You are on page 1of 87

Science Revision

D.G. Makean Pages 1-20
Christopher Caden

Main Parts


in Cells



& gas exchange
in plants


Tissues &


& Osmosis

Main Parts

Cells under a microscope
This is a
section and
it is where
you cut
across the
This is a
section and
it is where
you cut
across the

If you were to put these cuts under a
microscope you should find little structures
called cells. Plant cells are easy to work
with as all you have to do is cut the leaf and
you should see a cell. With animal tissue
however it is not that easy. Animal tissue is
flexible and soft so is harder to cut thin so
you have to dip the structure in melted wax
and when the wax dries you should be able
to cut thin sections. Dyes are also used to
show the animal cell structure more clearly.
Photographs of cells under seen under a
microscope are photomicrographs. Plant
cells are bigger than animal cells so you
need to be more zoomed in to clearly view
animal cells.

.Parts of an animal cell. GCSE level.

All cells have a cell membrane which is like a tiny wall that keeps outside things out and holds the cytoplasm together. When we refer to plant or animal cells we usually refer to the generalised cells because these generalised cells hold a majority of the things every animal or plant cell would have. . There are no generic “plant” or “animal” cells however there generalisations we can make. The cytoplasm is where most reactions take place and the nucleus is almost the command centre or the brains of the cell. Most but not all cells have a nucleus.Cell structure.

proteins and enzymes as well as the organelles. for example ribosomes. The cytoplasm holds fats. structures that have a specific role. It is where different reactions take place and its where all the different organelles. .Cytoplasm The cytoplasm is the liquid that keeps the cell together and keeps it functioning. Enzymes control the rate of which reactions in the cytoplasm happen and some are suspended in one position but some move freely around in the cytoplasm. also known as lipids.

Generally oxygen. waste products are allowed to go and harmful products are kept out of the cell. .Cell Membrane The cell membrane is a thin layer around the cytoplasm and it holds everything together and is almost like a bouncer. food and water are allowed in. allowing certain things into and out of the cell.

. so this is where a virus likes to be so it can replicate its RNA.). Inside the nucleus you find chromosomes and this is also where new chromosomes are made.Nucleus (the plural is nuclei) The nucleus is almost the control centre for the cell and it dictates what happens to the cell. Through this it regulates what reactions take place and when. liver cell etc. It does this by controlling what enzymes are made and how many of these enzymes are made. Consequently the nucleus dictates what type of cell the cell will be (whether it is a blood cell. The nucleus also controls cell division and thus cells that do not have a nucleus can not divide into two new cells.

They are found in areas where they are most needed and where a lot of energy is needed. near the tail where a lot of mitochondria is needed. For example in a sperm cell the mitochondria is stored is stored in the body.Mitochondria Mitochondria are tiny organelles that supply the cell with energy. .

. Proteins are essential to keep the cell functioning.Ribosomes Ribosomes are another type of small produce the cells organelles and they produce the cells protein. Ribosomes take amino acids and construct them into long chains to create ribosomes. for example enzymes are made up of proteins.

Vacuole While most textbooks will tell you only a plant cell has a vacuole this is not true. A plants vacuole is much larger and is permanent. An animal cell can have a vacuole but it is a lot smaller than a plants vacuole and its not permanent and grows in size when it is needed. .

Vacuole Holds water but is not as good as a plants permanent vacuole . Cell Membrane Dictates what goes in and out of the cell.Simple Summary Part/Organelle Function Ribosomes Produce proteins. Enzymes Dictate what reactions happen and at what speed and when. Mitochondria Release energy. Cytoplasm The jelly that holds the cell together and where reactions take place. Nucleus Controls what goes on in the cell.

cell membranes and mitochondria so we will not go over them. cytoplasm. Both plant and animal cells have nucleus.Parts of a plant cell. Click on the part you want to see and it will take you there. . GCSE level.

