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Chapter 10

Fluids

Units of Chapter 10
Phases of Matter
Density and Specific Gravity
Pressure in Fluids
Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure
Pascals Principle
Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the
Barometer
Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle

Units of Chapter 10
Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of
Continuity
Bernoullis Equation
Applications of Bernoullis Principle: from
Torricelli to Airplanes, Baseballs, and TIA

10-1 Phases of Matter


The three common phases of matter are solid,
liquid, and gas.
A solid has a definite shape and size.
A liquid has a fixed volume but can be any
shape.
A gas can be any shape and also can be easily
compressed.
Liquids and gases both flow, and are called
fluids.

10-2 Density and Specific Gravity


The density (lower case Greek rho) of an object
is its mass per unit volume:
(10-1)

The SI unit for density is kg/m3. Density is also


sometimes given in g/cm3; to convert g/cm3 to
kg/m3, multiply by 1000.
Water at 4C has a density of 1 g/cm3 = 1000 kg/m3.
The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of
its density to that of water.
SG = (/water) = 10-3

10-3 Pressure in Fluids


Pressure is defined as the force per unit area.
Pressure is a scalar; the units of pressure in the
SI system are pascals:
1 Pa = 1 N/m2
Pressure is the same in every
direction in a fluid at a given
depth; if it were not, the fluid
would flow.

10-3 Pressure in Fluids


Also for a fluid at rest, there is no
component of force parallel to any
solid surface once again, if there
were the fluid would flow.

10-3 Pressure in Fluids


The pressure at a depth h below the surface of
the liquid is due to the weight of the liquid above
it. We can quickly calculate:
At rest Fy = 0
F - mg = 0 F = mg
F = mg = Vg, V =Ah
F = Ahg
P F/A = gh
Pressure at depth h (fluid at rest)

P = gh

This relation is valid for any liquid whose density


does not change with depth.

Section 10-4: Atmospheric Pressure


Earths atmosphere: A fluid.
But doesnt have a fixed top surface!

Change in height h above Earths surface:


Change in pressure: P = g h
Sea level: PA 1.013 105 N/m2
= 101.3 kPa 1 atm
Old units: 1 bar = 1.00 105 N/m2

Physics: Cause of pressure at any height:


Weight of air above that height!
This pressure does not crush us, as our cells maintain an internal
pressure that balances it.

Show Clip

10-4 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge


Pressure
Most pressure gauges measure the pressure
above the atmospheric pressure this is called
the gauge pressure.
The absolute pressure is the sum of the
atmospheric pressure and the gauge pressure.

Conceptual Example 10-4


P=?
Pressure on A:
Pdown = P + Pmg
Pup = PA
At rest Fy = 0

Pup = Pdown
or PA = P + Pmg
P = PA - Pmg < PA
So, air pressure holds
fluid in straw!

10-5 Pascals Principle


If an external pressure is applied to a confined
fluid, the pressure at every point within the fluid
increases by that amount.
This principle is used, for example, in hydraulic
lifts and hydraulic brakes.

10-6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and


the Barometer
There are a number of different types of
pressure gauges (Most use P - PA = gh =
PG = gauge pressure). This one is an opentube manometer. The pressure in the
open end is atmospheric pressure; the
pressure being measured will cause
the fluid to rise until
the pressures on both
sides at the same
height are equal.

10-6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and


the Barometer
Here are two more devices for
measuring pressure: the
aneroid gauge and the tire
pressure gauge.

Various Pressure Units


Gauge Pressure: PG = gh
Alternate unit of pressure: Instead of
calculating gh, common to use standard liquid
(mercury, Hg or alcohol, where is standard) & measure h
Quote pressure in length units! For example:
millimeters of mercury mm Hg
For h = 1 mm Hg = 10-3 m Hg
mercury gh = (1.36 104 kg/m3) (9.8 m/s2)(10-3 m)
= 133 N/m2 = 133 Pa 1 Torr
(another pressure unit!)
mm Hg & Torr are not proper SI pressure units!

10-6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and


the Barometer
This is a mercury barometer,
developed by Torricelli to measure
atmospheric pressure. The height
of the column of mercury is such
that the pressure in the tube at the
surface level is
1 atm.
Therefore, pressure is often
quoted in millimeters (or inches)
of mercury.

