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CC 604 : Environment Pollution & Control

Chapter 5 : Solid Waste Management + Case


Study
Class : DKA 5E

Members of Group
Norfarhana Ain Binti Zainal
Arif
Nurul Husna Binti Mohamed
Roshidi
Siti Rashidah Binti Abd Razi

Registration
Number
01DKA10F2036
01DKA10F2043
01DKA10F2070

CHAPTER 5 :
SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT

Sources, Types,
Composition, Quantities
and Main Elements in
Municipal Solid Waste
(MSW) Management

Solid waste are


wastes that
are not liquid
or gaseous
The term solid
waste means :
Material such
as household
garbage, food
wastes, yard
wastes, and
demolition or
construction
debris

What
Is
Solid
Wast
e

Solid wastes
are all the
discarded solid
materials from
municipal,
industrial, and
agricultural
activities

Objective Of Solid Waste


Management
The objective of solid
wastes management to
control, collect, process,
dispose of solid wastes in
an economical way
consistent with the public
health protection

Municipal solid waste (MSW)


is a waste type consisting of
everyday items that are
discarded by the public

Definition Of
Municipal Solid
Waste (MSW)

All wastes, resulting from


population, residential and
non residential buildings, as
well as transport vehicles
Municipal solid
waste(MSW) commonly
known as:
trashorgarbage
refuseor rubbish

Sources Of MSW

Residential
Industrial
Commercial
Institutional
Construction/Demolitio
n
Municipal Services
Process
(Manufacturing)
Agriculture

Sewage
treatment
residue

Dead
animal
s

Industrial
waste

Type Of
MSW

Garbage

Rubbi
sh

Demoliti
on
Wastes

Construction
waste

It is estimated that solid waste


generated in small, medium and large
cities and towns is about 0.1 kg, 0.3
0.4 kg and 0.5 kg per capita per day
respectively

Quantity Of
Municipal Solid
Waste (MSW) In
Malaysia

Total municipal solid waste (MSW)


collected in the country increased every
year
The average per capita generation has
increased from 0.67 kg/person/day in
2001 to 0.8 kg/person/day in 2005

In 2008 it is reported increase at 60 70


%.

Current MSW generation has reached


1.3 kg/person/day

Element Of MSW
Management
Waste generation
Waste handling, sorting,
storage, and processing at
the source
Collection
Separation, processing and
transformation of solid
wastes
Transfer and transport

Strategies for
Effective and
Environmental
Friendly
Minimize waste generation
Maximize waste recycling and
reuse
Educate people on diferent
ways of handling waste
Systematic solid waste
management

Understand The
Characteristics,
Composition and
Components of Municipal
Solid Waste (MSW)

Physical
Characterist
ic

Characteris
tic of MSW
Chemical
Characterist
ic

Moisture content :
increase the weight of
solid waste , so the
cost of collection &
transportation will
increasing
Density : used to
assess volume of
transportation vehicle
& size of the disposal
facility
is essential in
understanding the
behavior of waste all
through the waste
management system
and also in selecting
and determining the
efficiency of any
treatment process

Compositio
n

Component
s

Understand The Process of


Generation and Handling
of Municipal Solid Waste
(MSW))

Waste Generation
Waste generation include activities in
which material identified as no
longer being of value and are either
thrown away or gathered together for
disposal.

Collection
Elements of collection, includes not
only the gathering of solid waste and
recyclable material, but also the
transport of these materials after
collection, to the location where the
collection vehicle is emptied.

Factor Influence Generation of MSW


Socio-economic background:
The buying power
Income level

Cultural background
Locality:
Urban
Rural setting

Handling and Separating Municipal


Solid Waste
Waste handling and separation involves
activities associated with waste
management until the waste is placed in
storage containers for collection.
Handling also include the movement of
loaded containers to the point of
collection. Separating diferent types of
waste components is an important step in
the handling and storage of solid waste at
the source.

Understand The Municipal


Solid Waste (MSW)
Collection Activities)

Collection Activities
The most common collection services
are curb/alley, set out/set back
pickup, and backyard pickup.
The collection services provided to
large apartment buildings, residential
complexes, commercial and industrial
activities typically in centered around
the use of large movable and
stationary containers and large
stationary compactors.

Curb or Alley Pickup


The quickest and most economical
point of collection.
Using standard container that has
been design by city council.

Set-out, Set-back Pickup


Collectors have to enter property.
Set out crew carries full containers
from resident storage location to
curb/alley before collection vehicle
arrives.
Set back crew return the container to
storage area.

Backyard Pickup
Usually accomplish by the use of tote
barrels.
The collector enter the residents
property, dumps the container into a
tote barrel, carries it to the trucks
and dumps it.

Transfer and Transport


Transfer and transportrefers to the
facilities used to transfer of wastes
from one location to another.
- Small collection vehicles are transferred
to larger vehicles that are used to
transport the waste over extended
distances to disposal sites.

Understand The Various


Kinds of MSW Disposal
Methods Such as Land
Filling, Incineration and
Organic MSW Composting

Sanitary Land Filling

The controlled disposal of solid


waste on the upper layer of
the earth mantle in a manner
the environmental hazards is
minimized.
Important technical aspects in
the implementation of sanitary
landfills include:
Site selection.
Land filling methods and
operation.
Occurrence of gasses and
leachate.
Movement and control of
gases and leachate.

