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PARASITIC COMPUTING

NAME : RUCHIKA KUMA


USN : 1MS06IS0
BRANCH : I.S.E
PARASITIC COMPUTING
OUTLINE

§ Introduction
§ Experimental evidence
§ Theory
§ Proof of concepts
§ 2-SAT problem
§ How it differs from others
§ Advantages
§ Disadvantages
§ conclusion
§ References
§
§
PARASITIC COMPUTING
 INTRODUCTION
§ First reported in Journal “Nature” in 2001 by
 Barabasi, Freeh, Jeong and Brockman

§ A Successor to distributed computing


§ Used for solving complex computational problems


§
§ Exploits standard set of communication protocol on
internet

 What Is Parasitic
computing?


PARASITIC COMPUTING
DEFINITION
 The term “parasitic computing” refers to
the technique of using the resources of one
computer by another computer without the
knowledge of the former.
 It uses the computation power of the
computers connected to the internet in solving
complex mathematical problems.
 Ex: Travelling Salesman, Satisfiability problem

PARASITIC COMPUTING

 EXRERIMENTAL
EVIDENCE ?


Internet communication.
PARASITIC COMPUTING
§ When user selects a URL
 Actions at sender
§ Open a TCP connection to a web server
§ Issue a HTTP request over TCP connection
§ TCP message is carried via IP
 Actions at receiver
§ Receive message through IP
§ Validate checksum at TCP
 Validated pushed to HTTP
 Not validated discard the packet
PARASITIC COMPUTING
Theory To Solve Problem

§ Generate a large number of candidate solutions


§ Send the solutions to destination node


§ Test the candidate for their adequacy


§ If result is true, the solution is valid else drop


§ The result from each is combined to get solution


§
HOWTO TRICK
OTHER
Parasite
COMPUTERS
Node
000--00
Candidate Solution

Can be tested in NIF


parallel ,an effective ------ ----- ------- ---- ------ -----
------- ------- ----- -------- ------------- -------- ------- -------- ----
computer ------- ALU
architecture for 010 -11 000--10
these problems is
one that supports valid
simultaneous
evolution of many
tests.
An example of such

NIF
. . NIF
a machine is shown
beside.
ALU . ALU

.
.
PARASITIC COMPUTING
A single Parasite node coordinate the computation
occurring remotely in the internet protocol.

 each of target node consist of


§ Arithmetic and Logic Unit(ALU)
§ Network Interface(NIF)
Single home parasite initiate the computation,

directing them to test and tabulate the result.


PARASITIC COMPUTING
Parasitic node Target web server

HHTTP HHTTP

Logical
T TCP T TCP Segment dropped
Due to invalid
Interface Checksum

IP IP

Physical Interface
Network Network

Correct solution success

Invalid solution failure


PARASITIC COMPUTING
 CHECKSUM COMPUTATION
 The checksum is a simple function performed
by all web servers(in TCP), which allows a recipient to
check if the message is corrupted during transmission.

 Message is constructed in such a way that


TCP checksum fails for all messages containing an
invalid solution


 N bits

a S1 S2 Sk
Parasite node
16 bit
PARASITIC S1 +
COMPUTING b
 a. Parasitic node S2 +
breaks N bit message
into 16-bit words as
S1….Sk Sk

b. K words are added SUM 1110101011011011
together and one’s- SUM 0001010100100100
c
complement is done to Create a new message of length N+ 16
get SUM SUM S1 S2 Sk
 c. Checksum and its
complement
Target(receiver)
d SUM T= SUM+S1+S2+-------+ Sk
 d. Again receiver will
break the received if SUMT=
1111111111111111 message correct
message and add
-> to HTTP
 Otherwise message corrupt
-> drop

PARASITIC COMPUTING
 PROOF OF CONCEPT

 N-P complete problem


 problems for which no polynomial-time algorithm is known


 SAT problem
 SAT problem involves finding a solution to a Boolean
 equation that satisfies a number of logical clauses


PARASITIC COMPUTING
 2-SAT PROBLEM

 P=(x1 x2)˄(x3 x4)˄(x5 x6)˄(x7 x8)˄(x9


˄x10 )˄(x11 x12 )˄(x13 ˄x14 )˄(x15 x16 )

 X Y X Y X ˄Y X+Y
0 0 0 0 00
0 1 1 0 01
1 0 1 0 01
1 1 0 1 10
PARASITIC COMPUTING
M= 0x1 0x3 0x5 0x7 0x9 0x11 0x2 0x4 0x6 0x8 0x10 0x12 0x14 0x16
E= 0x13 0x15 00 00 01 00 01 01 01 00
01 00 01 01 00 01 01 01

S1 01 00 01 01 00 01 01 01
0x1 0x3 0x5 0x7 0x9 0x11 0x13 0x15 S2 00 00 01 00 01 01 01 00
0x2 0x4 0x6 0x8 0x10 0x12 0x14 0x16
SUM 01 00 10 01 01 10 10 01
˄ ˄ ˄
SUM 10 11 01 10 10 01 01 10
01 10 01 01 10 01 10 01
(Real Checksum)

Tc 10 01 10 10 01 10 01 10
Transmitted Message
1001101001100110 0100010100010101 0000010001010100
Tc S1 S2
PARASITIC COMPUTING

 HOW IT DIFFERS
FROM OTHERS?


PARASITIC COMPUTING

 Cluster computing
PARASITIC COMPUTING




It is not hacking
PARASITIC COMPUTING
ADVANTAGES

§ Theoretically gives chance to use vast computational


power of the internet

§ Several large problem can be solved by engaging


various web server physically located at different
part of world

§ It does not comprise the security of target node it


access only the part to server that have been made
explicitly available for internet communication
PARASITIC COMPUTING
DISADVANTAGES

§ Internet wide parasitic computing is only a


theoretical consideration

§ Communication to computation ratio


§ Delayed Services
PARASITIC COMPUTING
CONCLUSION

 Blurring the distinction between computation


and communication and drastically altering the
current use of internet

 Implementation offered above represents only


proof of concepts it merely serves to implement
idea behind parasitic computing.
PARASITIC COMPUTING
Cont..

 TCP checksum provides computation at the cost


of hundreds of machine cycles

 To make model viable the computation –to-


 communication ration must be large

PARASITIC COMPUTING
REFERENCES

§ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasitic_computin
g
§ http://www.nd.edu/~parasite/
§ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2-satisfiability
§ http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/2001/09/13/sto
ries/08130001.htm
Thank
YOU
PARASITIC COMPUTING
 During package transfer across the internet
message can be corrupted. TCP contains a
checksum that provides some data integrity of the
message.
 Sender compute checksum and transmits
that with message. The receiver also compute the
checksum and if does not agree with the sender’s
then the message was corrupted and discarded.