10-6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and


the Barometer
Any liquid can serve in a
Torricelli-style barometer,
but the most dense ones
are the most convenient.
This barometer uses water.

Prob. 17: (A variation on Example 10-2)


Tank depth = 5 m
Pipe length = 110 m
Hill slope = 58
Gauge Pressure PG = ?
Height water H shoots
from broken pipe at
bottom?

Height of water level in


tank from house level: h = (5 + 110 sin58) = 98.3 m

PG = watergh = (1 103 kg/m3)(9.8 m/s2)(98.3 m) = 9.6 105 N/m2

Conservation of energy: H = h = 98.3 m


(Neglects frictional effects, etc.)

10-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle


This is an object submerged in a fluid. There is a
net force on the object because the pressures at
the top and bottom of it are different.
The buoyant force is
found to be the upward
force on the same volume
of water:

Archimedes Principle

The total (upward) buoyant force FB on an object of


volume V completely or partially submerged in a fluid with
density F:

FB = FVg

(1)

FV mF Mass of fluid which would take up same


volume as object, if object were not there. (Mass of fluid
that used to be where object is!)
Upward buoyant force

F B = m Fg

(2)

FB = weight of fluid displaced by the object!


(1) or (2) Archimedes Principle
Proved for cylinder. Can show valid for any shape

10-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle


The net force on the object is then the difference
between the buoyant force and the gravitational
force.

10-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle


If the objects density is less than that of water,
there will be an upward net force on it, and it will
rise until it is partially out of the water.

10-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle


For a floating object, the fraction that is
submerged is given by the ratio of the objects
density to that of the fluid.

Vdisp
Vo

10-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle

This principle also works in


the air; this is why hot-air and
helium balloons rise.

FB (mHe 180 Kg ) g
use Archimedes ' principle :

airVg ( HeV 180 Kg ) g


180
V
160 m 3
air He

10-8 Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the


Equation of Continuity
If the flow of a fluid is smooth (neighboring layers of the fluid
slide smoothly), it is called streamline or laminar (in layers)
flow (a).
Above a certain speed, the flow becomes turbulent (b).
Turbulent flow has eddies (or eddy currents: erratic, small,
whirlpool-like circles); the viscosity (internal friction) of the
fluid is much greater when eddies are present.

10-8 Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the


Equation of Continuity
We will deal with laminar flow.
The mass flow rate is the mass that passes a
given point per unit time. The flow rates at any
two points must be equal, as long as no fluid is
being added or taken away.

m V Al
mass flow rate

Av
t
t
t
This gives us the equation of continuity:

10-8 Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the


Equation of Continuity
If the density doesnt change typical for
liquids this simplifies to
.
Where the pipe is wider, the flow is slower.

Example 10-11: Estimate Blood Flow


rcap = 4 10-4 cm, raorta = 1.2 cm
v1 = 40 cm/s, v2 = 5 10-4 cm/s
Number of capillaries N = ?
A2 = N (rcap)2, A1 = (raorta)2
A1v1 = A2v2

N = (v1/v2)[(raorta)2/(rcap)2]
N 7 109

10-9 Bernoullis Equation


A fluid can also change its
height. By looking at the
work done as it moves, we
find:

This is Bernoullis
equation. One thing it tells
us is that as the speed
goes up, the pressure
goes down.

Work & energy in fluid moving from Fig. a to Fig. b :


a) Fluid to left of point 1 exerts pressure P1 on fluid mass M = V
V = A1 1 = A2 2 . Moves it 1. Work done:
W1 = F1 1= P1 A1 1
b) Fluid to right of point 2 exerts pressure P2 on fluid mass M = V,
V = A2 2. Moves it 2. Work done:
W2 = -F2 2 = -P2A2 2
a) b) Mass M moves from height y1 to height y2. Work done against
gravity:
W3 = -Mg(y2 y1) ; WG= - PE

