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Adaptive immune system

Pharmacy

11th March 2015

Dr Farhan Cyprian
Assistant Professor Immunology
College of Medicine
M27-167 Ext:7236

Divisions in the immune system

Adaptive immune responses are initiated by


antigen and antigen-presenting cells in
secondary lymphoid tissues

Cell mediated immunity


Initially defined as: immunity that can be
transferred from one organism to another by
cells (lymphoid cells), but not by serum
(antibodies)
An adaptive immune response mediated by
specific cells of the immune system
Primarily T lymphocytes (T cells), but also macrophages and
Natural Killer cells (NK cells).
T cells are the main agents of cellular immunity

Role of cell mediated immunity


Important host defence against:
Bacteria and viruses that are inside host cells
and are inaccessible to antibodies
Fungi, protozoa, helminths
Cancer cells
Transplanted organs & tissue

Acquired Immune System


Humoral immunity
B lymphocytes

Cell-mediated immunity
T lymphocytes

B cell receptor
The B cell receptor (BCR) is made up of
the antibody associated with Ig & Ig
chains

B cell response

B cells recognize free


(soluble) antigen in the
blood or lymph using their B
cell receptor (BCR) or
membrane boundimmunoglobulin.

Action of Antibodies

Acquired Immune System


Humoral immunity
B lymphocytes

Cell-mediated immunity
T lymphocytes

Accessory proteins signal transduction


TCR complex
TCR
CD3 epsilon (x 2)
CD3 gamma
CD3 delta
Zeta chains (x 2)

T cells
Defined by their development in the Thymus and
the presence of a T-cell receptor (TCR) complex
Two main types:
1. CD4+
2. CD8+

CD4 and CD8 molecules in T cells


CD4 T cells recognize
MHC class II molecules
CD8 T cells recognize
MHC class I molecules

MHC
MHC is a closely linked complex of genes that govern
production of the major histo-compatibility molecules
In humans MHC genes are found on the short arm of
chromosome 6 (HLA complex of genes is located on
chromosome 6)
MHC Class I
Transcription MHC-I protein expression on cell

MHC class II
Transcription MHC-II protein expression on cell

Th1 vs Th2 response in CD4 T cells


Cell-mediated immunity
IL-2

Th1
IL-12

TNF
IFN

IL-10

Th0

Humoral immunity
IL-4

IL-12, IFN
IL-4

Th2

IL-5
IL-10

Components of the Immune System:


Innate vs Adaptive Elements

>95% of species survive just


fine with only the innate
immune system

Complement

Figure 1-1

Antigen capture by the


immune system

Presentation of antigen to T cells

Abbas
Fig. 5-17

Sequence of events in an immune response

Components of the Immune System:


Division of Labor

Amplification

1-5

Phases of the Adaptive Immune Response

Abbas 5th Ed Fig 1-6

Specificity and memory in immune responses

Abbas 5th
Ed Fig 1-4

Smallpox is the earliest


disease found to induce
lifelong immunity, using
variolation (a form of
vaccination).

Long-lived memory cells with


specificity for smallpox
antigens are responsible for
the lifelong immunity against
this virus

Dr Farhan Cyprian
fcyprian@sharjah.ac.ae
M27-167
Ext: 7236