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Water and the Changes of State

The energy required to heat (or cool) a solid (or heat/cool a liquid
or a gas) can be calculated using q = msT. It requires
additional energy to change states. The energy required to
convert a specific amount of the solid to a liquid is known as the
heat of fusion (q = Hfus) and the energy required to convert a
specific amount of a liquid to a gas is the heat of vaporization (q
= Hvap).

Temperature oC

The total amount of energy can be calculated from qT = q1 + q2 +
q3...
Heating curve for water

213 J/g oC) (0.0 g of ice at -5.0 g) = 33900 J q5= (15.0 to 0.0oC q5 = msT for steam 100.0 .0oC q3 = msT for liquid 0.184 J/g oC) (100.100 oC) = 285 J .(0.0oC to 100.0 g) = 5025 J q3= (15.0 .0) oC) = 316 J q2 = (335 J / g) (15. the specific heat of steam is 1.0 g) (4.900 J/g oC so qT = q1 + q2 + q3 + q4 + q5 The next step is to calculate each q: q1= (15.(-5.0 to 125.00oC to steam at 125.213 J/g oC q2 = Hfus for ice to liquid at 0.0 g) (1.0 oC? The first step is to design a pathway: q1 = msT for ice from -5.Water and the Changes of State Q. How many kilojoules of energy are needed to change 15.0 oC.900 J/g oC) (110 .0) oC) = 6276 J q4 = (2260 J / g) (15.0 oC q4 = Hvap for liquid to steam at 100. the specific heat of ice is 4.0 g) (4.0 oC.

. the reverse energy change. This energy is called the heat of vaporization. The process is endothermic. This process is exothermic. is proportional to the amount of substance. heat energy is removed from the substance.  Hvap = q/m → q = Hvap x m • When vapor condenses into a liquid.Energy & Change of State • SI unit of energy = Joule (J) • The energy required to vaporize a substance. therefore Hcon is negative. q. therefore Hvap is positive. Known as the heat of condensation. Hvap.

The process is endothermic.Energy & Change of State • To melt a solid. therefore Hfus is positive.  Hfus = q/m → q = Hfus x m  Hfus of a substance is the energy required to melt one gram of that substance. This is known as the heat of fusion. energy must be added to overcome the forces that hold the crystal structure together. • The heat of solidification is the reverse of heat of fusion and is exothermic and Hsol is negative. Hfus. .

184 J . c.18 J/g °C = 1 cal/g °C 1 cal = 4. • q = m x c x T • Specific heat of water = 4.Energy & Change of Temperature: Specific Heat • The specific heat is the heat flow required to change the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree Celsius.

The water would warm to its boiling point. five things would happen: • • • • • The ice would warm to its melting point.Change in Temperature plus Change of State If you were to take some ice from a freezer. place it in a flask and apply steady heat to it. The water would boil at the boiling point. . The steam would become hotter. The ice would melt at the melting point.

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How to calculate the total heat flow for a change in temperature plus a change of state • Step 1 : Sketch a graph having the shape shown on the next slide. • Step 3: Add the heat flows. for all numbers being added. Be sure the units are the same. Be sure to mark all relevant starting and ending points. . either kilojoules or joules. q. for each parts of the graph between all of the starting and ending points. • Step 2: Calculate the heat flow.

Required information: Given: Look up the following: m = 19.6 g Tm = 0°C Tb = 100ºC Ti = -12°C Hfus = 335 J/g Tf = 115°C Hvap = 2.Sample problem for a change in temperature plus a change of state Problem: Calculate the total heat flow when 19. initially at -12°C. is heated to steam at 115°C.6 grams of ice.26 kJ/g .

5 4 3 2 1 .

3 kJ q5 = 0.48 kJ q2 = 6.59 kJ q = q1 + q2 = q3 + q4 + q5 = 60.19 kJ q4 = 44.53 kJ q3 = 8.1 kJ .Set up for answers q1 = m x c x T q2 = m x Hfus q3 = m x c x T q4 = m x Hvap q5 = m x c x T Answer: q1 = 0.

