Time 8:30 8:45 9:30 8:45am 9:30am Activity Exposition Learning Points Background information. Sharing ideas Harmonization Summary/Concl Summary/Concl Assessment

Group discussions 10:10am Reporting

10:1010:10- 10:22am Wrap-up Wrap10:25 -10:30am S/Evaluation

We want to look at a theoretical framework of studentstudent-centred teaching/learning in comparison to other approaches. Note that there is no unique definition for student-centred teaching/learning. studentHere, it is used as a loose concept for teaching/learning methods. Instead, a fundamental principle is hereby presented for direction. Participants may therefore have individual definitions of student-centred teaching/learning. student-

The teacher facilitates.  Students allowed to follow logical steps.  Learners attain the set objectives.  The teacher draws ideas from his/her students.  Provides very rich learning environment full of varied activities. 

ASEI is an acronym for Activity, Student, Experiment and Improvisation, an important component in teaching/learning method. SMASSE encourages its adaptation in teaching/learning situations.  Student-centredness occupies one of these Studentcomponents.  However, this concept is abstract, causing misunderstanding among teachers.  Thus the need for the session to have common understanding and to strengthen further. 

By the end of the session, participants should be able to: 1. Identify the features of a good student-centred studentteaching/learning. 2. Distinguish between a student-centred and studentnon-studentnon-student-centred teaching/learning. 3. Outline the advantages and disadvantages of the studentstudent-centred teaching/learning. 4. Outline the key points in the actualization of studentstudent-centred teaching/learning.

What do you understand by studentstudentcentred teaching/learning? 2. How is this different from other teaching/learning methods? 3. What are some of the merits and demerits of this approach. 4. Suggest key points in actualizing studentstudent-centred teaching/learning method.

Analogy of hill climbing for learning (image).  Helps capture important student-centered studentteaching/learning. 

Analogy 1.

PrePre-condition Fig. 1

Conceptual Image contd.
Students do not have RK . Education an activity for RK gaining to hill top.  How can students gain the RK ?. 

Three methods of gaining RK :
1). Method 1 Teacher gives (throws) RK to students.

Fig. 2
Here teacher gives (throws) RK to students.  Teacher s position on hill easy to throw RK because why? & speed may be fast.  Joy may be lacking as they are forced 

3 methods contd.
Students are passive receivers, so not happy.  Absence of teacher means no knowledge since they can not climb the hill. 

Method 2:
Teacher only initiates students climbing. Fig. 3.  Here students climb the hill themselves, teacher only initiates their climbing.  Teacher just observes their climbing not Interfering.  Students may find difficult to reach because of height or lost along.  Those who reach may take too long time.

Method 3:
Teacher prepares small steps & they climb together with students. Fig. 4.  Here teacher prepares the small steps for climbing.  Teacher comes down to motivate, explaining objectives of RK .  He/She confirms climbing steps by steps.  / considers students skills or k/ledge (small steps still).

The 3 Methods contd.
Students satisfied if attempts by selves.  can climb similar hills by small steps themselves. 

TeacherTeacher-centred teaching, Extreme studentstudent-centred teaching/learning and studentstudent-centred tg/lg.
Analogy above gives important implication to teaching methods.  Teacher possesses particular knowledge and initiates acquiring knowledge process. 

Method 1:
Corresponds to traditional teaching TeacherTeacher-centred teaching .  Here teacher gives one-way knowledge one(students passive receivers not internalizing). 

Method 2:
Corresponds with Extreme studentstudentcentred teaching/learning .  Here initial motivation by teacher.  Role minimal in on-going activity, may onacquire right, wrong or non. 

Method 3
Corresponds to student-centred tg/lg. student Here tr. Facilitator helping understanding (creating smaller steps).  Instate of RK , involvement in activities.  Encourages learners construction of required skills. 

Noted differences among the approaches: 

Compares to fish catching
1. 2. 3. Teacher gives students fish. Students struggle to catch fish. Teacher assist on how to catch fish.


Actualization of student-centred studentteaching/learning:
StudentStudent-centred tg/lg concerns whole learning process.  Its not just asking questions.  It starts with small steps (planning).  Tr. Guides step by step during lesson.  Make small steps where difficulty exist.  Thus tg/lg is based on PDSI. 

Key points in actualization (PDSI):



Prepare logical small steps. - Prepare various stages questions. - Prepare to answer area of difficulty/misconceptions. Understand students view points. Do - Create students-friendly studentsatmosphere for free questioning. - Confirm understanding at each point. - Arouse curiosity from onset (Intro.).


Dos contd.
- Ask questions that aids climbing. - Define each stage s learning point for learners focus. 3. See - Ask confirming questions at each step. - Observe outputs etc. 4. Improve Try yet much smaller steps. - Allow for self climbing

LongLong-term Process:
Attitude of both teachers and learners are very important.  Students to have positive thought of climbing.  Establishing good learning environment by teachers is important.  Requires long-term change. long

Opens room for proper understanding.  Ownership of learned materials.  The joy of success and its results.  Arousal of learners interest.  Develops learners different skills as cognitive, affective, psychomotor, process, communicative etc. 

Takes a long time & efforts (a month, a term, terms, a year or so)so)(commitment).  Requires teacher s deep content mastery (adequate preparation).  Lack of facilities - (Improvisation).  Measure of actual understanding of learner is difficult to determine (create free atmosphere). 


It is hoped that teachers adopt that method which would give our learners the best to enable them climb the hill easily no matter the discipline, level or age.



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