Cell Wall The cell wall on a plant gives the plant cell extra support. . The cell wall allows water and other liquids into the cell. Plants do have a cell membrane just like an animal plant.

more robust cell. It holds a solution known as cell sap and this is a weak solution of salts and sugars in water. Due to the enormous size of the vacuole the cytoplasm and cell membrane are pushed close to one another and this results in a firmer.Permanent Vacuole The permanent vacuole in a plant cell is central in the dell and is very big compared to the animal cell vacuole. The permanent vacuole ensures that the plant cells stays full of water. .

This is where sunlight is converted to energy and this keeps the plant cell going. Chloroplasts containing a green substance known as chlorophyll and photosynthesis occurs here. .Chloroplasts Chloroplasts are the cells food and energy hub.

. Permanent Vacuole Stores a solution of water.Simple Summary Part/Organelle Function Cell Wall Gives extra support to the cell. Chloroplasts This is where photosynthesis happens. sugars and salts.

The other cell however is fine and can divide again. Cells increase in number by dividing. Then the nucleus divides and the cytoplasm connecting the to eventually breaks off and they become separate cells. and loses the ability to divide. In animal cells the cell starts to enlarge. While it is possible for both daughter cells to divide again this is not usually the case as one of the daughter cells changes in shape and structure and becomes specialised. Organelles like mitochondria and ribosomes are equally divided between the two cells . When a cell divides into two separate cells the cells are said to be daughters.Cell Division.

The new shape and ability to allow new chemical reactions happen means that the cell can take on a specific.Cell Specialisation After a cell divides it has the potential to become specialised. This means that the cell will take on one particular job. specialised role. a distinctive shape will be formed and new and special kinds of chemical reactions can now take place in the cytoplasm. .

Specialised Cells .

• The mucus will trap and hold bacteria and dust in it. . • This motion will carry mucus to the nose away from the lungs. • Tiny cytoplasmic hairs are celled cilia.Ciliated Cells (Found more in animals) • Forms the lining of the nose and windpipe. • The cilia constantly flick in a wave like motion.

• When you tap your knee or arm the nerve cells notice this and sends messages to the brain. • “Wired” all around the body and they lead to the brain.Nerve Cells (Found only in animals) • Conducts electrical impulses. • Some are very long and groups connect body parts like the foot to the spinal cord. • Chemical reactions allow electrical impulses to travel through the nerve fibre. .

• The cell membrane controls what substances enter and do not enter the cell.Root Hair Cells (Found only in plants) • Absorbs water and minerals from the soil. • The finger like projection increases the surface area and the rate of absorption. • In the thousands a massive surface area is created and they form the outside layer of roots. .

. • Is flexible and can change its shape.White Blood Cells (Found only in animals) • Found in the blood stream with red blood cells. • Can move into other tissues and go through the blood vessel. • One function of the white blood cell is to engulf and digest bad bacteria.

• When they meet a wall separates the cells. • It is believed that the cytoplasm's communicate to one another and food is passed through the tiny walls. but the wall has holes in it. • They are long cells and join end to end.Phloem Cells (Found only in animals) • The phloem cell transports food in plants. • The tiny walls are called sieve plates. .

.Please note! • This is in no way a complete list. • There are lots of other specialised cells out there.

This is not the case for large animals and plants as many of the cells left on their own would die.Survival of cells. For example a muscle cell can’t get its own oxygen or food so on it’s own it would die. There are lots of single cell organisms that carry out all the process they need to in order to live. This is because the cells help one another in the body. .

Tissues There are many different types of tissues. They are all made up of hundreds of cells with little variation between the cells. in regards to both structure and function. There are various ways in how tissues can form and the main ones are listed and explained in the following slides. phloem and pith in plants. nerve and muscle in animals and epidermis. You have bone. This results in a tissue that has one main task. . For example the phloem transports food.

• They protect said tissues from physical or chemical damage. • Windpipe • Food canal . • There are different types of epithelial tissues.Epithelial Tissue • A thin layer of tissue which usually lies on top of other tissues or organs. • Some examples of epithelial tissue in humans are: • In the mouth.

Muscles can be found elsewhere.Muscle Tissues • In muscle tissue you can also expect to find other types of cells like blood vessels and nerves. • They are formed like a sheet and are elastic like so they can easily go back into place after being stretched. for example in the stomach muscle movement will crush food. • They are not found just in the arms or legs. .

