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Fluid mechanics

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Fluids

Units of Chapter 10

Phases of Matter

Density and Specific Gravity

Pressure in Fluids

Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure

Pascals Principle

Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the

Barometer

Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle

Units of Chapter 10

Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of

Continuity

Bernoullis Equation

Applications of Bernoullis Principle: from

Torricelli to Airplanes, Baseballs, and TIA

The three common phases of matter are solid,

liquid, and gas.

A solid has a definite shape and size.

A liquid has a fixed volume but can be any

shape.

A gas can be any shape and also can be easily

compressed.

Liquids and gases both flow, and are called

fluids.

The density (lower case Greek rho) of an object

is its mass per unit volume:

(10-1)

sometimes given in g/cm3; to convert g/cm3 to

kg/m3, multiply by 1000.

Water at 4C has a density of 1 g/cm3 = 1000 kg/m3.

The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of

its density to that of water.

SG = (/water) = 10-3

Pressure is defined as the force per unit area.

Pressure is a scalar; the units of pressure in the

SI system are pascals:

1 Pa = 1 N/m2

Pressure is the same in every

direction in a fluid at a given

depth; if it were not, the fluid

would flow.

Also for a fluid at rest, there is no

component of force parallel to any

solid surface once again, if there

were the fluid would flow.

The pressure at a depth h below the surface of

the liquid is due to the weight of the liquid above

it. We can quickly calculate:

At rest Fy = 0

F - mg = 0 F = mg

F = mg = Vg, V =Ah

F = Ahg

P F/A = gh

Pressure at depth h (fluid at rest)

P = gh

does not change with depth.

Earths atmosphere: A fluid.

But doesnt have a fixed top surface!

Change in pressure: P = g h

Sea level: PA 1.013 105 N/m2

= 101.3 kPa 1 atm

Old units: 1 bar = 1.00 105 N/m2

Weight of air above that height!

This pressure does not crush us, as our cells maintain an internal

pressure that balances it.

Show Clip

Pressure

Most pressure gauges measure the pressure

above the atmospheric pressure this is called

the gauge pressure.

The absolute pressure is the sum of the

atmospheric pressure and the gauge pressure.

P=?

Pressure on A:

Pdown = P + Pmg

Pup = PA

At rest Fy = 0

Pup = Pdown

or PA = P + Pmg

P = PA - Pmg < PA

So, air pressure holds

fluid in straw!

If an external pressure is applied to a confined

fluid, the pressure at every point within the fluid

increases by that amount.

This principle is used, for example, in hydraulic

lifts and hydraulic brakes.

the Barometer

There are a number of different types of

pressure gauges (Most use P - PA = gh =

PG = gauge pressure). This one is an opentube manometer. The pressure in the

open end is atmospheric pressure; the

pressure being measured will cause

the fluid to rise until

the pressures on both

sides at the same

height are equal.

the Barometer

Here are two more devices for

measuring pressure: the

aneroid gauge and the tire

pressure gauge.

Gauge Pressure: PG = gh

Alternate unit of pressure: Instead of

calculating gh, common to use standard liquid

(mercury, Hg or alcohol, where is standard) & measure h

Quote pressure in length units! For example:

millimeters of mercury mm Hg

For h = 1 mm Hg = 10-3 m Hg

mercury gh = (1.36 104 kg/m3) (9.8 m/s2)(10-3 m)

= 133 N/m2 = 133 Pa 1 Torr

(another pressure unit!)

mm Hg & Torr are not proper SI pressure units!

the Barometer

This is a mercury barometer,

developed by Torricelli to measure

atmospheric pressure. The height

of the column of mercury is such

that the pressure in the tube at the

surface level is

1 atm.

Therefore, pressure is often

quoted in millimeters (or inches)

of mercury.

the Barometer

Any liquid can serve in a

Torricelli-style barometer,

but the most dense ones

are the most convenient.

This barometer uses water.

Tank depth = 5 m

Pipe length = 110 m

Hill slope = 58

Gauge Pressure PG = ?

Height water H shoots

from broken pipe at

bottom?

tank from house level: h = (5 + 110 sin58) = 98.3 m

(Neglects frictional effects, etc.)

This is an object submerged in a fluid. There is a

net force on the object because the pressures at

the top and bottom of it are different.

The buoyant force is

found to be the upward

force on the same volume

of water:

Archimedes Principle

volume V completely or partially submerged in a fluid with

density F:

FB = FVg

(1)

volume as object, if object were not there. (Mass of fluid

that used to be where object is!)

Upward buoyant force

F B = m Fg

(2)

(1) or (2) Archimedes Principle

Proved for cylinder. Can show valid for any shape

The net force on the object is then the difference

between the buoyant force and the gravitational

force.

If the objects density is less than that of water,

there will be an upward net force on it, and it will

rise until it is partially out of the water.

For a floating object, the fraction that is

submerged is given by the ratio of the objects

density to that of the fluid.

Vdisp

Vo

the air; this is why hot-air and

helium balloons rise.

FB (mHe 180 Kg ) g

use Archimedes ' principle :

180

V

160 m 3

air He

Equation of Continuity

If the flow of a fluid is smooth (neighboring layers of the fluid

slide smoothly), it is called streamline or laminar (in layers)

flow (a).

Above a certain speed, the flow becomes turbulent (b).

