DOE/EE/OBP Biomass Program Overview and Products R&D

Western Regional Sun Grant Initiative Dr. Todd Werpy PNNL/DOE August 16, 2004

Office of the Biomass Program

Mission of OBP

Office of the Biomass Program

“The mission of OBP is to partner with U.S. industry to foster research and development on advanced technologies that will transform our abundant biomass resources into clean, affordable, and domestically-produced biofuels, biopower and high-value products. The result will be improved economic development, expanded energy supply options, and increased energy security”

Program Goals
Develop biorefinery-related technologies to the point that they are cost and performance competitive and are used by the nation’s transportation, energy, chemical, and power industries to meet their market objectives 2005: Demonstrate an integrated process for fuels production from biomass 2007: Complete technology development necessary to enable start-up demonstration of a biorefinery producing fuels, chemicals, and power 2010: Help U.S. industry to establish the first large-scale integrated biorefinery based on agricultural residues

Office of the Biomass Program


Strategy: Remove Technical Advanced Biomass Process R&D Barriers
Sugar Platform
Mixed Sugars
Sugar Feedstocks & Lignin Residues

Office of the Biomass Program

ThermoChemical Platform Syngas, Pyrolysisoils

Fuels, Chemicals , Materials, Heat & Power
CO, H2, Biooils


Technology Validation and Systems Integration “The Integrated Biorefinery”

Program Strategy

Office of the Biomass Program

• Analysis is used to identify major cost barrier areas in each element of the program • Research is dedicated to overcoming these barriers and reducing the cost of each process as well as the final integrated biorefinery • Program is driven by private public partnerships to ensure integrity of the program • Regular reviews are undertaken to ensure progress and fiduciary responsibility • Program is based on both near term and long R&D objectives

Program Structure

Office of the Biomass Program


$16.9 MM


$20 MM

Congressional Mandates $41MM

$21.7 MM


Biomass Program Funding
Earmarks and Total Funding
Millions of Dollars per Year $150 $140 $130 $120 $110 $100 $90 $80 $70 $60 $50 $40 $30 $20 $10 $0 13 18 39 30 41 81 94 74 80 61 Legend
Earmarks Total Funds for Planned R&D

Office of the Biomass Program

• Three-fold increase in earmarks since 2000 • EWD Earmarks have grown from 18% to over 47% of the total funding • Real decline in the available funds used in support planned R&D


FY 01

FY 02

FY 03

FY 04


Building the Bio-refinery Office of the
Biomass Program

• Maximize the value from the existing infrastructure • Bring lignocellulosics into those existing facilities • Build stand alone lignocellulosic facilities


An Example of a Grains Bio-refinery
Corn Wet Mill

Office of the Biomass Program

corn gluten feed

corn gluten meal


corn oil

Phytochemicals C-5 Products Xylitol & polyols


food & industrial starches

food oils feed oils

industrial oils


sorbitol sorbitol

• foodstuffs • pharma .

polyols polyols


citric acid lysine xanthan gums itaconic acid & other fermentation products

lactic acid

fuel ethanol

high fructose corn syrup

Other other sweeteners

PLA polymers

Other Products Of Fermentation

deicers solvents coatings

•resins & plastics resins & plastics applications •polyesters polyesters •surfactants surfactants •pharmaceuticals pharmaceuticals

Bio-diesel Di-acids Epoxides Diols Diacids Polymers Vinyl Monomer


Building the Biorefinery Office of the Current Portfolio Biomass
Biomass Feedstock


Starch Industrial Starches

Cellulose Glucose

Hemi-Cellulose Xylose Arabinose

Oil Polyols

Lignin Pyrolyis Oil Gasification

Protein Animal Feed

3-HP (Acrylic Acid) 1,3-PDO

Liquid Fuels (EtOH) PG and EG

Liquid Fuels (EtOH) PG and EG Lactic Acid PLA

Xylitol Arabinitol Itaconic Acid Succinic Acid




Current Status of Ethanol Dry Mills • Economics can be difficult

Office of the Biomass Program

– Current ethanol facilities are limited to only two products, ethanol and DDG – Economics are highly dependent of value of the co-product DDG – Significant energy costs are associated with the drying of DDG – Markets for DDG are not always favorable and will deteriorate as additional ethanol facilities come on line

Office of Strategies for the Biomass Creating Program Additional Value • Modify dry mills to include a quick steeping process that allows germ recovery • Add an intermediate filtration process to recovery non-starch derived sugars (hemicellulose) • Develop new fermentations for utilization of five carbon sugars (itaconic acid, succinic acid, etc) • Develop new chemistry to produce value added products from hemicellulose (sugar alcohols, polyols) • Include an energy component-gasify   “DDG or modified DDG” to produce fuel gas

