
polyols
polyols isosorbide fermentation
• pharma . Other Products Di-acids
products
Of Fermentation Epoxides
Diols
•resins
resins && plastics
plastics Diacids
deicers
applications Polymers
solvents
coatings Vinyl Monomer
•polyesters
polyesters
•surfactants
surfactants
•pharmaceuticals
pharmaceuticals

 
Building the Biorefinery Office
the
of

Current Portfolio Biomass


Biomass Program
Feedstock

Starch Cellulose Hemi-Cellulose Oil Lignin Protein

Industrial Xylose Polyols Pyrolyis Oil Animal


Glucose
Starches Arabinose Gasification Feed

Liquid Xylitol
3-HP Liquid
Fuels (EtOH) Arabinitol
(Acrylic Acid) Fuels (EtOH)

Itaconic
1,3-PDO PG and EG PG and EG
Acid

Lactic Acid Succinic


  Esters Isosorbide
PLA Acid
Current Status of Office of
the
Ethanol Dry Mills Biomass
Program

• Economics can be difficult


– Current ethanol facilities are limited to
only two products, ethanol and DDG
– Economics are highly dependent of
value of the co-product DDG
– Significant energy costs are associated
with the drying of DDG
– Markets for DDG are not always
favorable and will deteriorate as
additional ethanol facilities come on line

 
Strategies for Office of
the
Creating Biomass
Program
Additional
• Modify dry mills Value
to include a quick
steeping process that allows germ
recovery
• Add an intermediate filtration
process to recovery non-starch
derived sugars (hemicellulose)
• Develop new fermentations for
utilization of five carbon sugars
(itaconic acid, succinic acid, etc)
• Develop new chemistry to produce
value added products from hemi-
cellulose (sugar alcohols, polyols)
• Include an energy component-gasify
  “DDG or modified DDG” to produce
fuel gas
Office of
Current Ethanol Process the
Biomass
Program

Corn Dry Grind Liquefaction Scarification

Primary 50% Distillation 95% Molecular


Fermentation Distillation Rectifier Sieves
EtOH EtOH
Solids
100%
Centrifuge EtOH
DDG DDG
Liquids Ethanol
Dryer Animal Feed
Triple Effect Solids
Evaporator

Water Recycle
 
The Holistic Ethanol Facility Office
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Biomass
Program

Oil

Germ
Corn Quick Steep Separation Scarification

Ethanol 95% Molecular


Filtration Fermentation EtOH
Starch Recovery EtOH Sieves
100%
New DDG EtOH
“Fiber” Hydrolysis Animal Feed
Ethanol

Itaconic
Gasification Fermentation
Succinic, Etc

Catalytic EG, PG
Fuel/Power Conversions Glycerol, Etc
 
The New Ethanol Bio-RefineryOffice
the
of

Biomass
Program

• Build a bio-refinery based on creating the


maximum value from each component
associated with the feedstock
• Includes a fuel component, energy
component, and value added products
component
• Will allow for expansion of ethanol
utilization based on solid economics
• Energy independence for the facilities
could be critical to financial stability
• Be the model to build future
 
lignocellulosic facilities
Chemicals and Office of
the
Materials Analysis Biomass
Program

• Used the current petrochemical refinery


as a model
• Surveyed over 350 chemical/material
opportunities
• Reduced initial 350 to 30
• Reduced 30 to 12 based primarily on the
following:
– Economic considerations
– Technical considerations
– Building block strategies

 
Office of
the
Biomass
Program

 
Office of
5-Carbon Building Blocks the
Biomass
Program

Methyl succinate derivatives (see above), unsaturated esters

Itaconic acid
Many furan derivatives
Furfural

C5 Levulinic acid δ-aminolevulinate, 2-Methyl THF, 1,4-diols, esters, succinate

Glutamic acid Amino diols, glutaric acid,substituted pyrrolidones

Xylonic acid
Lactones, esters
Xylitol/Arabitol
EG, PG, glycerol, lactate, hydroxy furans, sugar acids

 
Office of
Itaconic Acid the
Biomass
Program
H3C
NH2
H2N
O CH3
O
2-Methyl-1,4-butaneiamine
3- & 4-Methyl-GBL

H3 C O O
OH NH2
HO H2N
O CH2 O CH2 O
Itaconic acid
3-Methyl THF Itaconic diamide
H3 C

OH CH3
HO
N
CH3
O H
N
2-Methyl-1,4-BDO 3-Methylpyrrolidine
Styrene-butadiene CH3
copolymers 3- & 4-Methyl NMP
And other pyrrolidones

 
Chemicals and Materials
Office of
the
Biomass
‘Top Ten” Analysis Program

• Mapping the potential for chemicals


and materials from platform outputs
• ChemicalsFutureDiagram.ppt

• Future activities will include working


with industry to identify areas of
needed R&D
– Includes solicitations
 
– Includes core R&D activities
Value-Added Building Office
the
of

Blocks Derived From SugarsBiomass


Program

Building Blocks
1,4 succinic, fumaric and malic acids
2,5 furan dicarboxylic acid
3 hydroxy propionic acid
aspartic acid
glucaric acid
glutamic acid
itaconic acid
levulinic acid
3-hydroxybutyrolactone
glycerol
sorbitol
xylitol/arabinitol
 
Key Technology Hurdles Office
the
of

for Products Biomass


Program

• Fuels
– Improved fermentation of five carbon
sugars
– More robust fermentations that
withstand the impurities from
pretreatment
– Mixed fermentations
– Fermentation rates

 
Key Technology Hurdles Office
the
of

for Products Biomass


Program

• Chemicals and Materials


– Fermentations
• Reduce the cost of both aerobic and
anaerobic fermentations
• Robustness of fermentations needs to be
improved
• Increase productivity of organisms
• New engineering solution for aerobic
fermentations

 
Office of
the
Biomass
Program
Succinic Acid Cost Vs. Glucose Succinic Acid Cost Vs.
Cost Yield From Glucose
Cost-Cents/Pound

34 34
32 32

Cost-Cents/Pound
30 Succinic Acid
30 Succinic Acid
28 28
26 26
24 24
22 22
20
20
4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Glucose Cost Cents/Pound %Yield from Glucose

Succinic Acid Cost Vs. Productivity Vs. Cost


Final Titer
50

Cost-Cents/Pound
Cost-Cents/Pound

45
28 Succinic Acid
40
27
Succinic Acid 35
26
30
25
25
24
20
23
15
22
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
  80 100 120 140 160
Productivity g/L-hr
Final Titer-g/L
Key Technology Hurdles Office
the
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for Products Biomass


Program

• Chemicals and Materials


– Catalysis
• More selective catalysts are required
• Aqueous phase catalysis
• Catalyst robustness-improved resistance to
fouling
• Overall rates need to be improved

 
Key Technology Hurdles Office
the
of

for Products Biomass


Program

• Combined Heat and Power


– Integration is key driver
– How does excess power get transferred
to the existing grid system

 
On the DOE Horizon Office of
the
Biomass
Program

• Major solicitations in FY04


– University led solicitation for
fundamental research—up to 5 million
dollars
– Industry led solicitation for products—
up to 10 million dollars
• Major planned solicitations for FY05
– Focused on a forest products biorefinery
– Funding level TBD