1. 2. a) aluminum a) b) c) d) b) calcium Al (s) + 3H2O (g)  3H2 (g) + Al2O3 Ca (s) + 2H2O  H2 (g) + Ca(OH)2 2K (s) + 2H2O  H2 (g) + 2KOH + heat 3Fe (s) + 4H2O (g)  4H2 (g) + Fe3O4 c) potassium d) iron *requires steam *slowly at ambient temperature * vigorous at ambient temperature *requires steam . 3. An increase in motion can only be accomplished by an increase in energy. Also the liquid state is in motion much more than the solid state. KEm = 3/2 RT. the vapor pressure of a liquid should increase with temperature because of the increase in collisions and kinetic energy that always accompanies an increase in heat energy (temperature). ice at 0 C or water at 0 C? Explain your o o answer. Write equations to show how the following metals react with water. Heat must be added to convert ice to water. so the water will contain that much more additional heat energy. explain why vapor pressure increases with temperature. PRACTICE PROBLEMS #21a Which contains less heat. Ice at 0oC contains less heat than liquid water at the same temperature. On the basis of KMT. The increase in energy thus motion allows the liquid molecules to escape (overcome the surface tension and other cohesive forces maintaining the liquid state) from the surface of the liquid into the gas phase. According to the kinetic molecular theory.

. forms a hydrate containing 39.00oC to steam at 103. 3 H2O hydrate. Why does water have a relatively high boiling point? 4. Explain if ice will float in ethyl alcohol (d = 0. MgCO3. Magnesium carbonate. How much energy is needed to change 62.645 x 105 J or 3.931 x 104 cal 6.PRACTICE PROBLEMS #21b 1.1 % water of hydration.74 g of water at 15. See next slide for essay/answer 2. Calculate the formula of this MgCO3 .0 oC? 1. Explain the physical process of boiling.789 g/L)? 5. Why does ice float in water? 3.

boiling begins. the heat energy (from the burner) is transferred to kinetic energy (for the molecules) leading to an increase in the molecular motion of the molecules. At room temperature the water molecules have enough energy to allow the particles to move past each other but not enough to escape the surface tension. Explain the physical process of boiling. Now a sufficient amount of the molecules have enough energy to resist the attractive forces.1. Bubbles of vapor are formed throughout the liquid and these bubbles rise to the surface to escape. As the temperature of water increases. When the vapor pressure of the water equals the external pressure. . This action results in an increase in the vapor pressure above the surface of the liquid.

This array creates pockets of vacuum (empty space) in the lattice structure as well as a decrease in the number of molecules per unit volume. since there are less particles then there must be less mass per unit volume therefore the solid is less dense than the liquid. As water freezes.2. the molecular motion of the molecules slow down and the partial positive end (hydrogen) of one water molecule is attracted to the partial negative end (oxygen) of another water molecule. Why does ice float in water? Ice floats in its own liquid due to the intermolecular force. The mass is directly related to the number of molecules therefore. Combine this event with the bent shape of water and the molecules become arranged in a 3-D hexagonal array. hydrogen bonding. . in the solid state.

789 g/mL for ethyl alcohol. the sinking effect is not as dramatic as it would be with a nonpolar substance. . thus the high boiling point.000 g/mL which is greater than 0.789 g/L)? Ice would not float in pure ethyl alcohol because the density of water is 1. Water experiences LDF (London Dispersion Forces) and d-d (dipole-dipole) forces. along with the additional attractive force. 4. Yet since ethyl alcohol also undergoes a small degree of hydrogen bonding. A large amount of heat energy is required to break all of these forces in order for a phase transition to occur. Explain if ice will float in ethyl alcohol (d = 0. Why does water have a relatively high boiling point? Water has a relatively high boiling point because of the amount of intermolecular forces present. Hydrogen bonding.3.

0 oc and still have ice remaining? Show all work.0 mL of oxygen is ignited to form water. Is there sufficient ice to lower the temperature of the system to 0.9 g.0 g sample of a hydrate of FePO 4 was heated until all the water was driven off. Suppose 50.0oC. What is the formula of the hydrate? . Does any gas remain unreacted? 3. Can ice be colder than 0. 2. Why does a boiling liquid maintain a constant temperature when heat is continually being added? 3. A mixture of 70.GROUP STUDY PROBLEMS #21 Short Essay 1.0 mL of hydrogen and 50.0oC are added to 285g of water at 22. 2.0 g of ice at 0. A 25.0oC? Justify your answer. The mass of anhydrous sample is 16. Why does a lake freeze from the top down? Math 1.