Turbulent flow has eddies (or eddy currents: erratic, small,

whirlpool-like circles); the viscosity (internal friction) of the

fluid is much greater when eddies are present.

Equation of Continuity

We will deal with laminar flow.

The mass flow rate is the mass that passes a

given point per unit time. The flow rates at any

two points must be equal, as long as no fluid is

being added or taken away.

m V Al

mass flow rate

Av

t

t

t

This gives us the equation of continuity:

Equation of Continuity

If the density doesnt change typical for

liquids this simplifies to

.

Where the pipe is wider, the flow is slower.

rcap = 4 10-4 cm, raorta = 1.2 cm

v1 = 40 cm/s, v2 = 5 10-4 cm/s

Number of capillaries N = ?

A2 = N (rcap)2, A1 = (raorta)2

A1v1 = A2v2

N = (v1/v2)[(raorta)2/(rcap)2]

N 7 109

A fluid can also change its

height. By looking at the

work done as it moves, we

find:

This is Bernoullis

equation. One thing it tells

us is that as the speed

goes up, the pressure

goes down.

a) Fluid to left of point 1 exerts pressure P1 on fluid mass M = V

V = A1 1 = A2 2 . Moves it 1. Work done:

W1 = F1 1= P1 A1 1

b) Fluid to right of point 2 exerts pressure P2 on fluid mass M = V,

V = A2 2. Moves it 2. Work done:

W2 = -F2 2 = -P2A2 2

a) b) Mass M moves from height y1 to height y2. Work done against

gravity:

W3 = -Mg(y2 y1) ; WG= - PE

Total work done from a) b):

Wnet = W1 + W2 + W3

Wnet = P1A1 1 - P2A2 2 - Mg(y2 y1)

(1)

Recall the Work-Energy Principle:

Wnet = KE = ()M(v2)2 ()M(v1)2

(2)

Combining (1) & (2):

()M(v2)2 ()M(v1)2

= P1A1 1 - P2A2 2 - Mg(y2 y1) (3)

Note that M = V = A1 1 = A2 2

divide (3) by V = A1 1 = A2 2

Rewrite (4) as:

P1 + ()(v1)2 + gy1 = P2 + ()(v2)2 + gy2

Bernoullis Equation

Another form:

P + ()v2 + gy = constant

Not a new law, just work & energy of system in fluid

language. (Note: P g(y2 -y1) since fluid is NOT at rest!)

P1 + ()(v1)2 + gy1 = P2 + ()(v2)2 + gy2

Flow on the level y1 = y2

P1 + ()(v1)2 = P2 + ()(v2)2

Explains many fluid phenomena & is a

quantitative statement of Bernoullis Principle:

pressure is low, and where the velocity is

low, the pressure is high.

Principle: from Torricelli to Airplanes,

Baseballs, and TIA

Using Bernoullis principle, we find that the speed

of fluid coming from a spigot on an open tank is:

(10-6)

P2

This is called

Torricellis theorem.

P1

P1 = P2

Lift on an airplane wing is due to the different

air speeds and pressures on the two surfaces

of the wing.

A1 Area of wing top, A2 Area of wing bottom

FTOP = PTOP A1

Plane will fly if

FBOT = PBOT A2

Principle: from Torricelli to Airplanes,

Baseballs, and TIA

A balls path will curve due to its

spin, which results in the air

speeds on the two sides of the

ball not being equal.

Principle: from Torricelli to Airplanes,

Baseballs, and TIA

A person with constricted

arteries will find that they

may experience a

temporary lack of blood to

the brain (TIA; Transient

Ischemic Attack) as blood

speeds up to get past the

constriction, thereby

reducing the pressure.

Principle: from Torricelli to Airplanes,

Baseballs, and TIA

A venturi meter can be used to measure fluid

flow by measuring pressure differences.

Principle: from Torricelli to Airplanes,

Baseballs, and TIA

Air flow across the top helps smoke go up a

chimney, and air flow over multiple openings can

provide the needed circulation in underground

burrows.

Street level: y1 = 0

v1 = 0.6 m/s, P1 = 3.8 atm

Diameter d1 = 5.0 cm

(r1 = 2.5 cm). A1 = (r1)2

18 m up: y2 = 18 m, d2 = 2.6 cm

(r2 = 1.3 cm). A2 = (r2)2

v2 = ? P2 = ?

Continuity: A1v1 = A2v2

v2 = (A1v1)/(A2) = 2.22 m/s

Bernoulli:

P1+ ()(v1)2 + gy1 = P2+ ()(v2)2 + gy2

P2 = 2.0 atm

Summary of Chapter 10

Phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas.

Liquids and gases are called fluids.

Density is mass per unit volume.

Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of the

material to that of water.

Pressure is force per unit area.

Pressure at a depth h is gh.

External pressure applied to a confined fluid is

transmitted throughout the fluid.

Summary of Chapter 10

Atmospheric pressure is measured with a

barometer.

Gauge pressure is the total pressure minus the

atmospheric pressure.

An object submerged partly or wholly in a fluid

is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of

the fluid it displaces.

Fluid flow can be laminar or turbulent.

The product of the cross-sectional area and the

speed is constant for horizontal flow.

Summary of Chapter 10

Where the velocity of a fluid is high, the

pressure is low, and vice versa.

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