• One example of this is the salivary gland.The glands and tubes • Glands are ball like structures that secrete chemicals and hormones. • After these glands have secreted what they need to the product is carried in small tubes to other organs in the body. .

lungs. brain and intestines are all examples of organs in the human body. and the stomach is provided with food and oxygen by the blood stream. For example the stomach has epithelial tissue. palisade tissue. The organs do not stop there. gland cells and muscle tissues.Organs • Organs are simply a group of tissues working together in unison with one task or goal in mind. Plants also have organs and the main ones are the root. stem and leaves. They have special functions and there are lots of examples in humans. spongey tissue and the phloem and xylem. The heart. The tissues that make up the leaf are the epidermis. eyes. .

Systems are larger than organs.Systems and Organisms. . For example the nervous system is made up of the brain. living thing. An organism is a created when you have organs and systems working together to make an independent. they are organs that work together that have similar functions and goals. In humans you also have the skeletal and circulatory systems and in plants you have the shoot made up of the stem. spinal cord and nerves. leaves and buds.

Tissues Organs Cells Systems Organisms .

Tissue Culture There is a scientific technique called tissue culture and this is where you get a single cell in a dish and the cell divides and a one cell thick tissue is formed on the bottom of the dish. This is done so drugs and medicines can be tested on the cells to look for any possible harmful impacts of a drug. . Another reason this may be done is so scientists can examine and explore how cells divide and learn more about cells and cell division. The cells do not become specialised. Mammal cells usually stop dividing after 20 generations or so.

The sample will be soaked with weak iodine and this will stain the nucleus yellow and the starch grains will be blue. however you do need a powerful microscope.Practical Work with Plant Cells. If you used the epidermis of rhubarb the cell sap in the vacuole should be seen as a red colour. When you want to look at a plant’s cell you usually take a sample from the epidermal tissue which is on the outside of the plant and rhubarb or onions are particularly good when it comes to this. . To see chloroplasts you need to carefully pull a leaf from a moss plant and once that leaf is soaked in water you should see the chloroplasts.

A previous practice involved getting cheek cells from a human and examining the cell.Practical Work with Animal Cells There used to be a few ways to quickly get animal cells to examine in the classroom and they were. even though the threat was very minimal. and then examined. Today there are two ways could get animal cells. however this was banned due to the threat it posed to spreading AIDS. The second method involves sellotape being put onto a washed wrist. The first method is you swabbing your cheeks and gums with a cotton bud and after a through cleaning and after placing some methylene blue solution on the cells you should be able to view them. from us. peeled off. You should be able to see the cells and maybe a nucleus and putting the same methylene blue solution onto the cells you should be able to see a .

roles and needs a cell takes on.Physiology Cell physiology is a name given to all the functions. Some examples of human physiology are digestion. this can also expand larger and go to the tissues. systems and an organism itself. Over the next few PowerPoints we will examine cell physiology. . organs. An organisms physiology to an extent is the physiology of its cells. blood circulation and contraction of muscles. For example cells in humans need oxygen and food and we have to breathe and eat. Some examples of plant physiology are water absorption and the production of food.

Chemical Components of Cells. .

This means it can take a lot of heat in and it won’t heat up a lot. Water also have some helpful and useful properties. .Water About 75% of a cell is water and the cell will die if its water percentage falls lower than this. One downside to water is that it freezes at 0 degrees Celsius so if the temperature goes below 0 degrees Celsius the cell will be damaged because ice will form in the cytoplasm. For example water in plant cells are useful for photosynthesis and water in animal cells is used to break help down food molecules. Water is useful because it is used in a lot of chemical reactions and enzymes and organelles can move about in and work easily with water. for example water has a high capacity for heat. This is useful because it ensures proteins in the cytoplasm won’t get harmed.

) These are called structural proteins because they help make up the cell. The nucleus controls how many enzymes are made and so the nucleus is comparable to brain or a control centre for the cell. (EG: the cell membrane. There is a second type of protein and they are enzymes. oxygen and nitrogen. hydrogen.Proteins Some proteins contribute to the cells make up and aid the cells various structures. All proteins contain carbon. This can be split even further into amino acids… . Enzymes are found throughout the cell and they control the chemical reactions what keep the cell alive. mitochondria and ribosomes.

