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Se, Te, Po

dan Uuh
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By:
Dewi Shinta (13630002)
Susanti Anugrah R (13630004)
Sinta Ayunda (13630012)
Muhamad Yorda (13630016)
Muhammad Ansori (13630019)
Khurrotul Ainia (13630022)
A Fiqri Amrullah (13630026)
Khoirul Anwar (13630029)
Faizatul Hazanah (13630031)

WHAT WILL WE
LEARN?

SELENIUM (Se)

Group 4
HISTORY

JONS JAKOB
BERZILIUS

Selenium was discovered by Jöns
Jacob Berzelius at Stockholm in
1817. He had shares in a sulfuric
acid works and he was intrigued by
a red-brown sediment which
collected at the bottom of the
chambers in which the acid was
made. At first he thought it was the
element tellurium because it gave
off a strong smell of radishes when
heated, but he eventually realised
that it was in fact a new element. He
also noted that it was like sulfur and
indeed had properties intermediate
between sulfur and tellurium.
Berzelius found that selenium was
present in samples of tellurium and
gave that element its characteristic

SELENIUM (Se)
atomic volume

16,5 Cm3/mol

Oxidation number

-2,4,6

Boiling point
Melting point
heat capacity
covalent radius

685°C, 1265°F, 958 K 
220.8°C, 429.4°F, 494 K 
0,32 Jg-1K-1
1,16 Å

crystal structure

hexagonal

State at 20°C
Density (g cm−3)
Key isotopes
electrical
conductivity
electronegativity
formation enthalpy
thermal conductivity
ionization potential

Solid 
4.809 
80
Se 
8 x 106 ohm-1cm-1
2,55
5,54 kJ/mol
2,04 Wm-1k-1
9,752 V

Group 4
PROPERTIES

SELENIUM (Se)
Reaction of selenium
with air

Group 4
Chemical
reaction

Selenium burns in air to form the
solid dioxide selenium(IV) oxide,
SeO2.
Se8(s) + 8O2(g) → 8SeO2(s)
Reaction of selenium with the halogens
Selenium reacts with fluorine, F2, and burns to
form the hexafluoride selenium(VI) fluoride.
Se8(s) + 24F2(g) → 8SeF6(l) [orange]

SELENIUM (Se)

Group 4

Chemical
reaction
Reaction of selenium with
metal(Selenida)

3Se + 2 Al → Al2Se3
Al2Se3 + 6H2O → 2Al(OH)3
Se + Fe → SeFe

Reaction of selenium with
acids
Selenites acids can also be
made directly by the reaction of
selenium with nitric acid.
Reaction:
3Se + 4HNO → 3H SeO + 4 NO

SELENIUM (Se)

Group 4
allotropes

Selenium exists in several allotropes (black, red,
and gray (not pictured) allotropes) that
interconvert upon heating and cooling carried out
at different temperatures and rates. As prepared
in chemical reactions, selenium is usually an
amorphous, brick-red powder. When rapidly
melted, it forms the black, vitreous form, which is
usually sold industrially as beads. The structure of
black selenium is irregular and complex and
consists of polymeric rings with up to 1000 atoms
per ring. Black Se is a brittle, lustrous solid that is
slightly soluble in CS2. Upon heating, it softens at
50 °C and converts to gray selenium at 180 °C.

Black
Se

Red Se

SELENIUM (Se)

Group 4

HOW TO
OBTAIN!!
Selenium is found in several rare minerals

such as kruksit and klausthalit. Se also
obtained from flue dust produced during the
roasting sulphide ores such as PbS, CuS, or
FeS. The dust is trapped by means of an
electrostatic precipitator. Selenium also
occur in the native form together with S .
Most of the world’s selenium is obtained
from the anode muds produced during the
electrolytic refining of copper. These muds
are either roasted with sodium carbonate or
sulfuric acid, or smelted with sodium
carbonate to release the selenium.

SELENIUM (Se)

Group 4
ADVANTAGE

additive to glass
reduce the transmission of
sunlight in architectural glass
make pigments for
ceramics, paint and plastics
useful in photocellssolar
cells and photocopiers.
convert AC electricity to DC
electricity, so is extensively
used in rectifiers.

SELENIUM (Se)

Group 4
DISADVANTAGE

The Impact of Selenium
Deficiency for the Body the
symptoms arising from selenium
deficiency, can be explained by the
decrease in antioxidants in heart,
liver and muscles, resulting in
tissue death and organ failure.
Excess of selenium can cause
very harmful effects that can result
from consuming additional
selenium overdose
• queasiness and retch
• hair and nail loss
• neurological damage

TELLURIUM (Te)

Joseph Müller Von
Reichenstein

Group 4
HISTORY
Tellurium
was
discovered in the
Habsburg Empire, in
1782 by Franz-Joseph
Müller von
Reichenstein in a
mineral containing
tellurium and gold.
Martin Heinrich
Klaproth named the
new element in 1798
after the Latin word
for "earth", tellus.

