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ECE 0909.402-02, 0909.504-02

Lecture 3: Electric Power Fundamentals
5 February 2007
Dr. Peter Mark Jansson PP PE
Associate Professor – Electrical and Computer Engineering

Aims of Today’s Lecture
• Course Training Tours (Mon 3-8PM, Fri 12-5PM)
• Part One: Overview of Chapter 2 concepts
• A summary of…ch. 2 concepts
• Power Factor Correction
• Three Phase Systems
• Power Supplies and Power Quality
• Part Two: Overview …ch. 3 concepts
• Early developments
• Electric industry today (NUGS, IPPs, QFs)
• Polyphase synchronous generators

Aims of Today’s Lecture (con’t)
• 15 minute stretch break at 6
• Part Two: An intro to …ch. 3 concepts

Heat engines, steam cycles and efficiencies
GTs, CCs, Baseload Plants and LDCs
T&D
Regulatory impacts (PUHCA, PURPA, FERC)

Power factor correction?

Why correct power factor?
1/5th of all grid losses may be due to poor power factor
(>\$2B/yr), the outage of 2003 was made more severe by
extremely high reactive demand, all transformers are
rated on kVA not watts, all these economic, efficiency and
reliability benefits can be achieved at a very low cost …

and PF correction is a straightforward engineering design . Capacitors are rated by volt-amps-reactive VARs that they supply at the system voltage in which they are installed.Power factor correction Adding capacitive impedance in parallel with the load enables the current to oscillate between the inductors and capacitors rather than being drawn from the utility system or the customer transformer.

87o Apparent power = (1. The plant now experiences a power factor of 80%.95)(1.8) = 36.Last Week’s pf correction example • An industrial customer’s service entrance substation is rated at 1MVA (1.8) = 1106kVA > 1MVA capacity • Reactive Power = Q = VI sin = 1106(0.000kVA) and is at 95% capacity.500 Volt-Amps If demand grows from 760kW to 885kW Apparent Power will grow to Real/PF = 885/(0.8)(0.6) = 664kVAR .000kVA) = 760kW Phase angle = cos-1(0.000)(0. A new manufacturing line is planned that will increase power demand 125kW. How many kVAR of capacitance should be added to avoid purchasing additional substation transformer capacity? • • • • Real power (at present) = (0.95) = 9.

power factor must improve to at least PF = 885kW/1. The plant now experiences a power factor of 80%. A new manufacturing line is planned that will increase power demand 125kW.PF correction example (con’t) • An industrial customer’s service entrance substation is rated at 1MVA (1. How many kVAR of capacitance should be added to avoid purchasing additional substation transformer capacity? • For substation to handle the growth.000kVA = 0.75o • Reactive Power (Q) = VI sin = 1000(0.885 • Phase angle now will be = cos-1(0.000kVA) and is at 95% capacity.4656) = 466 kVAR • Difference in reactive power must be supplied by the capacitor bank: 664 – 466 = 198 kVAR • Specify a >= 200 kVAR cap bank at industrial customer’s service voltage .885) = 27.

there are times when the actual value of the capacitance is needed: • Voltage/Current in Capacitor: V=(1/C)I • Current & Power in Capacitor is all reactive: VAR = VI = V(CV) = CV2 • C (farads) = VARs/(V2) . however.What is a 200 kVAR cap bank? • Rating Capacitor Banks in terms of KVAR is quite common in power systems.

3 10 F  2.86 10 5 .What is a 200 kVAR cap bank? • C (farads) = VARs/(V2) • We need therefore to know what voltage the capacitance will be provided at.3mF 6 86. in our case 480V C farads VARs 200kVARs   2 2 V 2  60  (480) 2 10 VARs 3   2.

A second motor.LM #1 • In an industrial facility (1. similar to the above needs to be added.2kW (pf=0. 240V) with a 10-kVA transformer. the real power of a motor is 4.6). • Show transformer loads • Determine kVAR and pf required to meet request • How much capacitance is this (farads)? .

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3-phase systems • Typically. 3-phase systems are connected in one of four ways: (Supply – Load) • • • • Wye – Wye Wye – Delta Delta – Wye Delta – Delta • What are these? .

Wye (Y) connections .

