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# Airfoils

CLASS 7 – 8

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Dr. Shehret Tilvaldyev

Kutta–Joukowski theorem
The Kutta–Joukowski theorem is a
fundamental theorem of aerodynamics.

It is named after the German Martin
Wilhelm Kutta and the Russian Nikolai
Zhukovsky who first developed its key ideas
in the early 20th century.

The theorem relates the lift generated
by a right cylinder to the speed of the
cylinder through the fluid, the density of the
fluid, and the circulation.

Kutta–Joukowski
theorem
Kutta in Germany and Joukowski in Russia,
worked to quantify the lift achieved by an
airflow over a spinning cylinder. The lift
relationship is
Lift per unit length:

L = ρGV

Where

ρ - is the air density,
V - is the velocity of flow, and
G - is called the "vortex strength".

Kutta–Joukowski theorem The vortex strength is given by G = 2ρωr2 where ω .is the angular velocity of spin of the cylinder. .

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If the cylinder traps some air in a boundary layer at the cylinder surface and carries it around with it.Kutta–Joukowski theorem Like all aerodynamic lift. then it has given some of the air a downward momentum. . this seems a bit mysterious. but it can be looked at in terms of a redirection of the air motion. shedding it downward.

. Another approach is to say that you have exerted a downward component of force on the air and by Newton's 3rd law there must be an upward force on the cylinder.Kutta–Joukowski theorem That can act to give the cylinder an upward momentum in accordance with the principle of conservation of momentum.

Kutta–Joukowski theorem Yet another approach is to say that the top of the cylinder is assisting the airstream. the pressure on the top of the cylinder is diminished. giving an effective lift. speeding up the flow on the top of the cylinder. . Then by the Bernoulli equation.

Form Drag VERY TURBULENT WAKE REDUCTION IN FORM DRAG 50% 85% 90 .95% .

2D Airfoil Aerodynamics Lift is mainly provided by the wing with an airfoil cross-section shape .

HOW DOES AN AIRFOIL GENERATE LIFT? • Lift due to imbalance of pressure distribution over top and bottom surfaces of airfoil (or wing) – If pressure on top is lower than pressure on bottom surface. lift is generated – Why is pressure lower on top surface? • We can understand answer from basic physics: – Continuity (Mass Conservation) – Newton’s 2nd law (Euler or Bernoulli Equation) Lift = PA .

HOW DOES AN AIRFOIL GENERATE LIFT? 1. Flow velocity over top of airfoil is faster than over bottom surface – Streamtube A senses upper portion of airfoil as an obstruction – Streamtube A is squashed to smaller cross-sectional area – Mass continuity AV=constant: IF A↓ THEN V↑ Streamtube A is squashed most in nose region (ahead of maximum thickness) A B .

As V ↑ p↓ 1 p  V 2  constant – Incompressible: Bernoulli’s Equation2 – Compressible: Euler’s Equation dp   VdV – Called Bernoulli Effect 3.HOW DOES AN AIRFOIL GENERATE LIFT? 2. With lower pressure over upper surface and higher pressure over bottom surface. airfoil feels a net force in upward direction Most of lift is produced→ Lift in first 20-30% of wing (just downstream of leading edge) .

Shear stress. distribution on surface • Acts normal to surface 2.WHAT CREATES AERODYNAMIC FORCES? • Aerodynamic forces exerted by airflow comes from only two sources: 1.Pressure. p.  w. (friction) on surface • Acts tangentially to surface • Pressure and shear are in units of force per unit area (N/m2) • Net unbalance creates an aerodynamic force .

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3.• Introduction In this chapter the following will be studied: 1.Flow similarity ( Dynamic similarity ) ■ Airfoil Geometric Characteristics 16 Dr. 2. Shehret Tilvaldyev .Aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils.Geometric characteristics of the airfoils.

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which creates sufficient lift with minimal drag .Airfoil Geometry An airfoil is the 2D crosssection shape of the wing.

2.Airfoil geometric characteristics include: 1.Mean camber line : The locus (the specific location) of points halfway between the upper and lower surfaces as measured perpendicular to the mean camber line. 19 Dr. Shehret Tilvaldyev .Chord line: The straight line connecting the leading and trailing edges. 3.Leading & trailing edges: The most forward and rearward points of the mean camber line.

5.4. 6.The thickness distribution: The distance from the upper surface to the lower surface.Camber : The maximum distance between the mean camber line and the chord line. Shehret Tilvaldyev . measured perpendicular to chord line 20 Dr.Chord C : The distance from the leading to trailing edge measured along the chord line.Leading edge radius and its shape through the leading edge. 7.

