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Dyanimic viscosity (equation - unit)
Kinematic viscosity (equation - unit)
Newtonian and non newtonian fluids
Shearing stress vs velocity gradient
Bingham, dilatant and pseudoplastic fluid
Time independent fluids
viscosity index curves

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Viscosity of Fluids

2.1 Dynamic Viscosity

As a fluid moves, a shear stress is developed

in it, the

magnitude of which depends on the viscosity of

the fluid.

Shear stress, denoted by the Greek letter

(tau), , can

be defined as the force required to slide one unit

area

layer of a substance over another.

Thus, is a force divided by an area and can

be

measured in the units of N/m2 (Pa) or lb/ft2.

The fact that the shear stress in the fluid is

directly

proportional to the velocity gradient can be

stated

mathematically as:

where the constant of proportionality (the

Greek

letter miu) is called the dynamic viscosity of the

fluid.

The term absolute viscosity is sometimes used.

Fig 2.1 shows the velocity gradient in a moving

fluid.

The definition of dynamic viscosity can be

derived

from Eq. (21) by solving for :

the SI

units into Eq. (22) as follows:

also express as

in the

SI system.

Table 2.1 shows the system conversion

The kinematic viscosity (the Greek letter nu) is

defined as

Because and are both properties of the fluid, is

also a property.

We can derive the SI units for kinematic viscosity by

substituting the previously developed units for and

:

the

three most widely used systems.

Fluids

The study of the deformation and flow

characteristics

of substances is called rheology, which is the

field from which we learn about the viscosity of

One important distinction is between a

fluids.

Newtonian

fluid and a non-Newtonian fluid.

Any fluid that behaves in accordance with

Eq. (21) is

called a Newtonian fluid.

Conversely, a fluid that does not behave in

accordance with Eq. (21) is called a nonNewtonian fluid.

fluids are

time-independent and time-dependent fluids.

As their name implies, time-independent fluids

have a

viscosity at any given shear stress that does not

vary with time.

The viscosity of timedependent fluids,

however,

changes with time.

1.

bePseudoplastic

defined:

or Thixotropic The plot of shear

stress versus velocity gradient lies above the

straight, constant sloped line for Newtonian fluids,

as shown in Fig. 2.2. The curve begins steeply,

indicating a high apparent viscosity. Then the slope

decreases

increasing

velocity

gradient.

2. Dilatant with

Fluids

The plot of

shear stress

versus

velocity gradient lies below the straight line for

Newtonian fluids. The curve begins with a low slope,

indicating a low apparent viscosity. Then, the slope

increases with increasing velocity gradient.

3. Bingham Fluids Sometimes called plug-flow fluids,

Bingham fluids require the development of a

significant level of shear stress before flow will begin,

as illustrated in Fig. 2.2. Once flow starts, there is an

essentially linear slope to the curve indicating a

Five additional viscosity factors are typically

:measured or computed for polymers

Relative viscosity. 1

Inherent viscosity. 2

Reduced viscosity. 3

Specific viscosity. 4

Intrinsic viscosity (also called limiting viscosity. 5

number)

Temperature

Table 2.3 shows the viscosity for different

fluids.

A fluid with a high viscosity index exhibits a

small change in viscosity with temperature. A

fluid with a low viscosity index exhibits a large

change in viscosity with emperature.

All kinematic viscosity values are in the unit of

mm2/s:

where

U = Kinematic viscosity at of the test oil.

L = Kinematic viscosity 40C at of a standard oil

of 0 VI having the same viscosity at 100C as

the test oil.

H = Kinematic viscosity at 40C of a standard oil

of 100 VI having the same viscosity at 100C as

Devices for characterizing the flow behavior of

liquids are called viscometers or rheometers.

ASTM International generates standards for

viscosity measurement and reporting.

Fig 2.4 shows the rotating-drum viscometer.

The apparatus shown in Fig. 2.4(a) measures

viscosity by the definition of dynamic viscosity

given in Eq. (22), which we can write in the form

The dynamic viscosity of the fluid can be

computed from the simple equation

the speed of the internal rotor. K is a calibration

constant provided by the instrument

manufacturer.

Fig 2.5 shows the Capillary-tube viscometer.

In Eq. (25), D is the inside diameter of the tube,

v is the fluid velocity, and L is the length of the

tube between points 1 and 2 where the pressure

is measured.

As the fluid flows through the tube with a

constant velocity, some energy is lost from the

system, causing a pressure drop that can be

measured by using manometers.

The magnitude of the pressure drop is related

to the

fluid viscosity by the following equation,

Viscometers

Fig 2.6 shows the CannonFenske routine

viscometer.

As a body falls in a fluid under the influence of

gravity only, it will accelerate until the

downward force (its weight) is just balanced by

the buoyant force and the viscous drag force

acting

upward.

Its

velocity

at that time is called

the terminal velocity.

Fig 2.8 shows the kinematic

viscosity bath for holding

standard calibrated glass

capillary viscometers.

Fig 2.9 shows the falling-ball

viscometer.

Fig 2.10 shows the free-body

diagram of a ball in a falling-ball

free-body diagram of

the ball, where w is the

weight of the ball, Fb, is

the buoyant force, and

is the viscous drag

force on the ball.

Therefore, we have

If s is the specific weight of the sphere, f is the

specific weight of the fluid, V is the volume of

the sphere, and D is the diameter of the sphere,

we have

small velocity, the drag force

on the sphere is

(Table 2.4) SAE Velocity grade for engine oils

(Table 2.5) viscosity grades for automotive gear

lubricants

The standard designation includes the prefix ISO

VG followed by a number representing the

nominal kinematic viscosity in cSt for a

temperature of 40C.

Table 2.6 gives the data.

Fluid power systems use fluids under pressure

to actuate linear or rotary devices used in

construction equipment, industrial automation

systems, agricultural equipment, aircraft

hydraulic systems, automotive braking

manytypes

others.

systems,

There areand

several

of hydraulic fluids in

common use, including:

1. Petroleum oils .

2. Waterglycol fluids .

3. High water-based fluids (HWBF) .

4. Silicone fluids .

5. Synthetic oils .

operation in fluid power systems are:

1. Adequate viscosity for the purpose .

2. High lubricating capability, sometimes called

lubricity.

3. Cleanliness .

4. Chemical stability at operating temperatures .

5. Noncorrosiveness with the materials used in

fluid power systems.

6. Inability to support bacteria growth .

7. Ecologically acceptable .

8. High bulk modulus (low compressibility) .

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