TELLURIUM (Te)

Group 4
PROPERTIES

atomic volume

20,5 Cm3/mol

Oxidation number

6, 4, 2, −2

Boiling point

1261 K (988 °C, 1810 °F)

Melting point

722.66 K (449.51 °C,
841.12 °F)

heat capacity
covalent radius
crystal structure
Density (g cm−3)
Key isotopes

25.73 J/(mol·K)
138±4 pm
Hexagonal
6.24 g/cm3
120, 122, 123, 124, 125,
126, 128, 130

electronegativity

Pauling scale: 2.1

Energi of ionization

901,01 KJ/mol

TELLURIUM (Te)
Tellurides
Reduction of Te metal produces the
tellurides and polytellurides

Group 4
Chemical
reaction

ZnTe + 2 HCl → ZnCl2 + H2Te
H2Te is unstable, whereas salts of its
conjugate base [TeH]− are stable.

Halides
The +2 oxidation state is exhibited by the
dihalides
Te + X2 + 2 X−→ TeX2-4
where X is Cl, Br, or I

TELLURIUM (Te)
Reaction of tellurium
with air

Group 4
Chemical
reaction

Tellurium burns in air to form the
solid dioxide tellurium(IV) oxide,
TeO2.
Te(s) + O2(g) TeO2(s)

Reaction with water (H2O)
Tellurium dioxide reacts with water to form
acid tellurous (H2TeO3).
                      TeO2 + H2O → H2TeO3

TELLURIUM (Te)

Group 4
ALLOTROPES

Tellurium has two allotropes, crystalline and
amorphous. When crystalline, tellurium is silvery-white
and when it is in pure state it has a metallic luster. It is a
brittle and easily pulverized metalloid. Amorphous
tellurium is a black-brown powder prepared by
precipitating it from a solution of tellurous or telluric acid
(Te(OH)6).Tellurium is a semiconductor that shows a
greater electrical conductivity in certain directions which
depends on atomic alignment; the conductivity
increases slightly when exposed to light
(photoconductivity). When in its molten state, tellurium
is corrosive to copper, iron and stainless steel. Of the
chalcogens, tellurium has the highest melting and
boiling points, at 722.66 K (841.12 °F) and 1,261 K
(1,810 °F), respectively.

TELLURIUM (Te)

Group 4
HOW TO
OBTAIN!!

The principal source of tellurium is from anode sludges
produced during the electrolytic refining of blister
copper.The metal ions are reduced to the metals, while the
telluride is converted to sodium tellurite.
M2Te + O2 + Na2CO3 → Na2TeO3 + 2 M + CO2
Tellurites can be leached from the mixture with water and
are normally present as hydrotellurites HTeO3− in
solutionThe hydrotellurites are converted into the insoluble
tellurium dioxide while the selenites stay in solution.
HTeO−3 + OH− + H2SO4 → TeO2 + SO2−4 + 2 H2O
The reduction to the metal is done either by electrolysis or
by reacting the tellurium dioxide with sulfur dioxide in
sulfuric acid.[29]
TeO2 + 2 SO2 + 2H2O → Te + 2 SO2−4 + 4 H+

TELLURIUM (Te)

Group 4
ADVANTAGE

The largest consumer of tellurium is
metallurgy, where it is used in iron,
copper and lead alloys
Tellurium is used in cadmium telluride
(CdTe) solar panels.
Used to color ceramics
Tellurite agar is used to identify
members of the corynebacterium genus
The strong increase in optical
refraction upon the addition of selenides
and tellurides into glass is used in the
production of glass fibers for
telecommunications
Mixtures of selenium and tellurium are
used with barium peroxide as oxidizer in
the delay powder of electric blasting
caps

TELLURIUM (Te)

Group 4
DISADVANTAGE

Tellurium and tellurium compounds are considered to be
mildly toxic and need to be handled with care, although
acute poisoning is rare.[6Tellurium poisoning is particularly
difficult to treat as many chelation agents used in the
treatment of metal toxicities will increase the toxicity of
tellurium. Tellurium is not reported to be carcinogenic.
Humans exposed to as little as 0.01 mg/m3 or less in air
exude a foul garlic-like odor known as "tellurium
breath."[ This is caused from the tellurium being
metabolized by the body, converting it from any oxidation
state to dimethyl telluride, (CH3)2Te. This is a volatile
compound with a highly pungent garlic-like smell. Even
though the metabolic pathways of tellurium are not known,
it is generally assumed that they resemble those of the
more extensively studied selenium, because the final
methylated metabolic products of the two elements are
similar.

