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# Chapter 2

Descriptive
Charts and
Graphs

Slide 2-1

Learning Objectives
• Construct a frequency distribution
• Determine the class midpoints,
relative frequencies, and cumulative
frequencies of a frequency
distribution.
• Construct a histogram, a frequency
polygon, an ogive, a pie chart.

Slide 2-2

Ungrouped vs Grouped Data • Ungrouped data • have not been summarized in any way • are also called raw data • Grouped data • have been organized into a frequency distribution © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 2-3 .

Example of Ungrouped Data 42 26 32 34 57 30 58 37 50 30 53 40 30 47 49 50 40 32 31 40 52 28 23 35 25 30 36 32 26 50 55 30 58 64 52 49 33 43 46 32 61 31 30 40 60 74 37 29 43 54 © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Ages of a Sample of Managers from Urban Child Care Centers in the United States Slide 2-4 .

Frequency Distribution of Child Care Manager’s Ages Class Interval Frequency 20-under 30 6 30-under 40 18 40-under 50 11 50-under 60 11 60-under 70 3 70-under 80 1 © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 2-5 .

Smallest = 74 .Data Range 42 26 32 34 57 30 58 37 50 30 53 40 30 47 49 50 40 32 31 40 52 28 23 35 25 30 36 32 26 50 55 30 58 64 52 49 33 43 46 32 61 31 30 40 60 74 37 29 43 54 © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Range = Largest .23 = 51 Smallest Largest Slide 2-6 .

• Class Width • Divide the range by the number of classes for an approximate class width • Round up to a convenient number 51 Approximate Class Width = 6 Class Width = 10 © 2002 Thomson / South-Western = 8.Number of Classes and Class Width • The number of classes should be between 5 and 15.5 Slide 2-7 . • Fewer than 5 classes cause excessive summarization. • More than 15 classes leave too much detail.

Class Midpoint beginning class endpoint + ending class endpoint Class Midpoint = 2 30 + 40 = 2 = 35 1 Class Midpoint = class beginning point + class width 2 1 = 30 +  10 2 = 35 © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 2-8 .

02 Total 50 1.22 60-under 70 3 .36 18  40-under 50 11 .12 50 30-under 40 18 .Relative Frequency Relative Class Interval FrequencyFrequency 6  20-under 30 6 .22 50 50-under 60 11 .00 © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 2-9 .06 70-under 80 1 .

Cumulative Frequency Class Interval 20-under 30 30-under 40 40-under 50 50-under 60 60-under 70 70-under 80 Total 50 © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Cumulative Frequency Frequency 6 6 18 24 18  +  6 11 35 11 46 11  +  24 3 49 1 50 Slide 2-10 .

Class Midpoints. and Cumulative Frequencies Cumulative Class Interval Frequency 20-under 30 30-under 40 40-under 50 50-under 60 60-under 70 70-under 80 Total 50 Relative Frequency Midpoint Frequency 6 18 11 11 3 1 © 2002 Thomson / South-Western 25 35 45 55 65 75 .22 .00 6 24 35 46 49 50 Slide 2-11 .22 .02 1. Relative Frequencies.06 .12 .36 .

92 60-under 70 3 .22 46 .06 49 .48 40-under 50 11 .70 50-under 60 11 .12 30-under 40 18 .22 35 .00 © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 2-12 .36 24 .02 50 1.00 Total 50 1.Cumulative Relative Frequencies Cumulative Relative CumulativeRelative Class Interval Frequency Frequency Frequency Frequency 20-under 30 6 .12 6 .98 70-under 80 1 .

Common Statistical Graphs • Histogram -.vertical bar chart of frequencies • Frequency Polygon -.line graph of cumulative frequencies • Pie Chart -.line graph of frequencies • Ogive -.proportional representation for categories of a whole © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 2-13 .

10 0 Frequency Class Interval Frequency 20-under 30 6 30-under 40 18 40-under 50 11 50-under 60 11 60-under 70 3 70-under 80 1 20 Histogram 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Years © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 2-14 .

10 0 Frequency Class Interval Frequency 20-under 30 6 30-under 40 18 40-under 50 11 50-under 60 11 60-under 70 3 70-under 80 1 20 Histogram Construction 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Years © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 2-15 .

10 0 Frequency Class Interval Frequency 20-under 30 6 30-under 40 18 40-under 50 11 50-under 60 11 60-under 70 3 70-under 80 1 20 Frequency Polygon 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Years © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 2-16 .

© 2002 Thomson / South-Western 40 20 0 Frequency Cumulative Class Interval Frequency 20-under 30 6 30-under 40 24 40-under 50 35 50-under 60 46 60-under 70 49 70-under 80 50 60 Ogive 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Years Slide 2-17 70 80 .

98 70-under 80 1.70 50-under 60 .00 0.60 0.70 0.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Years Slide 2-18 70 80 .00 © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Cumulative Relative Frequency Relative Frequency Ogive 1.Cumulative Relative Class Interval Frequency 20-under 30 .12 30-under 40 .40 0.10 1.50 0.48 40-under 50 .80 0.20 0.30 0.90 0.10 0.92 60-under 70 .

Total 7.000 .Complaints Complaints by by Amtrak Amtrak Passengers COMPLAINT NUMBER PROPORTION DEGREES Stations.14 50. etc.6 10.700 .40 144. 28.21 75.0 © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 2-19 .000 .0 70.00 360.10 36.4 Personnel 9.6 Schedules.0 Train Performance Equipment 14. etc.15 50.000 1.500 .800 .

Etc.Complaints Complaints by by Amtrak Amtrak Passengers Personnel 14% Schedules. 10% Equipment 15% Train Performance 21% © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Stations. 40% Slide 2-20 . Etc.

Second Quarter Truck Production in the U.S.099 E 12. (Hypothetical values) © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Company 2d Quarter Truck Production A 357.997 D 34.936 C 160.411 B 354.190 Totals Slide 2-21 .747 920.

Second Quarter U. Truck Production 17% 4% 1% 39% 39% A © 2002 Thomson / South-Western B C D E Slide 2-22 .S.

388 140 354.Pie Chart Calculations for Truck Producer Company A Company A 2d Quarter Truck Production Proportion Degrees 357.000 5 360 B C 357.099 .190 .175 63 D 34.936 .411 .190 Totals © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 2-23 .747 920. 411  = 920.037 360 = 13 E 12.014 1.388 .386 139 160.997 .