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# Axial flow

## Dr. Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Mechanical Engineering Department
Faculty of Engineering University of Indonesia

Axial Compressor

Axial Fan

Construction

Construction

Velocity Triangle

Euler Equation:

or:

Compressor Stage

p2

h h W W 2 0
h W 2 h W 2

2

2
x2

2
2

2
x1

## h02 ref h01ref

2
1

Compressor Stage
Isentropic Efficiency

## ideal isentropic work input

c
actual work input

h03 h01
T03 T01
Pressure Ratio

p03 T03ss

p01 T01

1 c

Other Relation

T03 T01

T01

T03 T01
Cp

Compressor Stage

## Work Done Factor

In practice Ca is not constant work done factor

Hence:

## actual work absorbing capacity

ideal work absorbing capacity

## UCa tan 1 tan 2

T03 T01
Cp

Reaction Ratio
A measure of the static enthalpy rise that occurs in the rotor expressed
as a percentage of the total static enthalpy rise across the stage

R

## static enthalpy rise in stage h3 h1

h01rel = h02rel
C1 = C3
Cx2 = U-Wx2
Cx1 = U-Wx1
(Cx2-Cx1)=(Wx1-Wx2)

h2 h1 W12 W22 2
h3 h1 h03 h01 U C x 2 C x1

## Ca2 Wx21 Ca2 Wx22

W22
R

2U C x 2 C x1
2U C x 2 C x1
2
1

Wx1 Wx 2 Wx1 Wx 2

2U C x 2 C x1

## Wx1 Wx 2 Ca tan 1 tan 2 C

2U

2U

R 1 tan 2 tan 1 2

U tan tan

Reaction Ratio

## Lift and Drag Coefficient

In axial compressor:
High solidity
to obtain information on the effect of
air flow angles
pressure losses
expected energy transfer
Data from cascade testing to be corrected:
annulus wall boundary layer at hub and tip
solidity decrease from hub to tip
blade velocity varies from hub to tip
Data from cascade testing applied only for

Nomenclature

Curves

Curves

Curves

## Cascade Lift and Drag Coefficient

Let:

p0 p01 p01

tan 1 tan 2
tan
2
Drag Coefficient

s p0

C D 2
2
c C1

cos 3

2
cos 1

Lift Coefficient

s
C L 2 cos tan 1 tan 2 C D tan
c

Stage Efficiency

## Three Dimensional Flow

Ca constant dCa dr 0

dC x dr C x r C x r const

Multistage Performance
Compression 1 5
Single compression:

hIIs hI
m hIIs hI c
hII hI

Staged compression:

Ws m h2 s h1 h3 s h2

h4 s h3 h5 s h4

Ws

m
hII hI

However:

h2 s h1 h3s h2
h4 s h3 h5 s h4 hIIs hI

s c

Multistage Performance

Characteristics