Incineration
The process of burning waste in
large furnaces at high
temperature is know as
incineration.
It is used to dispose of solid
liquid and gaseous waste
.Incineration facilities generally
do not require as much area as
landfills.
At the end of the process all that
is left behind is ash.

Incinerators System

Composting
Compost Is the product resulting from the
controlled biological decomposition of
organic material.
The starting material for composting are
commonly referred to a feed stocks

Explain the environmental, social ,


economical, and political information
available for municipal solid waste (MSW)
a)The disposal site shall be capable of being
characterized , modeled, analyzed and
monitored.
b)The disposal site shall be generally well drained
and free of areas of flooding or frequent bonding.
c)Depend on the type of accommodation, terrace
houses , flats , commercial area or factories
d)Collection service route

Efect of incineration sanitary


landfill and composting to the
environment

Release hundreds of toxic chemicals into the


atmosphere;
Disposal of the ash (The toxic substance are
more concentrated in the ash);
Highly related to the economic condition;
A classic short-term solution potentially useful
(recyclable or compostable) (it destroys
material by turning it into toxic ash);

Know 4Rs Concept and


Justify Aspects and Issues
related to recycling and
composting of municipal
solid waste (MSW)

Describe waste reduction ,reuse,


recovery and recycling concepts.
Method of waste reduction, waste reuse,
and recycling are the preferred options
when managing waste.
4Rs stand for:
Reduction
Reuse
Recovery
Recycling

Reduction
By reducing, consumer and industry can save natural resources
and reduce waste management costs.

Reuse
Large production companies such as Electronic, appliances and
gadgets, should establish the collection centre, where damaged
items can be repaired and reuse.

Recovery
Energy or material can be recovered from waste that are not
reused or recycled

Recycling
Recycling turns materials that would otherwise become waste into
valuable resources

Identify the impact of reuse /recycle


/reduction on landfill design and operation.

saves natural resources.


reduces toxicity of waste.
reduce cost.
helps sustain the environment for
future generations.
reduces the need for land filling and
incineration.

Explain on conventional and


innovative waste utilization
/recycling technologies.

1.Conventional

Two types of composting process:


1. Aerobic composting
2. Anaerobic composting
Factor that influence Aerobic composting process :
i. Particle size 25 to 75mm for the optimum chemical reaction to occur
ii. The ratio of C:N (Carbon to nitrogen ratio)
iii. Moisture content should be in the range 50-60%
iv. Temperature the optimum temperature for the composting process is 50 to 70C
v. PH control the optimum for micro activity is 6.5-7.5 to prevent loss of nitrogen as ammonia (NH) gas , pH
should not exceed 8.5
vi. Mixing process to prevent dehydration on the surface of the compost
vii.Air requirements

2.Innovative
viii.Will improve public health and safely achieve
ix. Non-toxic gases, which are created, are stored in special containers (gas cylinders) and used as fuel and energy
creators.
x. Method takes place in a close system, without releasing ashes, waste remnants, dusts and toxic gases into
environment.

CASE STUDY :

Garbage
collecting
is not
follow
work
schedule
especially
involves
area
housing

CAUSES

cause the
occupants had
to take the easy
way to remove
the debris and
solid waste in
open areas,
including the
roadside and at
major
crossroads on
the road

remove debris
and solid waste
in open area
away from the
house

ACTION
RESIDEN
TS IN
THE
AREA

This Is because
garbage and
solid waste
loaded in the
barrel, in front of
their homes are
full

THE EFFECTS
animals eat like cats and dogs, garbage lifted late in the
barrel at the front door of his house will be wormy and
rotten and then overflowing into the road shoulder.
not lasting the nauseating smell that permeates the
house, every time you open the door until cause of the
health and appetite.
experiencing severe odor pollution as wormy and rotting
garbage in the trash lifted by garbage trucks.
Waste water overflowing from the truck in the road
surface.
Afected neighborhoods wedding
contaminate views
raises displeasure

Impacts of
solid waste
on
environmen
t

Waste breaks down


in landfills to form
methane, a potent
greenhouse gas

Change in climate
and destruction of
ozone layer due to
waste
biodegradable

Garbage disposal,
due to waste
pollutions, illegal
dumping,
leaching : is a
process by which
solid waste enter
soil and ground
water and
contaminating
them

Nausea and
vomiting
Mercury
toxicity from
eating fish
with high
levels of
mercury
Increase in
hospitalizati
on of
diabetic
residents
living near
hazard
waste sites

Low birth
weight
Impact
s of
solid
waste
on
health
Cancer
Chemical
poisoning
through
chemical
inhalation

Populatio
n growth

Increase in
industrials
manufacturi
ng

Urbanizati
on

Causes of
increase
in solid
waste

Preventive
measures

Systematic solid waste


management

Involving public in plans for waste


treatment and disposal
Educate people on diferent ways
of handling waste
Household level of proper
segregation of waste, recycling
and reuse
Process and product substitution
example use paper bag instead of
plastic bags
garbage collection according to
the schedule set

References
Internet
1. Wikipedia. Municipal Solid Waste. September
19, 2013, from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Municipal_solid_was
te
2. Slide Share. Solid Waste. September 18,
2013, by Wali Memon, from
http://www.slideshare.net/walimemon/games-sol
id-waste-can-play-with-enviorment
3.

Silde Share. Minicipal Solid Waste. September


19, 2013, By Muhammad Fahad Ansar ,
http://www.slideshare.net/fahadansari131/mu
nicipal-solid-waste-by-muhammad-fahad-ansari