Vb.What is meant by Phase & Line Voltages? • In a 3-phase Wye-connected system which is quite common (all the negative legs of generators or transformers are tied to ground) the following is true: • Voltages measured with respect to the neutral wire are called phase voltages V (Va. Vac ) • In power systems we typically use Line Voltage . Vc) • Voltages measured between phases are called line voltages VL or VLL (Vab. Vbc.

Reactive (VAR).Power in 3 Systems • In 3-phase (3) systems to determine power including Apparent (VA). and Real (Watts) .we need to understand these relationships: S3  3V phase I line Vline 3  I line  3Vline I line 3 Q3  3Vline I line sin  _(VAR ) P3  3Vline I line cos _( watts ) .

3. 208 V service.Power in 3 Systems • Most widely used service to buildings is a 4-wire . • To determine line voltage of each phase alone we need to understand this relationship: VLine = 3 Vphase= • Therefore: Vphase= = VLine/ 3 = 208V/ 3 = 120V .

480V service. • To determine line voltage of each phase alone we use the same relationship: • VLine = 3 Vphase= • Therefore: Vphase= = VLine/ 3 • = 480V/ 3 = 277V See Figure 2. 3.Power in 3 Systems • Many buildings also use a 4-wire .15 on page 74 of our Renewable and Efficient EPS text .

• What is its Phase Voltage? .LM #2: 3 Power Distribution • The Atlantic City Electric Power System distributes electricity from its substations to its customers at a 3-phase line voltage nominally 12-kV.

Delta () .

Y and  current. voltage & power • Y-connected • I L = I • VLL = 3 V Apparent Power3 = 3 VLL IL • Real Power3 = 3 VLL ILcos   -connected • VLL = V • IL = 3 I Apparent Power3 = 3 VLL IL • Real Power3 = 3 VLL ILcos  .

208V-Y) the real power used is 80kW with single phase motors and a poor power factor is the result (0.Example • In an industrial facility (3.9 what losses are there now? .5) leading to 5% power losses (4kW). With capacitors and 3 motors the power factor is increased to 0.

444kA  444 A 3  VL 3  208V 80 After _ pf  0.9 S3 88.9kVA 0.5  80kW  S3   160kVA 0.5 S3 160kVA IL    0.9  S3   88.247kA  247 A 3  VL 3  208V .9kVA IL    0.Solution P3  80kW  3VL I L cos  S3 cos 80 S3 cos  S3  0.

R is constant • Losses after correction 2 (247) PL  4kW   1.Final Solution • Current losses are 4kW (5%) • Losses (I2R).24kW 2 (444) 1.55% 80 .24 Loss %   1.

• What is the phase current? I • What is the line current? IL • What phase voltage? V • How much current is saved if pf is unity? .LM #3 • In an industrial facility (3.6). 208V-Y) the real power used is 250kW and a poor power factor exists (pf = 0.

pcs. motor controls. portable phones. thermostats – just about everything with an IC or digital display or any electronic control • 6% of US electricity flows through PS .Power supplies • Devices that convert ac power to dc power for electronic applications • What devices use power supplies: tvs. copiers.

Linear and switching • Linear PS: use transformers to drop voltage and then rectifier and filter. 50-60% efficient in conversion • Switching PS: use rapid transistorized switches to effectively reduce available power and use a dc-dc converter to adjust dc output voltage to desired levels. 70-80% efficient in conversion • Typical US household has ~20 devices using PS which consume between 5-8% of electricity and account for over \$4B each year (500 kWh/home) .

77-86) and introduced in this course because they can have a significant impact on power quality as well as very sensitive to poor power quality • Also circuits similar to the buck converter can both raise and lower dc voltages to enhance performance of photovoltaic arrays we will design later in the course .Power supplies • Described in text (pp.

Power quality & THD • Current and voltage waveform irregularities • • • • • • Under-.over-voltage and current Sag. spikes and impulses Electrical noise Harmonic distortion Outages . swell of V and I Surges.

Power quality and interruptions • Few cycles or momentary sags can cause major disruption for automated manufacturing equipment: • PLCs • ASDs • Digital economy businesses can be even more disrupted by poor power quality .

swell of V and I Surges.Sources of eroding quality • Utility (line side): • • • • Under-. spikes and impulses Outages • Customer (load side): • Waveform noise (poor grounding) • Harmonic distortion .over-voltage and current Sag.

filters and various other line conditioning equipment .Solutions to eroding quality • Utility (line side): • • • • • filters capacitors and inductors high energy surge arrestors fault current limiters dynamic voltage restorers • Customer (load side): • UPS. voltage regulators. surge suppressors.

