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SAMEER GUPTA

Transmission Line Def. •These parameters are defined per unit length of the conductor and are called Primary constants of the line. What is a transmission line? •Uniform transmission line is one which has its electrical parameters remaining constant along its length of the line. •Electrical parameters of lines are R-L-C-G (ResistanceInductance-Capacitance-Conductance). •In which voltage to current ratio does not vary with distance if the line is terminated in its characteristics impedance. . – A transmission line basically consists of 2 or more parallel conductors used to connect a source to a load.

•In most cases. of Transmission lines are: Parallel wires Twisted pair wires Ribbon type Co-axial cables Micro-strip lines Wave guides . •It acts as communication media.g.Uses of Transmission lines:- •To transfer the energy or signal or power from the transmitter to the receiver. •Few e. transmission lines are metallic conductors.

e. Both for GENERATION and LOADS and hence for TRANSMISSION.REASONS FOR AC GENERATION AND TRANSMISSION Due to ease of transformation of voltage levels and rough collector cage motors. ALTERNATING CURRENT is universally utilised. transformers step down voltage. . Generators are at distant places. To reach the loads at homes/industry at required safe levels. the load centers They are either PIT HEAD THERMAL or HYDEL Turbines drive synchronous generators giving an output at 15-25 kV. away from the populated areas i.

FAULT ISOLATION ETC – CONSIDERING THE DISADVANTAGES OF HVAC SYSTEM AND THE ADVANTAGES OF HVDC TRANSMISSION . OVER/LOW VOLTAGES DURING LIGHTLY / OVER LOADED CONDITIONS. POWERGRID HAS CHOOSEN HVDC TRANSMISSION FOR TRANSFERRING 2000 MW FROM ER TO SR . UNCONTROLLED POWER FLOW.STABILITY PROBLEMS.COMPARISION OF HVAC & HVDC SYSTEMS – CONVENTIONALLY POWER TRANSMISSION IS EFFECTED THROUGH HVAC SYSTEMS ALL OVER THE WORLD. – HVAC TRANSMISSION IS HAVING SEVER LIMITATIONS LIKE LINE LENGTH .

ADVANTAGES OF HVDC OVER HVAC TRANSMISSION .

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COST: AC vs DC Transmission Line Cost AC Line Cost DC Terminal Cost DC Terminal Cost AC Break Even Distance .

HVDC IN INDIA Back-to-Back HVDC LINK CONNECTING CAPACITY REGION (MW) Vindyachal North – West 2 x 250 Chandrapur West – South 2 x 500 Vizag – I East – South 500 Sasaram East – North 500 Vizag – II East – South 500 .

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF HVDC TRANSMISSION .

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UPSs. & Fast acting computerized controls . DC AS A MEANS OF TRANSMISSION This has been possible with beginning of High power/ high current capability thyristor.USE OF DC Direct current is put to use in common life for driving our portable devices. battery systems and vastly in railway locomotives.

The following are three basic steps:1. Convert AC into DC (rectifier) 2.C. Transmit DC 3. Convert DC into AC ( inverter) .If DC is required to be used for transmission & since our primary source of power is A.