When you heat a protein up the links start to break down. The chain isn’t a straight line and they form shapes. A protein then is made up of hundreds of these amino acids combined together in different unique ways. When this happens the protein is said to be denatured. Due to this the protein will lose its original qualities.Amino Acids Amino acids make up proteins and there are 20 different amino acids found in animal cells. The shapes are dependent on hoe the amino acids connect and link. The shape of the protein can change how it reacts to other substances. . This happens at around 50 degrees Celsius and the protein will not cool and form into its original shape.

Cells can be damaged through this process.Denaturing When a protein is denatured links between it’s amino acids break and the protein loses its shape and characteristics and when it cools it will have different properties and different shapes. Egg white is a protein and when you denature and let it cool you will have a new protein with new characteristics. Before being denatured egg white is a runny. Cells exposed to heats of over 50 degrees Celsius can experience structural and enzyme failure due to the cells proteins being damaged. clear liquid but after it turns into a white solid and it can not change back. . One example of this is egg white.

hydrogen and oxygen only. Fats are formed from carbon.Lipids Lipids are oils or fats and substances related or derived from them. Lipids form parts of the cell and nucleus membranes and fat stored in the cytoplasm serve as energy reserves. . A fat molecule is made up of smaller organic molecules called fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol.

Glucose is a simple sugar and is very common and two glucose molecules can combine to form maltose. there are lots of different types of carbohydrates and a very common one is glucose. . however you do also have starch and cellulose.Carbohydrates Carbohydrates aren’t one thing. They are sugars and they can be very large molecules. Glucose can link together to make long chains.

. Some ions help a cell react to electrical input and this can help the cell respond to stimuli or in the case of a nerve cell pass on electrical signals. Ions are helpful to a cell but you have to have them in moderation.Salts Various salts are present in a cell but they are ions. Too little or too many ions can influence and change the physiology of the cell.

Vitamins Vitamins are substances that cells need to perform chemical reactions and to keep everything in check. Plants can create their own vitamins but human need to eat vitamins because animal cells can't create vitamins however if you give an animal cell the building blocks to create vitamins it can. . With a lack of vitamins the cell physiology is messed up and the whole organism can suffer if there is a lack of needed vitamins.

. Animal cells can change carbohydrates to lipids and vice versa. All cells can make proteins if they have the amino acids and they can build up fat from glycerol and the fatty acids needed. Animals can make proteins but an animal cells needs to have the amino acids where as plant cells can make their own amino acids from sugars and salts.Synthesis and conversion Cells are able to make up (synthesise) or convert proteins. lipids and carbohydrates.

amylase. Reactions that could take days without the enzyme present may take minutes. One enzyme can be used lots of times over. One example is enzymes joining two glucose molecules together to create maltose and water. Reactions which build up two separate molecules into one new one is called an anabolic reaction.Enzymes Enzymes are proteins and they speed up the reactions that happen in the cell. We also think that enzymes join and break down molecules. A reaction which breaks one molecule into two new ones is called catabolic. with an enzyme present. . however they aren’t used up in the reaction. even seconds. this means they are a catalyst. Starch left in water over years will break down into sugar but an enzyme in out saliva. breaks down the starch much quicker.

Enzymes and other factors .

. It has been noted that a rise of 10 degrees Celsius will double the rate of a chemical reaction. It is called control and it tests if a protein is an enzyme.Enzymes and Heat Enzymes are proteins and can not be exposed to temperatures above 50 degrees or else they’ll become denatured however heat can be very beneficial for enzymes and a cell. This may be a factor in a cell’s death if exposed to too much heat. This holds true for enzymes. Chemical reactions happen quicker the hotter the temperature is. Scientists can take advantage of this in experiments. If this substance still carries out chemical reactions after being heated to 50 degrees it can’t be an enzyme. Above 50 degrees Celsius an enzyme is subject to deformation and this means that they don’t speed up chemical reactions.

