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Axial flow

compressor and fans

Dr. Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng


Mechanical Engineering Department
Faculty of Engineering University of Indonesia

Axial Compressor

Axial Fan

Construction

Construction

Velocity Triangle

Euler Equation:

or:

Compressor Stage

p2


h h W W 2 0
h W 2 h W 2

Ca Constant Wx22 Wx21 W22 W12


2

2
x2

2
2

2
x1

h02 ref h01ref

2
1

Compressor Stage
Isentropic Efficiency

ideal isentropic work input


c
actual work input

h03ss h01 T01 T03ss T01 1

h03 h01
T03 T01
Pressure Ratio

p03 T03ss


p01 T01

1 c

Other Relation

T03 T01

T01

UCa tan 1 tan 2


T03 T01
Cp

Compressor Stage

Work Done Factor


In practice Ca is not constant work done factor

Work done factor


Hence:

actual work absorbing capacity


ideal work absorbing capacity

UCa tan 1 tan 2


T03 T01
Cp

Reaction Ratio
A measure of the static enthalpy rise that occurs in the rotor expressed
as a percentage of the total static enthalpy rise across the stage

static enthalpy rise in rotor h2 h1


R

static enthalpy rise in stage h3 h1

h01rel = h02rel
C1 = C3
Cx2 = U-Wx2
Cx1 = U-Wx1
(Cx2-Cx1)=(Wx1-Wx2)

h2 h1 W12 W22 2
h3 h1 h03 h01 U C x 2 C x1

Ca2 Wx21 Ca2 Wx22


W22
R

2U C x 2 C x1
2U C x 2 C x1
2
1

Wx1 Wx 2 Wx1 Wx 2

2U C x 2 C x1

Wx1 Wx 2 Ca tan 1 tan 2 C


2U

2U

R 1 tan 2 tan 1 2

U tan tan

Reaction Ratio

Stage Loading

Lift and Drag Coefficient

Lift and Drag Coefficient

Blade Cascade
Cascade: a row of geometrically similar blades arrange at equal distance
In axial compressor:
High solidity
Gas flow around a blade is affected by the flow around adjacent blade
Cascade wind tunnel and Cascade theory
to obtain information on the effect of
different blade designs on:
air flow angles
pressure losses
expected energy transfer
Data from cascade testing to be corrected:
annulus wall boundary layer at hub and tip
interference of alternate blade row
solidity decrease from hub to tip
blade velocity varies from hub to tip
affecting blade inlet angle
Data from cascade testing applied only for
one radius and inlet blade angle

Nomenclature

Deflection and Pressure Loss


Curves

Deflection and Pressure Loss


Curves

Deflection and Pressure Loss


Curves

Cascade Lift and Drag Coefficient


Let:

p0 p01 p01

tan 1 tan 2
tan
2
Drag Coefficient

s p0

C D 2
2
c C1

cos 3

2
cos 1

Lift Coefficient

s
C L 2 cos tan 1 tan 2 C D tan
c

Cascade Lift and Drag Coefficient

Cascade Lift and Drag Coefficient

Blade Efficiency

Stage Efficiency

Three Dimensional Flow

Ca constant dCa dr 0

dC x dr C x r C x r const

Multistage Performance
Compression 1 5
Single compression:

hIIs hI
m hIIs hI c
hII hI

Staged compression:

Ws m h2 s h1 h3 s h2

h4 s h3 h5 s h4

Ws

m
hII hI

However:

h2 s h1 h3s h2
h4 s h3 h5 s h4 hIIs hI

s c

Multistage Performance

Axial Flow Compressor


Characteristics