) distort • Periodic functions that are sine or cosine only have no even harmonics (called halfwave symmetry – half and full wave rectifiers will exhibit only odd harmonics) . L & C • Electronic loads (power supplies. electronic ballasts.Overview of harmonics • Any periodic function can be represented by a Fourier series made up of an infinite sum of sines and cosines with frequencies that are multiples of the fundamental (60Hz) frequency • Frequencies that are multiples of the fundamental are called harmonics (ie. 5th harmonic is 300 Hz) • Harmonic distortion does not occur from loads using the basic components of R. adjustable speed drives. etc.

CFLs and THD • 60-watt Incandescent Light • V and I in phase • No THD • 18-watt Compact Fluorescent Light • Phase shift (inductive load) • Significant wave notching • Numerous harmonics .

Total harmonic distortion I  I  I  THD  I1 2 2 2 3 2 4 .

14 0.05 0.09 0.18 0.Sample problem LM#4 • Calculate the THD for the following CFL: • Harmonic • • • • • 1 3 5 7 9 rms Current (A) 0.03 .

3.9. 2. 3. 3.12. 2.2. 3. 3.10.9.11 .7.3.6.1. 3.13.New homework • HW 3 – due next Monday • will be posted on web • 2. 3.4. 3. 3.

Chapter 3 concepts and content
• Part Two: An intro to …ch. 3 concepts

Early developments
T&D
Polyphase synchronous generators
Heat engines, steam cycles and efficiencies
GTs, CCs, Baseload Plants and LDCs
Electric industry today (NUGS, IPPs, QFs)
Regulatory impacts (PUHCA, PURPA, FERC)

Electricity History
• Early Development (1796 – 1838)

First Chemical Battery – Volta 1796
Electric Arc Lamp – Davy / Moyes 1801
Early Transformer – Schweigger 1811
First Electromagnet – Sturgeon 1825
First E-M Induction Generator – DC – Faraday
1831
• Thin Rod Carbon Lamp Filament – Jobart 1838

History – 2
• The First 100 Years (1840 - 1940)

Six-pole reliable commercial generator – 1840
Subdivided iron core transformer – 1850
First self-excited dynamo patented – 1855
Iron wire replaced by copper for distribution –
1877
• First DC electric power system Pearl Street – 1879
• First AC generation/transf./transm. Design – 1888
• Rotary Converters – 1893

History – 3
• The First 100 Years (1840 - 1940)
continued

2-3 phase transformers – 1894
OCBs invented – 1897
First load dispatcher’s office (NYC) – 1903
First AC transmission 60kV – 200 miles – 1905
High voltage suspension insulator – 1906
First automatic electrical substation – 1914
First flourescent / neon tube lighting 1934

Shift from DC to AC • • • • • 1890: 90% DC 1897: 62% DC 1902: 39% DC 1907: 28% DC 1942: 1% DC .S.History – 4 • U.

>= 34.5 kV) • Radial transmission: often called distribution lines to deliver power to customer loads (Lo voltage <= 23kV) • Rule of Thumb: Power delivered  V2 .Transmission Lines • Purpose: to connect power generation to loads • Design Types: • Bulk transmission: large quantities of power to distribution substations (Hi voltage .

Fundamentals • Transmission / Distribution Lines • ROLE: Minimize i2R losses in system • Transmission: 69. 765 kV • Distribution: 4 .34. 230. 138.8 kV common) . 500.5 kV (12-13.

capacitance problems over long lengths . urban and planned development systems. easiest to maintain. least expensive.Types of Transmission Construction • Overhead: most common in rural and semi-rural utility systems. most used for bulk power transmission • Underground: most common in center-city. subject to higher failures and larger per unit cost length.

Typical Construction – O/H .

Typical Construction – O/H • Towers / Poles – to increase phase to ground distance and limit exposure to the public • Cross arms – separate phases from each other and from ground potential (pole is 90% ground) • Insulators – to separate phase voltage from ground potential and maximize electrostatic creep length • Ground/Static Wire .for lightning protection .