There is not one type of enzyme and all the different types of enzymes work well at different levels of pH. This is called the optimal pH level but optimal can also apply to other aspects. .Enzymes and pH. In cells most enzymes work best at 7 or neutral. but amylase in your saliva would fail to function at this pH level. for example you also have optimal temperature. Unlike heat if an enzyme is exposed to a pH level it doesn’t like its not permanently damaged unless its at the extreme ends of the scale. For example an enzyme in your stomach works best at a pH of 2.

Most enzymes end in “…ase” and they tend to be named on what they work with. This means that if a reaction happens in stages with the substance changing various times a new enzyme is needed. You can almost think of the enzyme as a “lock” and it will only work with it’s specific “key” which is the substance. This ensures that an enzyme which breaks down substances doesn’t start to break down needed and intact substances. For example the enzyme that works with proteins is named protease.Enzymes are specific. This means that enzymes are suited to only work with one substance and will usually only work with that one substance. .

With more enzymes you have faster reactions. the number of enzymes themselves affect how fast a reaction occurs. . it dictates how many enzymes are made. This is why the nucleus is the brain of the cell.Amount of Enzymes Not only the temperature and pH affect how well and how fast reactions occur.

The same thing happens in animals in the digestive system. . Some however will be secreted and go outside of the cell. Fungi and bacteria take advantage of this and release enzymes so food can be digested. Mould growing on bread will release enzymes and the mould will absorb the sugars the enzymes produce. These are called intercellular enzymes. enzymes are released to digest and break down food. These are extracellular enzymes.Intracelluar and Extracelluar Enzymes Most enzymes produced in a cell will stay inside the ecll and be in the cytoplasm doing its job.

In baking and brewing enzymes in yeast are exploited. In both these examples the enzymes were from living cells but with cheese making enzymes from calves’ stomachs were used and it clotted milk in the early stages of the cheese making process. The organic enzyme is called Rennin but an engineered one is commonly used now and is called Chymosin. The enzymes convert sugar to alcohol and carbon dioxide and it is this what gives bread a fluffy full effect and in brewing it gives beers and wines a sparking effect. .Enzymes in Industries For years enzymes have been used in industries and by companies.

• They are not corrosive and easy to work with compared to the alternatives to enzymes.Why Use Enzymes There are three main reasons we use enzymes in situations like these and these are: • They work at lower temperatures and are money efficient. • They are specific. Because enzymes only work with one substance you know what will happen and everything can be controlled and manipulated. .

Respiration .

This can be easily confused for breathing which is also called respiration so to be specific you would normally use phrases like “cellular respiration”. There are two types of respiration.Cellular Respiration More or less all the processes that happen in a cell need energy to make them happen. . Cells get energy from food and that is most commonly glucose. aerobic and anaerobic and both are useful at different times. “internal respiration” or “tissue respiration”. The process from energy being produced from food is called respiration and it is a chemical process.

hydrogen and oxygen atoms and this process takes that carbon and turns it into carbon dioxide and turns that hydrogen into water. This is where the food and oxygen combine in a process known as oxidation and the food is now oxidised. At the same time energy is released and this can be shown in a single equation. All food molecules have carbon.Aerobic Respiration For aerobic respiration you need to have oxygen. .

Aerobic Respiration Equation Enzymes Energy! C6H12 06 + 602  6CO2 + 6H20 + 2830kJ Carbon Dioxide Glucose Oxygen This is the food Water .

. • This slowly releases the energy. • This happens in the mitochondria. this is inevitable. • It doesn't happen in one large chunk. • Some of the energy released is heat.Notes on the Equation • So to get 2830kJ you need 180 grams of glucose. it happens over a long period of time.

no oxygen involved.g. Animals can use anaerobic respiration and usually do at periods of intense physical activity. In the chemical reaction you only have glucose and enzymes to work with.Anaerobic Respiration With anaerobic respiration you do not use oxygen. . A common example of this anaerobic respiration is yeast and sugars. e. Carbon dioxide is produced but no water is produced. This is called fermentation and is shown in this chemical equation on the next slide. exercise. The yeast uses the sugars to respire and the sugar isn’t completely broken down or oxidised.