POLONIUM (Po)

Group 4
HISTORY

MARIE AND PIERRE
CURIE

lso tentatively called "radium F",
polonium was discovered by Marie
and Pierre Curie in 1898, and was
named after Marie Curie's native
land of Poland (Latin: Polonia).
Poland at the time was under
Russian, German, and AustroHungarian partition, and did not exist
as an independent country. It was
Curie's hope that naming the
element after her native land would
publicize its lack of independence.
Polonium may be the first element
named to highlight a political
controversy

POLONIUM (Po)

Group 4
PROPERTIES

atomic volume

22.70 cm3/mol

Oxidation number

+4, +2and+6

Boiling point

963,03 °C

Melting point

527 K: 254 °C

heat capacity
Atomic radius

20 W/mK

crystal structure

empirical: 168 pm
monoclinic

Density (g cm−3)

9.3 g/cm3

Key isotopes

210Po, 214Po, and 218Po

electronegativity

2.0

ionization potential

8.42volts

POLONIUM (Po)

Group 4
Chemical
reaction

ReactiontoAir
Polonium burned in the air and produce
polonium(IV) dioxide
Po(s) +O2(g)

PoO2(s)

Reactions withHalogen
In certain circum stances, polonium
would react with chlorine, bromine and
iodineto form tetrahalides.
Po(s) + 2Cl2(g) PoCl4(s)
Po(s) + 2Br2(g) PoBr4(s)
Po(s) + 2I2(g) PoI4(s)

POLONIUM (Po)

Group 4
ALLOTROPES

β –Po
rhombohedra

Polonium is a radioactive element that exists in two metallic
allotropes. The alpha form is the only known example of a
simple cubic crystal structure in a single atom basis, with an
edge length of 335.2 picometers; the beta form is
rhombohedra. The structure of polonium has been
characterized by X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction.

α-Po simple
cubic

POLONIUM (Po)

Group 4
HOW TO
OBTAIN!!

Polonium is a very rare element in nature because of the
short half-life of all its isotopes. 210Po, 214Po, and 218Po
appear in the decay chain of 238U; thus polonium can be
found in uranium ores at about 0.1 mg per metric ton (1
part in 1010), which is approximately 0.2% of the
abundance of radium. The amounts in the Earth's crust are
not harmful. Polonium has been found in tobacco smoke
from tobacco leaves grown with phosphate
fertilizers.Because it is present in such small concentrations,
isolation of polonium from natural sources is a very tedious
process. The largest batch of the element ever extracted,
performed in the first half of the 20th century, contained
only 40 Ci (1.5 TBq) (9 mg) of polonium-210 and was
obtained by processing 37 tonnes of residues from radium
production.[48] Polonium is now obtained by irradiating
bismuth with high-energy neutrons or protons.

POLONIUM (Po)

Group 4
ADVANTAGE

Polonium Is used in nuclear testing
with the release element beryllium
neutron crate when shot alpha
particles. In Printing and
photography tools, polonium used in
tools that ionize the air to eliminate
electrostatic current collection

POLONIUM (Po)

Group 4
DISADVANTAGE

Polonium is highly dangerous and has no biological
role.[17] By mass, polonium-210 is around 250,000
times more toxic than hydrogen cyanide (the LD50
for 210Po is less than 1 microgram for an average
adult (see below) compared with about 250
milligrams for hydrogen cyanide[66]). The main
hazard is its intense radioactivity (as an alpha
emitter), which makes it very difficult to handle
safely. Even in microgram amounts, handling 210Po
is extremely dangerous, requiring specialized
equipment (a negative pressure alpha glove box
equipped with high performance filters), adequate
monitoring, and strict handling procedures to avoid
any contamination.

IT IS
JUST

UNUHEXIUM (Uuh)or
LIVERMORIUM (Lv)

Group 4
HISTORY
Livermorium was first
synthesized on July 19, 2000,
when scientists at Dubna
(JINR) bombarded a curium248 target with accelerated
calcium-48 ions. A single
atom was detected, decaying
by alpha emission with decay
energy 10.54 MeV to an
isotope of flerovium. The
results were published in
December 2000.

Joint Institute for Nuclear
Research and Lawrence Livermore
National Laboratory

Cm96 + 48Ca20 → 296 Lv*116 →
293
Lv116 +3 1n0 → 289Fl114 + α
248

UNUHEXIUM (Uuh)or
LIVERMORIUM (Lv)

Group 4
PROPERTIES

Phase

solid (predicted)

Melting point

637–780 K (364–507 °C,
687–944 °F)
(extrapolated)

Boiling point

1035–1135 K (762–
862 °C, 1403–1583 °F)
(extrapolated)

Density near r.t.

12.9 g/cm3 (predicted)

293

Heat of fusion

7.61 kJ/mol
(extrapolated)

292

Heat of vaporization

42 kJ/mol (predicted)

291

Oxidation states

−2, +2, +4 (predicted)

Ionization energies

1st: 723.6 kJ/mol
(predicted)[
2nd: 1331.5 kJ/mol
(predicted)

iso

halflife

Lv

61 ms

Lv

18 ms

Lv

18 ms

Lv

7.1 m
s

290

SUMMARY

Group 4
PROPERTIES

NATURE
periodicity

O

S

Se

Te

Po

Lv

Atomic number

8

16

34

52

84

116

Element
categoty

nonmet nonmet
allic
allic

nonmeta metallo metallo metal
llic
ids
ids
(probabl
y)

Phase (25°c)

Gases

solid

solid

solid

solid

Predicte
d solid

Density (g/cm3)
at 20 °c

0,0014
29

2,07

4,79

6,24

9,4

12.9 
(predicte
d)

Melting point
(°c)

-218,4

115,21

217

449,5

254

364–507
(extrapol
ated)

Boiling point (°c)

-182,7

444,6

684

989,9

962

762–
862 (ext