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 Endocrine

system regulates metabolic
activities  help in bring out homeostasis3
 Nervous & endocrine systems functions in
different way  interact to modulate &
coordinate metabolic activities of body3
 Secretory products/hormones secreted into: 1, 2
Blood or lymphatic circulation
 Directly into intercellular space

 Rich

in vascular supply, secreting cells
direct access to cappilllaries2
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DUCTLESS GLANDS (pituitary
gland/hypophysis, adrenal gland,
parathyroid gland, thyroid gland,
pineal gland)2, 3
UNICELLULAR ENDOCRINE CELLS 
form a diffuse endocrine system (e. g:
In GI tract, conducting airways of
lung)2, 3
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Classic Endocrine Glands Testes Ovaries 5 .

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Pars intermedia . ADENOHYPOPHYSIS (anterior pituitary)  epithelial component : . 3 A.Pars nervosa (major part) .Median eminence Posterior lobe  Pars intermedia + pars nervosa 2 7 .Pars distalis  anterior lobe . reproduction & metabolism3 Hypophysis subdivision :1.    Lying in sella turcica2 Produces hormones responsible for regulating growth.Infundibular stalk . NEUROHYPOPHYSIS (posterior pituitary)  nervous component : .Pars tuberalis B. 2.

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9 Figure 18.6a. b .

3 1.Acidophilic cells .Basophilic cells 10 . 2. Chromophilic cells : .    75% of hypophysis1 Composed of cords of cells with large sinusoidal cappilaries3 Endothelial lining of sinusoids  fenestrated  fascilitates diffusion of releasing factors & provides entry sites for secretions3 2 kind of cells base on affinity for dyes :1. Chromophobic cells 2.

 Secretory granules stain with histological dyes  stain with acid dyes or stain with basic dyes3   Most abundant cells in pars distalis3 Structure :2. 3    Large. round or ovoid cells Lage secretory granules stain orange to red with eosin 2 KIND OF CELLS 11 .

o o o Secretory granules stain blue with basic dye3 Located at periphery of pars distalis3 Consist of 3 types of cells :2. 3 12 .

3 Degranulated chromophilic A reservoir of chromophilic cells2 13 . No granules2 Less cytoplasm than chromophils Fail to color with routine stains2.    Small.

    Non secretory. star shape cells Constitute large population of pars distalis Have long processes  form gap junction Function not clear 14 .

Acidophilic cells Chromophilic cells Basophilic cells Somatotrope cells Mammotrope cells Corticotropes cells Thyrotropes cells Gonadotropes cells FSH secreting cells LH secreting cells 15 .

with lipid droplets 3 No spesific hormone secreted 2. 3 Basophilic cytoplasm. 3   16 . Forms a sleeve.2. around infundibular stalk2 Longitudinally arranged cords of cuboidal to low collumnar epithelial cells separated by sinusoids1. small den  se granules.

 Chromophobe cells Basophil cells  small granules Colloid-containing cysts lined by chromophobic or basophilic cell (cuboidal cells) Function of cells is unknown1. only 2% of hypophysis2 Consist of :2. 3 1. 2. 2 17 .  Rudimentary in humans. 3.

Median Eminence 2. Infudibular Stalk 3. Infundibular Process (pars nervosa) 18 .  Develops from a downgrowth of hypothalamus Macroscopically  consist of :2 1.

 Tecnically not endocrine glands3  Hormones synthesized in perikarya of neurons supraoptic & paraventicular nuclei in hypothalamus  pass down axon  stored in nerve terminals that form pars nervosa2  Consist of unmyelinated nerve fibers/axons  forms hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract1. 2 19 .

2.ADH / Vasopressin .Oxytocin   20 . Axon contain HERRING BODIES  accumulation of dense neurosecretory granules2. 3 Scattered among nerve fibers  25% of pars nervosa  Only nuclei stain well enough  Vary in size & shape  Equivalent to neuroglial cells of CNS  supported axons in pars nervosa Hormones stored & released from pars nervosa :2 . 3  Pituicytes :1.

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Tissue capsule  forms trabeculae Consist of adrenal cortex & adrenal medulla2. 3 A yellow pheripheral layer1 80-90% of organs3 Parenchyma : continous cords of secretory cells. triangular struct2.      A pair of flattened. separated by blood sinusoids2 22 . 3 Surrounded by thick conn.

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Inner zona reticularis 1. Subdivided into 3 layer :1. Outer zona glomerulosa 2. central nuclei & 1 or 2 nucleoli Acidophilic cytoplasm  SER >>. Middle zona Fasciculata 3. 2.. well develop golgi comp. 2 1. Zona glomerulosa :1. short mitochondria 24 . 15% of organs Small Collumnar cells arranged into arcades Spherical. 3     A narrow band beneath capsule.

2  Widest zone of cortex  6580% of organs  Polyhedral Cells larger than in other 2 zone  arrange in radial collums  Spherical & centrally nuclei. fatty acyl esters of cholesterol  precursor for synthesize steroid hormones  Spherical mitochondria. fatty acids. extensive SER. binucleate  Cytoplasm with many lipid droplets lipid eliminated during stainningappear vacuolated  cells called SPONGIOCYTE  Lipid droplets contain neutral fat.2. some RER. lysosomes 25 . Zona Fasciculata :1.