Anaerobic Respiration Equation Carbon Dioxide Enzymes Energy! C6H12 06  2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 118kJ Glucose This is the food Alcohol .

During exercise this pyruvic acid can build up into lactic acid and is taken away from the muscles and goes into the bloodstream.The Second Stage – Aerobic Respiration As you can see not as much energy is produced by anaerobic respiration. This is because the alcohol holds a lot of the energy and the yeast can tap into that energy. . When the lactic acid reaches the liver it some of it will be oxidised. This accumulation of lactic acid and oxygen needed to “pay” off the acid is considered to have created an oxygen debt. It is thought that this lactic acid build up causes muscle fatigue. This alcohol in animals is called pyruvic acid and after anaerobic respiration has taken place aerobic respiration will break down the acid into carbon dioxide and water. Once exercise has ended the animal is still going to breathe heavily and this will continue until all the lactic acid has been oxidised. Animals on the other hand can get hold of that energy.

metabolism. Respiration is considered a catabolic process and building new proteins is considered an anabolic process. The minimum energy needed to keep the cell or organism alive. is basal metabolism. Basal metabolism covers key aspect and functions which keep us alive such as respiration. without movement or growth. A process in an organism which breaks substances down can be known as catabolism and a process which creates or builds new substances can be known as anabolism. secretion and digestion. .Metabolism The chemical changes happening in a cell or an organism has a name.

Diffusion is the idea that molecules (whether they gas or liquid) will spread to an area of high concertation to an area of low concertation. . and cells need water to stay alive and they also need to expel carbon dioxide.Diffusion Cells need to get food substances so they can digest the food and respire. This can happen with cells. The final goal of diffusion is to have all the molecules equally spaced out and for them to be evenly distributed. molecules can enter a cell if there is a low concertation inside the cell and a high concertation on the outside of the cell. because in large quantities it is harmful to the cell. This is done by the process of diffusion.

Cell Membrane Whether this diffusion into or out of a cell happens is down to the cell membrane. carbon dioxide and oxygen are easily allowed to pass through the cell membrane. This is very beneficial for the cell. Both of these benefit the cell and are helpful for the cell. For example if a cell oxidises food the concertation of oxygen in the cell will decrease and oxygen will diffuse into the cell or if carbon dioxide builds up in the cell due to respiration the carbon dioxide due to diffusion will leave the cell. . Remember that the cell membrane acts as a bouncer and allows things into or out of the cell. As a rule of thumb however small molecules like water.

Generally the thicker the cell membranes and cell walls the slower the rate of diffusion. water diffuses slower than amino acids do. The higher the gradient the higher the rate of diffusion. Another factor is the concertation gradient or the difference between the high and low concertation numbers. Enzymes can also speed up the rate of diffusion. pressure. One example is the thickness of the cell membranes or cell walls. . It can also be down to the molecule itself. The cell can also impact the rate of diffusion. concertation and the size of the molecules.Diffusion Rate Factors There are factors that can affect the rate of diffusion into or out of a cell. distance it has to diffuse. These factors are temperature.

the greater the rate of diffusion. The greater the surface area. Some places in the human body require rapid diffusion. has smaller versions of themselves projecting out from the cell membrane and these are called microvilli. called villi.Surface Area Surface is one of the biggest factors in determining how fast diffusion takes place. . for example the intestines. The cells in the intestines are special and maximise the surface area because the cells are in long finger like shapes that boost surface area. It gets better though as these cells.

Endo. The enzyme filled vacuole makes its way to the cell membrane where it is secreted and leaves the cell. Endocytosis (taking in a solid or liquid) happens with a particular white blood cell called phagocytes. . Phagocytes engulf and digest bacteria and this engulfing has a special name specific to phagocytes and it is called phagocytosis.and Exocytosis. Cells can take in or expel solids or liquids through the cell membrane. Exocytosis happens in glands and this is where cells form vacuoles that hold a digestive enzymes.