Types of Airfoils Symmetrical Equal chamber on each side Each half mirror image of other Mean chamber line and chord line are coincidental Produces zero lift at zero angle of attack Constant center of pressure with varying angles of attack Nonsymmetrical Greater curvature above the chord line then below Chord and chamber line are not coincidental Produces useful lift even at negative angles of attack Produces more lift at a given angle of attack than symmetrical Better stall characteristics than symmetrical Good lift to drag ratio Limited to low relative wind velocity. <300 knots Excessive center of pressure travel up to 20% of chord line .

Airfoil Equal amounts of thickness is added to camber .in a direction normal to the camber line Camber Line Chord Line .

It is given the symbol ( Because modern wings have a built-in twist distribution.and the chord line.Angle of Attack  V Angle of attack is defined as the angle between the free stream .The tip will. have a low (or even a negative)  .angle of attack will change from root to tip .The root will. in general. have a high angle of attack . in general. the .

D V . and is given the symbol D .g. The component of aerodynamic forces normal to the freestream per unit length of span (e. is called ´. is called ´. per foot of wing span). The component of aerodynamic forces along the freestream per unit length of span (e.Lift and Drag Forces acting on a Wing Section ´Sectional Lift.the sectional drag force. per foot of wing span).the sectional lift force. and is given the symbol L . L ´Sectional Drag.g.

edge.Sectional Lift and Drag Coefficients The sectional lift coefficient Cl is defined • L :as C  l 1 V2 c 2 Here (c) is the airfoil chord. distance • between the leading edge and trailing . measured along the chordline The sectional drag force coefficient C d is • :likewise defined as D Cd  1 V2 c 2 . i.e.

2D Airfoil Aerodynamics Lift is mainly provided by the wing with an airfoil cross-section shape .

Lift & Drag Coefficients l cl  1 2 V S 2 d cd  1 2 V S 2 lift normal force  drag  V chordwise force .

pressure etc .?span . Cp etc Why do we use “abstract” quantities such as ?Cl and Cp Why not directly use physically meaning full quantities such as Lift force. lift per unit ..?Why use Cl.

in wind tunnels .Consider two geometrically similar airfoils . velocity This is because high altitude conditions are not easily reproduce . Cd and Cp if they are geometrically alikeoperate at identical angle of attack. Mach number and Reynolds number .One is small. used in a wind tunnel .These will operate in different environments .density.The Importance of Non-Dimensional Forms .They will therefore have different Lift forces and pressure fields They will have identical Cl . used on an actual wing .The other is large.

The Importance of Non-Dimensional Forms .and Reynolds number This allows designers (and engineers) to build and test . tested in a wind tunnel and a large airfoil. Cd and if they are geometrically alikeoperate at identical angle of attack. Mach number.a small airfoil .to a full size configuration . and extrapolate qualitative features but also quantitative information.small scale models. from a small scale model . In other words . used on an actual wing will have identical non-dimensional coefficients Cl .

they can be plotted for use in all applications . are found. Cd etc.model aircraft or full size aircraft .Once Cl.

 in degrees or radians .Slope= 2 if  is in radians Angle of zero lift  = 0 Angle of Attack.Characteristics of Cl vs.  Stall Cl .

The angle of zero lift depends on the camber of the airfoil Cambered airfoil Cl Angle of zero lift  = 0 Symmetric Airfoil Angle of Attack.  in degrees or radians .

Drag is caused by Skin Friction . due to the shape of the body.the air molecules try to drag the airfoil .with them. This effect is due to viscosity Form Drag . back Wave Drag: Shock waves form over the airfoil. The .resulting rate of change of momentum causes drag . The pressure forces push the airfoil . This causes low pressures near the trailing edge compared to the leading edge. converting momentum of the flow into heat.The flow separates near the trailing edge.

DRAG FORCES d d Same total drag as airfoil .

Viscous Boundary Layer Velocity profile creates skin friction (shear) drag on surface Edge of boundary layer V 1 Transition 2 3 Separation 4 .

Note ‘messy’ or turbulent flow pattern High drag Lower fuel efficiency Spoiler angle increased by + 5° Flow behavior more closely resembles a laminar flow Tremendous savings (> \$10.000/yr) on Miami-NYC route .

Historical Airfoils .

Evolution of Airfoil Design Laminar boundary layer creates less skin friction drag .

# Abbott & Von Doenhoff “ Theory of Wing Sections” includes a summary of airfoil data ( geometric and aerodynamic data ) 40 Dr. Shehret Tilvaldyev .►Airfoil Families (Series) # NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) or NASA (National Aeronautics and Space administration) identified different airfoil shapes with a logical numbering system.

NACA 6.series 41 Dr.NACA 5-digit series 3.series 5.NACA 1-series or 16-series 4.■NACA Airfoil Series 1.NACA 7.series 6.NACA 8. Shehret Tilvaldyev .NACA 4-digit series 2.

