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Piston, Piston Rings and Piston Pins

Main Functions
- transmission of gas force
- kinematics guidance
- sealing (together with the piston rings) of the crankcase against
combustion gas, and the combustion chamber against oil
- support for sealing rings (piston rings)
- limit and design of the combustion chamber
The piston is subject to stress through:
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gas and mass forces
heat flow of the combustion chamber
frictional forces at the shaft and in the ring grooves
movements perpendicular to the running direction ("tilt“)

The good design and construction must guarantee:
- sufficient strength with as little mass as possible
- permissible temperatures through design (heat flow), material and
cooling
- correct running clearance for all load levels
- quiet operation with limited tilt

.Compression height CH influences the overall height of the engine. . It is determined by the height and overall number of the piston rings.Setup and Dimensions .Piston pin length PL is dimensioned such that there is adequate space for I-ing-type retainers.

caused by gas and mass forces that affect directly atop the piston.The piston pin support is often designed as a moulded hole with pockets on the side to anticipate the tendency of the piston pin to become oval under stress. and frictional forces . . their reaction forces in the piston pin boss and skirt. this design will allow a 20 % higher load carrying capacity.Mechanical Stress of the Piston .

During the course of a working cycle. . and bearing surface are the consequences of this severe "slap". rings.Mechanical noises and increased wear of piston. . .The greatest lateral forces occur during the expansion cycle shortly after TDC and lead to an intense contact change from the 'minor thrust face' to the 'major thrust face'. the piston frequently changes its contact side..

By offsetting the piston pin axis. An offset (0.5 to 2% of D) to the "major thrust side" causes the piston to contact the major thrust side prior to TDC.. an additional couple can be obtained at the piston providing an improved lateral force behaviour. and therefore the piston slap noise can be reduced .

Thermal Stress of the Piston . Pme .the piston surface power is often used as a measurement of thermal stress. .mean piston velocity np . PeZ max relative to the piston surface AK.Rated speed i – combustion cycle per revolution Ak – Piston area .The piston is a component that is exposed to the high amounts of thermal stress. .The piston surface power output is defined as the effective power output per cylinder.brake mean effective pressure pme Cm .

The piston surface power output is therefore proportional to Cm and Pme. and the piston design itself can have influencing effects. the engine load. .The temperatures in the piston are determined by the operating method and combustion process. the temperature level is lower than that for grey cast iron pistons. . which are the major influence on the average heat flux density..The temperatures are higher for diesel engines than for comparable gasoline engines. the type of engine cooling. -The highest temperatures occur in the centre of the piston head. -For light-alloy pistons. . the engine size.

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the piston is processed slightly crowned or conical ..To compensate for this thermal deformation.

Piston Materials . 6) are well met by aluminum alloys containing silicon .Some of these requirements (2. 4. 5.Their disadvantage is a high coefficient of linear expansion .

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.mainly used for simple small gasoline and diesel engines. Compensating Pistons . .The simplest pistons are made of one piece and have no fittings made out of a second material. and have cast-in inserts to influence the thermal expansion behaviour.Piston Designs Single-Metal Pistons (Full-Skirt Pistons) . . piston skirt. and medium-sized low power diesel engines. cylinder liner. . and splash-oil from the crankcase.Cooling is accomplished through the piston rings. they influence each other during thermal expansion.Since the steel inserts and the light alloy are tightly connected.Compensating pistons are made of light-alloy.

the higher the temperatures and the larger the temperature variations become. piston surface power output) and the larger the piston diameter (heat conduction path).The higher the thermal stress (heat flux density.Cooled Pistons . .

during which the oil is supplied to the cooling channels via channels in the connecting rod. or through telescopic tubes . piston pin.forced cooling.A simple method consists of cooling the piston head with an oil spray of a fixed nozzle or one located in the connecting-rod eye ..

.Medium and Large Engines: . Cooling oil is supplied into the steel coil and cast into the light-alloy piston via the connecting rod and the piston pin.The cooling coil piston offers the possibility of force cooling in medium-sized engines.

For large engines. assembled pistons are used. assembled pistons that include water cooling are used .. which consist of two parts that bolted together .For engines that are subject to maximum thermal stress.