. If this was the case harmful substance could easily enter the cell and helpful substances could leave. The energy from respiration causes this active transport to happen. One example of this is the villi and microvilli in the small intestine.Active Transport Diffusion is not the only way substances enter or leave a cell. Cells can go one step further and work against the concertation difference through a method called active transport. they take in glucose through this active transport method.


This is similar to diffusion but only applies to water and it can go both ways.Osmosis Osmosis occurs when you have a partially permeable membrane and two different solutions. a concentrated solution and a dilute solution. In some cases the partially permeable membrane can act as a sieve and other times it won’t. When the two are separated by the membrane water from the diluted solution moves over to the concentrated solution meaning the concentrated solution rises and the diluted solution falls. There is a visual representation on the following slide. (Concentrated meaning “pure”). .

The larger sugar molecules will go through but very very slowly. it stops the sugar molecules going through. This is why it acts like a sieve. The larger sugar molecules will go through again but very very slowly. In this case the membrane does act like a sieve as most of the water will go right to left.Visual Representation. or at least makes them go through very slowly. . In this case the membrane doesn’t act like a sieve as most of the water will go left to right.

In Animal Cells .

If too much water enters a cell it will burst and if too much leaves a cell it will die as we have previously talked about before. . It can also be said that the cell is turgid. If the stem and leaf is turgid the plant looks healthy strong and alive. When they are full of water they are ridged and sturdy. This in turn makes the cell swell up and increase in size. The water filled vacuole presses against the cell wall and membrane and the vacuole is exerting turgor pressure on the cell wall. The opposite is a state of flaccid and this is characterised by a limp. weak and droopy plant. Plant cells can take it even further.Explanation The cell started out with a low concentration of water but water osmotically diffused into the cell.

A plant gets its simple raw materials from two places.Photosynthesis Cells and organisms need food to fuel essential process that keep them alive and for development and growth. plants do not eat. The reason in plants it is called photosynthesis is because the energy comes from the sun and is converted by chlorophyll into chemical energy. what the plant uses to drive the synthesis to make carbohydrates. build up. the air and the soil and synthesises them into complex carbohydrates. complex carbohydrates like glucose. The plants get water which contains hydrogen from the soil and carbon dioxide from the air which contains carbon and oxygen. These raw materials combined with nitrogen and sulphur from the soil allows the plant to synthesise. Animals take in food and digest them and with the exception of a few rare plants. they photosynthesise. .

hydrogen and oxygen.Remember! Carbohydrates are made up from carbon. The waste product produced is Oxygen. . Glucose is only one of many carbohydrates that could be created. Glucose which is produced by photosynthesis is C6H12O6 .

The chemical energy is used for photosynthesis. . Water and carbon dioxide with the chemical energy is converted to glucose and oxygen.Flow diagram Sunlight is converted to chemical energy by the chlorophyll.

Photosynthesis Equation

6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2


Photosynthesis Process

The Process
The process of photosynthesis happens in the leaves. In plants water
is soaked up by the roots and is transported to the leaves. The
stomata in the leaf absorbs carbon dioxide. Here the cell synthesises
the water and carbon dioxide into glucose, a sugar and the waste
product oxygen is also created.

Gaseous Exchange
Plants and animal cells need to take in and expel gasses and they do
this through a process called gaseous exchange. The needs of plant
and animal cells is reversed (Plants need carbon dioxide and for
animals it is a waste product) so the gaseous exchange is reversed.
Gaseous exchange doesn’t just happen in plants in the leaf, in
humans gas exchange happens in the alveoli where oxygen is
exchanged with carbon dioxide in the red blood cells.

• Inside the leaf it is spacious so gas can easily move about. . • Chloroplasts are on top where the most sunlight will hit. • There are a lot of stomata so gas can easily get into the leaf. • Leaves are thin so the gas doesn’t have to travel far to reach the inside cells.Adaptations of Leaves • Broad and flat shape allows for quicker diffusion. • The web like water network in a leaf means that all cells will receive water.

.Definitions • Organelles – Tiny structures in a cell that have a specific function. • Mammals – Warm blooded animals which have hair on their skin and the women can produce milk for their children.