4 C xc 42 12 yc C Dr.02 C Position of camber in tenths of chord xc = 0.►NACA Four-Digit Series Example: NACA 2412 NACA 2 4 Camber in percentage of chord yc = 0.12 . Shehret Tilvaldyev Maximum thickness (t ) in percentage of chord (t/c)max = 0.

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15 C Dr. Shehret Tilvaldyev Maximum thickness (t ) in percentage of chord (t/c)max = 0. gives the position of the camber in percent of chord xc = 0. Cl = 0.3 44 30 12 When divided by 2.12 .►NACA Five-Digit Series Example: NACA 23012 NACA 2 When multiplied by 3/2 yields the design lift coefficient Cl in tenths.

2 Series designation 6 12 Location of minimum pressure in tenths of chord (0.►NACA Six.2) 45 Dr.Series Example: NACA 64-212 NACA 6 4 .4 C) Design lift coefficient in tenths (0. Shehret Tilvaldyev Maximum thickness (t ) in percentage of chord (t/c)max = 0.12 .

• Airfoils can be drawn using these Tables.maximum camber ratio and its position .maximum thickness ratio and its position -leading edge radius -trailing edge angle 46 y .camber line .• The Handbook “Theory of Wing Sections” gives the shape of airfoils in terms of upper and lower surfaces station and ordinate as given in the following Tables. • From airfoil drawing we can extract its geometric data: .

• Tabe for NACA 2410. Shehret Tilvaldyev . 2415 47 Dr. 2412.

Resultant Aerodynamic Force
Lift

Total Aerodynamic Force
(Sum of Pressure and Shear)

V
Drag

■Center of Pressure and Aerodynamic Center

# Center of pressure : The point of intersection between
the chord line and the line of action of the resultant
aerodynamic force R.

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Dr. Shehret Tilvaldyev

Center of Pressure
The resultant aerodynamic force acts at the Center of
.Pressure (c.p.), about which the moment is zero

Typical Streamlines Angle of Attack   V .

which occurs at the stagnation point. .Pressure Coefficient Distribution p  p cp  1 2   V 2 :In free-stream c p : At stagnation point (V=0) p  p 1 0 2  V 2 1 2 1 2   V 2 p0  p c p0  1  1 2 2  V   V 2 Positive Cp means the pressure is higher than the freestream (atmospheric) pressure. The maximum. is always 1 . and negative Cp means suction relative to free-stream pressure.

Viscous Boundary Layer Velocity profile creates skin friction (shear) drag on surface Edge of boundary layer V 1 Transition 2 3 Separation 4 .

When flow separation occurs .Boundary Layer Flow Separation .there is also pressure drag .

# In addition to lift and drag. the surface pressure and shear stress distribution create a moment M which tends to rotate the wing. # Moment 55 on Airfoil .

• F1 ≠ F2 because the pressure distribution on the upper surface differs from the pressure distribution on the lower surface. 56 y . F1 & F2 will create an aerodynamic moment M which will tend to rotate the airfoil. • Thus. • For subsonic airfoils it is common to take moments about the quarter-chord point. • F2 is the resultant pressure force on the lower surface. • R is resultant force of F1 & F2 . • The value of M depends on the point about which we choose to take moment. • Points 1 & 2 are the points of action of F 1 & F2 .• Neglect shear stress • F1 is the resultant pressure force on the upper surface. It is denoted by Mc/4 .

i. 57 Dr.e. its value depends on α .Mc/4 is function of angle of attack α. Shehret Tilvaldyev .

● By definition. Mac = constant ● For low-speed and subsonic airfoils. Shehret Tilvaldyev . AC is generally very close to the quarter-chord point 58 Dr.■ Aerodynamic Center ≠ Aerodynamic center: The point on the chord line about which moments does not vary with α. ●The moment about the aerodynamic center (ac) is designated Mac .

c.airfoils. it is more desirable to use a fixed Aerodynamic Center (a. For most .p. varies with .c. the a.Aerodynamic Center Since the c. The pitching moment about this point can be calculated. and is found insensitive to . locates at around quarter chord (x=c/4) Pitching Moment :Coefficient cm  m 1 2  V Sc 2 .) as the point of action of the lift and drag.

Compressibility of the airflow which is governed by Mach number M∞ = V∞/a∞. and Moment Coefficients 60 For an airplane in flight.Free-stream velocity V∞ 3. that is. D. and M depend on: 1. For airplane we use the plan form wing area S to indicate size. 7.Angle of attack α 2. Drag.Size of the aerodynamic surface.Viscosity coefficient µ∞ 5. L.Free-stream density ρ∞ . 6. Shehret Tilvaldyev .Shape of the airfoil Dr. altitude 4.■Lift.

Computation Fluid Dynamics Simulation .

CFD Simulation: Near stall .

CFD Simulation: Fully Stalled .