Sect. 10-9: Bernoullis Eqtn


Total work done from a) b):
Wnet = W1 + W2 + W3
Wnet = P1A1 1 - P2A2 2 - Mg(y2 y1)
(1)
Recall the Work-Energy Principle:
Wnet = KE = ()M(v2)2 ()M(v1)2
(2)
Combining (1) & (2):
()M(v2)2 ()M(v1)2
= P1A1 1 - P2A2 2 - Mg(y2 y1) (3)
Note that M = V = A1 1 = A2 2
divide (3) by V = A1 1 = A2 2

()(v2)2 - ()(v1)2 = P1 - P2 - g(y2 y1) (4)


Rewrite (4) as:
P1 + ()(v1)2 + gy1 = P2 + ()(v2)2 + gy2

Bernoullis Equation

Another form:

P + ()v2 + gy = constant
Not a new law, just work & energy of system in fluid
language. (Note: P g(y2 -y1) since fluid is NOT at rest!)

Work Done by Pressure = KE + PE

Flow on the level


P1 + ()(v1)2 + gy1 = P2 + ()(v2)2 + gy2
Flow on the level y1 = y2

P1 + ()(v1)2 = P2 + ()(v2)2
Explains many fluid phenomena & is a
quantitative statement of Bernoullis Principle:

Where the fluid velocity is high, the


pressure is low, and where the velocity is
low, the pressure is high.

10-10 Applications of Bernoullis


Principle: from Torricelli to Airplanes,
Baseballs, and TIA
Using Bernoullis principle, we find that the speed
of fluid coming from a spigot on an open tank is:

(10-6)

P2

This is called
Torricellis theorem.
P1

P1 = P2

P1 + ()(v1)2 + gy1 = P2 + ()(v2)2 + gy2

10-10 Applications of Bernoullis Principle:


Lift on an airplane wing is due to the different
air speeds and pressures on the two surfaces
of the wing.

PTOP < PBOT LIFT force!


A1 Area of wing top, A2 Area of wing bottom
FTOP = PTOP A1
Plane will fly if

FBOT = PBOT A2

F = FBOT - FTOP - Mg > 0 !

10-10 Applications of Bernoullis


Principle: from Torricelli to Airplanes,
Baseballs, and TIA
A balls path will curve due to its
spin, which results in the air
speeds on the two sides of the
ball not being equal.

10-10 Applications of Bernoullis


Principle: from Torricelli to Airplanes,
Baseballs, and TIA
A person with constricted
arteries will find that they
may experience a
temporary lack of blood to
the brain (TIA; Transient
Ischemic Attack) as blood
speeds up to get past the
constriction, thereby
reducing the pressure.

10-10 Applications of Bernoullis


Principle: from Torricelli to Airplanes,
Baseballs, and TIA
A venturi meter can be used to measure fluid
flow by measuring pressure differences.

10-10 Applications of Bernoullis


Principle: from Torricelli to Airplanes,
Baseballs, and TIA
Air flow across the top helps smoke go up a
chimney, and air flow over multiple openings can
provide the needed circulation in underground
burrows.

Problem 46: Pumping water up


Street level: y1 = 0
v1 = 0.6 m/s, P1 = 3.8 atm
Diameter d1 = 5.0 cm
(r1 = 2.5 cm). A1 = (r1)2
18 m up: y2 = 18 m, d2 = 2.6 cm
(r2 = 1.3 cm). A2 = (r2)2
v2 = ? P2 = ?
Continuity: A1v1 = A2v2
v2 = (A1v1)/(A2) = 2.22 m/s
Bernoulli:
P1+ ()(v1)2 + gy1 = P2+ ()(v2)2 + gy2

P2 = 2.0 atm

Summary of Chapter 10
Phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas.
Liquids and gases are called fluids.
Density is mass per unit volume.
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of the
material to that of water.
Pressure is force per unit area.
Pressure at a depth h is gh.
External pressure applied to a confined fluid is
transmitted throughout the fluid.

Summary of Chapter 10
Atmospheric pressure is measured with a
barometer.
Gauge pressure is the total pressure minus the
atmospheric pressure.
An object submerged partly or wholly in a fluid
is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of
the fluid it displaces.
Fluid flow can be laminar or turbulent.
The product of the cross-sectional area and the
speed is constant for horizontal flow.

Summary of Chapter 10
Where the velocity of a fluid is high, the
pressure is low, and vice versa.