Typical Construction – O/H • Conductors – typically ACSR (aluminum conductor steel reinforced) one or more per phase with appropriate diameter to carry current and load at given voltage and strength to handle spans between towers and associated dead and live loads .

123 kV 150 kV . voltage by 100 add 1 .60 m 3.70 m 2.20 m 2.60 m 1. Safe distance 0.70 m 1.Maximum voltage.60 m 2. • • • • • • 50 kV .20 m 1.72.170 kV 220 kV .420 kV Basic distance.60 m 4.5 kV 110 kV .60 m 3.245 kV 380 kV .60 m • SAFE DISTANCE: divide max.Clearances • Nominal line voltage .

Underground cables • • • • • • Application: underground. underwater Trench Installation or Duct Bank Direct Buried or Cable Tray External sheath or ground wrap Riser Poles/Terminations Manholes for Duct Bank Installations\ .

Distribution Cables .

Cross sections .

polyethylene primary insulation (white). • Jacketed Cable (shown below) includes an additional insulated polyethylene jacket over neutral .UD Cable Cross sections • 25kV primary: phase conductor is concentrically stranded (Cu or Al) a semi-cond. polyethylene shield. another shield. and concentric neutral (Cu or Al) wrapped around outer shield.

UD Shielded Cable • Shielded cable: Uses a copper longitudinal corrugated tape shield in place of the concentric neutral strands .

open tray. duct bank. or underwater applications . direct burial.3-phase transmission cable • 5-46 kV cable: for use in aerial.

Transmission line models • Series resistance and inductance per unit length • Shunt capacitance per unit length • These values control the power-carrying capacity of the transmission line and the voltage drop at full load .

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Heat engines. steam cycles and efficiencies High Temperature Sink TH QH Heat Engine Work QC Low Temperature Sink TC .

Heat Engine Efficiency after Sadi Carnot Work out Efficiency  Energy input Qhot  Qcold Efficiency  Qhot  max Tc  1 TH NOTE: T in oK or oR .

LM #5 • If a solar pond is able to trap heat beneath is saline cover at temperature 120o C above its ambient environment. what is its maximum Carnot efficiency if the outdoor temperature is 15o C? .

entropy • A measure of the amount of energy unavailable for work in a natural process Q S  T .

Sample Heat Engine Problem • A 45% efficient heat engine operates between 2 reservoirs (750oC and 50oC) and withdraws 107 J/sec • What is rate of entropy lost in high temperature reservoir and entropy gained at low temp reservoir ? • Express engine’s work in Watts? • What is total entropy gain of system? .

Sloss (9775 J/s-oK) = 7253 J/s-oK .028 J/s-oK • Express engine’s work in Watts? • Work = 107x45% = 4.Heat Engine Solution • A 45% efficient heat engine operates between 2 reservoirs (750oC and 50oC) and withdraws 107 J/sec • What is rate of entropy lost in high temperature reservoir? • Sloss = Q/T = 107/1023oK = 9775 J/s-oK • and entropy gained at low temp reservoir ? • Sgain = Q/T = 107x55%/323oK = 17.500kW = 4.028 J/s-oK) .5 x 106 J/s = 4.5 MW • What is total entropy gain of system?  S = Sgain (17.

NOTE: • The fact that there was a net increase in entropy tells us that the engine has not violated the Carnot efficiency limit (which for this device would have been what?) Write Your Answer as LM#6 .

Heat Engines • Historic devices that convert heat energy into mechanical energy • Steam Engine • Savery 1698 (<1% efficient) • Newcomen 1705 (~1% efficient) • Watt 1770 (separate condenser ~2% efficient) • Steam Turbine (Parsons 1880 ~10% efficient) .

Heat Engine Efficiencies • • • • • • Modern Steam Turbines (~30% efficient) Gasoline Engines (max. of 2-12) Cogeneration Systems (>70% efficient) .P. 20% efficient) Diesel engine (max. 30% efficient) Gas Turbines (20-30% efficient) Heat Pumps (C.O.

Sample Heat Engine Problem – LM #7 • A 65% cogeneration system operates between 2 reservoirs (750oC and 20oC) and withdraws 3 x 106 J/sec • What is rate of entropy lost in high temperature reservoir? • Express engine’s work in Watts? .