Zona Reticularis :1.3. 3  7% of organs  A network of irregular anastomosing cords  Similar cells to fasciculata except smaller  Acidophilic cytoplasm. 2. contain fewer lipid droplets  Nuclei stain more deeply 26 .

2 Zona glomerulosa : mineralcorticoids primarily aldosterone 2. Zona Fasciculata : glucocorticoids cortisone and cortisol 3. Zona reticularis : glucocorticoids cortisone and cortisol (probably) 1. Hormones secreted by :1.  Cells of adrenal cortex NOT store secretory products in granules  synthesize & secrete steroid hormone only upon demands1 27 .

. Composed of Chromaffin cells & sympathetic ganglionic cells3  CHROMAFFIN CELLS :1. 2  A large round or polyhedral cells  Numerous brown granules  treated with chromium salts (chromaffin reaction)  Granules may contain epinephrine or norepinephrine (20% of granules). numerous mitochondria 28 . enkephalins  Well develop golgi comp. chromogranins (binding protein). dopamine beta hidroxylase. ATP. some RER.

   Enclosed in Conn. Follicles B. Tissue capsule2 Consist of :2 A. Colloid  a gelatinous material inside follicle Follicle :2   Spherical structure. vary in diameter Walls  Simple squamous epithelium 29 .

centrally placed. follicular cells extend pseudopods into follicles  to envelop & absorb colloid  Synthesized Thyroglobulin  30 . 2 nucleoli  Numerous small vesicles contain thyroglobulin  In great demand of thyroid hormone. depend on activity of thyroid  Round to ovoid nuclei. Principal (follicular) cells:2 Mainly form wall of follicle  Squamous to cuboidal or collumnar.

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elongated mitochondria  Dense secretory granules contain calcitonin (Thyrocalcitonin) 32 . Tissue between follicles  2 or 3 times bigger than follicular cells  Occur singly or group  Pale cytoplasm. round nucleus. Parafollicular / C cells:2. in conn. moderate RER. 3  Present in follicular epith.

Oxyphil cells 33 . Chief (principal) cells 2.lymphatics & nerve  Parenchymal consist of epithelial cells  2 types of cells   Contain 2 types of cells : 1. tissue capsule  trabeculae/septa with blood vessels. Structure :2 Surrounded by thin conn.

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abundant RER  PreProparathyroid hormone synthesize on ribosomes of RER on golgi complex become parathyroid hormone 35 . elongated mitochondria. Chief (principal) cells :2.1. 3  More numerous  Slightly eosinophilic-stainning  Contain granules  Round & centrally placed vesicular nuclei  Juxtanuclear golgi complex.

2. 3  Only small part of cell populations  Occur singly or in group  Larger than chief cells  Cytoplasm stains intensely with eosin (acidophil)  More mitochondria. & little RER  Intermediate cells  in active phase of chief cells  Function unknown 36 . Oxyphil cells :2. smaller golgi app.

regarded as a form of astrocyte 37 . 3 Large lobulated nuclei 1. 3 1. Glial / intertitial cells :1. 2  Fewer number than pinealocytes  Nuclei smaller & stain more deeply  Long cytoplasmic process.  Cover by thin conn. 2 Produce melatonin & several other subtances B. 2. tissue capsule  continous with meningeal (pial) tissue  septa1. Pinealocytes 2. Glial / Intertitial cells A. Pinealocytes Basophilic cells 2. 2 2 types of cells :1.

2  Concretions found in pineal gland of humans  Irregularly shaped structures occur in capsule & substance of gland  Consist mainly calcium carbonate & phosphates  Increased with age. Corpora adranacea (brain sand) :1. function unknown 38 .

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elongate masses of pale stainning cells  In ordinary sections  homogenous population of pale polygonal cell2  In elect. 2. 3. Micrograph & special stainning :2 1. Pancreatic islets : 2  Scattered among pancreatic acini  Irregular. Alpha / A cells Beta / B cells Delta / D cells PP cells 40 . 4.

1. 3. dense crystals Delta & PP cells located periphery of islets2 41 . spherical granules Beta cells :2  78% of islet cells  Locate near the center of islets  Secretory granules smaller than alpha cells. 2. dense. contain small. Alpha cells : 2  20% of islet cells  Periphery of islets  Contain large.

CELL TYPES HORMONAL SUBSTANCES PRIMARY FUNCTION A (alpha) Glucagon Increase blood sugar B (beta) Insulin Decrease blood sugar D (delta) Somatostatin Inhibitor of hormone secretions PP Pancreatic Polypeptide Opposes action of cholecystokinin 42 .

1996. Hiatt JL. Kelley PhD. Pp 403 – 430. 2. L. Pennsylvania. 10th ed. Little Brown & Company (Inc). 1995. 2001. Krausse PhD. Lange Medical Books. Carlos Junquira MD. Jose Carneiro MD. 2nd edition. 3. Gartner LP. Philadelphia. . 2nd Edition. Pp 301-324 43 . Pp 377-392 Color Textbook of Histologi.1. William J. Essentials of Human Histology. WB Saunders Company. Robert O. Basic Histology Text & Atlas . Mc Graw-Hill .

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