Current Ethanol Process

Office of the Biomass Program


Dry Grind



Fermentation Solids Centrifuge Liquids Triple Effect Evaporator

Primary Distillation

50% EtOH

Distillation Rectifier

95% EtOH

Molecular Sieves 100% EtOH

DDG Dryer Solids

DDG Animal Feed


Water Recycle

The Holistic Ethanol Facility Office of the
Biomass Program

Oil Corn Quick Steep Germ Separation Ethanol Recovery New DDG Animal Feed Itaconic Succinic, Etc EG, PG Glycerol, Etc 95% EtOH Scarification

Filtration “Fiber”


Fermentation EtOH Hydrolysis

Molecular Sieves 100% EtOH Ethanol




Catalytic Conversions

Office The New Ethanol Bio-Refinery of the Biomass Program

• Build a bio-refinery based on creating the maximum value from each component associated with the feedstock • Includes a fuel component, energy component, and value added products component • Will allow for expansion of ethanol utilization based on solid economics • Energy independence for the facilities could be critical to financial stability • Be the model to build future   lignocellulosic facilities

Chemicals and Materials Analysis

Office of the Biomass Program

• Used the current petrochemical refinery as a model • Surveyed over 350 chemical/material opportunities • Reduced initial 350 to 30 • Reduced 30 to 12 based primarily on the following:
– Economic considerations – Technical considerations – Building block strategies

Office of the Biomass Program


5-Carbon Building Blocks

Office of the Biomass Program

Methyl succinate derivatives (see above), unsaturated esters

Itaconic acid
Many furan derivatives



Levulinic acid Glutamic acid Xylonic acid Xylitol/Arabitol

δ-aminolevulinate, 2-Methyl THF, 1,4-diols, esters, succinate Amino diols, glutaric acid,substituted pyrrolidones Lactones, esters EG, PG, glycerol, lactate, hydroxy furans, sugar acids


Itaconic Acid

Office of the Biomass Program

3- & 4-Methyl-GBL
H3 C HO O CH2 O Itaconic acid O


3-Methyl THF

Itaconic diamide






Styrene-butadiene copolymers

3-Methylpyrrolidine CH3 3- & 4-Methyl NMP And other pyrrolidones


Office Chemicals and Materials of the

‘Top Ten” Analysis

Biomass Program

• Mapping the potential for chemicals and materials from platform outputs • ChemicalsFutureDiagram.ppt

• Future activities will include working with industry to identify areas of needed R&D

– Includes solicitations – Includes core R&D activities

Value-Added Building Office of the Blocks Derived From SugarsBiomass
Building Blocks 1,4 succinic, fumaric and malic acids 2,5 furan dicarboxylic acid 3 hydroxy propionic acid aspartic acid glucaric acid glutamic acid itaconic acid levulinic acid 3-hydroxybutyrolactone glycerol sorbitol



Key Technology Hurdles Office of the Biomass for Products Program • Fuels
– Improved fermentation of five carbon sugars – More robust fermentations that withstand the impurities from pretreatment – Mixed fermentations – Fermentation rates

Key Technology Hurdles Office of the Biomass for Products Program • Chemicals and Materials
– Fermentations
• Reduce the cost of both aerobic and anaerobic fermentations • Robustness of fermentations needs to be improved • Increase productivity of organisms • New engineering solution for aerobic fermentations

Office of the Biomass Program
Succinic Acid Cost Vs. Glucose Cost

Succinic Acid Cost Vs. Yield From Glucose 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 50 60 70 80 90

34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0


Succinic Acid

Succinic Acid







Glucose Cost Cents/Pound

%Yield from Glucose

Succinic Acid Cost Vs. Final Titer Cost-Cents/Pound 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 80 100 120

Productivity Vs. Cost

Succinic Acid

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15

Succinic Acid




0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
Productivity g/L-hr

Final Titer-g/L

Key Technology Hurdles Office of the Biomass for Products Program • Chemicals and Materials
– Catalysis
• More selective catalysts are required • Aqueous phase catalysis • Catalyst robustness-improved resistance to fouling • Overall rates need to be improved


Key Technology Hurdles Office of the Biomass for Products Program • Combined Heat and Power
– Integration is key driver – How does excess power get transferred to the existing grid system


On the DOE Horizon

Office of the Biomass Program

• Major solicitations in FY04
– University led solicitation for fundamental research—up to 5 million dollars – Industry led solicitation for products— up to 10 million dollars

• Major planned solicitations for FY05
– Focused on a forest products biorefinery – Funding level TBD