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Art of First Due

Thanks to Dave Dodson, for being


so brilliant
Our Goal
• “So goes First Due, so goes the incident”
Ret. Chief Alan Brunacini
• Our incidents are changing in scope, impact and
complexity – and so must our ability to rapidly
survey and decide the right course of action
when first arriving.

Objectives

• First Due challenges.
• Improving our Rapid decision-making.
• The First Due Decision Model



These are what we need to know
• Reading Firefighter Risk.
• Reading Smoke.
• Reading Buildings.
Reading Firefighter Risk
• You must understand how the basic nature
of Firefighters affects incident outcomes.
Factors that must be considered;
vStaffing
vTraining
vFitness
vAggressiveness
The Art of First Due is….

 Achieving Mastery in Reading Smoke,
Reading Buildings, and Reading your
firefighters risks, will set the stage for
Rapid-Decision Making.
The 3 step approach to rapid
decision -making
1. Inventory what you know.
2.Determine the risk profile.
 (Time-Size-Value thinking)
3. Declare a mode of Operation.
Step 1: Inventory
what you know..
 Upon Notification….
ü What do I know about
today?

ü What do I know about the

system?

ü
ü What do I know about

where I’m going to?


Enroute
ü Have WE been to
this place before?
(ask the crew)
ü Any access issues?
(maps, notices,
rush hour)
ü Do we have
enough INFO?
Ask for critical
things.
On Approach:
Slow Down !!!

Scan for:
Access

Hydrants

Traffic

Bystanders

Energy

Hazards
Step 2: Determine the Risk Profile
• Define the Principal Hazard
What is the BIG TICKET that’s gonna get us?
Principal hazards could include;
The fire, the location of the fire, Structural Instability,
Access, Traffic, People, Wires, and the ever present
UNKNOWN.
 Make a “TIME-SIZE-VALUE”
Judgment: This establishes your risk
profile,
 This is purely a GUT call – trust your
instinct.

3. Declare a “MODE” of Operation
The typical “Offensive/Defensive/Transitional” language we use is NOT specific
enough to tell everyone else the risk you are taking!!!!
Examples of more DEFINITIVE Modes:

 Offensive Transitional Defensive


 Investigative Exterior Quick Knock Exposure Protection
 Quick Interior Attack “Blitz” Attack Isolation or Zoning

2½”Interior Attack Triage Command
 Rapid Rescue
 Extrication

Remember!
The declared mode

MUST match your risk


profile from step 2.

Defensive modes should


be our default.

“Seek a DEFENSIVE
position that offers
OFFENSIVE gain!”
Mark Emery
“The significant problems we face cannot be

solved by the same level of thinking that created


them”

ALBERT EINSTEIN
We all need to improve our
“Situational Awareness”
• What are Principal Hazards?
– Remember to define it.
• Read the building.
• Read the Smoke
• Read the Firefighter Risk.


Stop team dysfunction now!!!
• Based on good intent
• Firefighters are “Results-oriented”
• Engrained attitude to FIND THE FIRE!!!!
• Arbitrary Aggressiveness
• Tactical skill accomplishment over-rides
situational awareness.
So how do we
improve situational
awareness?
Initially:
Scan on approach for
access, hazardous
energy, traffic, and
traps.
Define the principal
hazard;
Read the building –
status of the windows?
Read the Smoke-
turbulent smoke is
reflecting heat “the box
is full”
Read Firefighter Risk-
 The human heat
threshold is 300˚
for 1 minute.
What are the principal hazards?
What are the principal hazards?
Improving situational
awareness
After Initial;

Classify the overall Risk/Benefit (people or


property)
Move to strategic thinking.
Address the on-going SITSTAT (Situation status)
Address the on-going RESTAT (Resource status)
Look for “Standard Outcomes”

Developing Initial Action Plans
• First Due Action Plans are often based on
established Modes. Typically they have
been Investigative, Attack, Transitional,
or Defensive.
• We need to be more definitive!!
Investigative
Mode
Ø No Visible signs,
inside
investigating.
Ø
Ø No visible signs,
outside
investigating.
Ø
Ø No visible signs,
protective
investigative (with
lines, etc…)
Attack mode
Ø Inside 1¾” Attack

Ø Inside 2½” Attack


Ø
Ø High Rise Protocol
Attack
Ø
Ø Standpipe Protocol
Attack
Ø
Ø Rapid Rescue Mode
(scoop and run)
Ø
Transitional mode
Ø 1¾” outside
knockdown mode
Ø
Ø 2½” outside
knockdown mode
Ø
Ø Triage mode
Ø
Ø Blitz attack
Defensive Mode
Ø Side “X” Exposure
protection mode
Ø
Ø Zone and Isolate
mode.
Ø
Ø Evacuation
Assistance Mode
Ø
Ø Command Mode
Adjusting Action Plans

Once a “Stationary Command” is established, IAP verification and


adjustment is mandatory.
Adjusting Initial Action Plans
Adjusting Initial Action Plans
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