Polyphase synchronous generators • How did we arrive at the 3 phase standard for generators? • What does synchronous mean anyway? • First another look back…. • BEGIN HERE .

History .EM Induction Generators • 1831 Michael Faraday’s Electromagnetic Induction Experiment switch Soft iron ring N battery .

First Evolution: DC Generator Faraday 1831 .

Second Evolution: AC Generator Pixii 1832 .

AC Generator Output .

The induced magnetic field inside any loop of wire always acts to keep the magnetic flux in the loop constant. if the B field is increasing. In the examples below.Lenz’ Law • When an emf is generated by a change in magnetic flux according to Faraday's Law. If it is decreasing. the polarity of the induced emf is such that it produces a current whose magnetic field opposes the change which produces it. the induced field acts in the direction of the applied field to try to keep it constant. . the induced field acts in opposition to it.

Lenz’ Law .

synchronous • A fixed-speed machine (generator or motor) that is synchronized with the utility grid to which it is connected… • To generate 60Hz a two pole generator would need to rotate at 3600 rpm in order to provide synchronous output .

Multi-pole machines • Two pole machines have 1 N and 1 S pole on their rotor and their stator • Four pole machines have 4 poles (2 N and 2 S) on both rotor and stator 1revolution fcycles 60 s Ns    ( p / 2)cycles s min 120 f Ns  p .

Synchronous machines – LM#8a • How fast would a generator that is synchronized with the utility grid in France need to rotate to… • Generate 50Hz if it had four (4) poles? .

Finally… the 3- Wye synchronous generator • For balanced power input and output • Input from the steam turbine • Output to the electric grid/loads • What will be the rotation speed of this most common generator in the US? Write Your Answer as LM#8 b .

Baseload Plants • To overcome Lenz’s Law all of these generators require motive horsepower • Gas Turbines • Steam Turbines • Hydro Turbines .GTs. CCs.

Steam Electric Power Plant .

Other power plant schematics .

LDCs • What is a Load Duration Curve? • Every load hour of the year (8760 hours of system load data) arranged from the highest demand to the lowest demand • A key design tool in determining how to match generation mix with load profiles of the utility company .

utilities • Traditionally given a monopoly franchise • In exchange. subject to regulation • State and Federal • Most are distribution only • Many remain vertically integrated (G. T &D) • 3200 US electric utilities • Four types .US Industry structure .

utilities • Investor Owned (IOU) • 5%. state. BPA. US Army Corps. generate > 2/3 of power • Federally Owned • TVA. sell power non-profit • Other Publicly Owned • Munis.US Industry structure . <9% • Coops – originally set up by REA . 2/3 of this type.

US Industry structure – nonutilities • Nonutility Generators (NUGs) • Prior to 1940 ~ 20% of power • By mid-1970s a small fraction • Late 1980s-1990s as regulators changed rules • Some utilities had to sell off their assets • Growth of NUGS in some states was significant • By 2001 NUGs were delivering over 25% .

Regulatory impacts (PUHCA. EPAct. FERC Orders 888 & 2000) Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 1929 16 holding companies controlled 80% of US utilities Financial abuses in many large companies Stock Market Crash left many in bankruptcy PUHCA provided regulation and break-up of large HCs Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 1973 oil crisis led to large rise in utility retail rates PURPA set up to encourage energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies . PURPA.

PURPA.Regulatory impacts (PUHCA. FERC Orders 888 & 2000) Energy Policy Act of 1992 Created new entity EWG EPAct set up to begin opening up the grid to allow competitive generators to compete for customers hopefully to drive down costs and prices FERC Orders 888 & 2000 888 Requires IOUs to publish nondiscriminatory traiffs that can be applied to all generators/competitors 2000 Calls for the creation of regional transmission organizations RTOS to control transmission system operation . EPAct.

Industry today (NUGS. QFs) • NUG – non-utility generator • IPP – non-PURPA-regulated NUGs • QF – meet PURPA requirements for efficiency or renewable energy use . IPPs.

3. 2.11 .9. 2.10.4.6.12.1. 3. 3. 3.3.2.7. 3.New homework • HW 3 – due next Monday • will be posted on web • 2. 3. 3.13. 3. 3.9.