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Original Title: Centrifugation

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132

Centrifugal

Separation

Processess

Prepared by

Engr. Sandra Enn

Bahinting

Perrys Chemical

Engineers Handbook

8th

Edition

7th

Edition

Section 18

Section 18

Centrifugation

is

multi-phase mixture (usually fluid-solid

system) via the use of centrifugal force.

Centrifugal Sedimentation

Centrifugal Filtration

Centrifugal Decantation

Centrifugation Sedimentation

Settling

centrifugal forces acting on the particles

crystal, separating emulsions into their

constituents liquids or solid liquid

Centrifugation Filtration

The centrifugal force is used instead of a pressure

difference to cause the flow of slurry in a filter

where a cake of solids builds up on a screen

force

a e r

Where

force in m/s2, r is the radial distance from center

of rotation in m, and is the angular velocity in

rad/s.

The

2

mv

Fc mae mr 2

r

mr 2

Fc

gc

In terms of the rotation, N in rev/min, and

2N N 60 60

2

2r

60

Force ratio:

Fc mr v r 2N

Fg mg rg g 60

2

Example

Two

velocity of 53.34 m/s. The first bowl has a

radius of r1=76.2 mm and the second r2=305

mm. Calculate the angular speed (rpm) and

the centrifugal forces developed in each bowl

in terms of gs.

Example:

A

0.1016 m is rotating at N = 1000 rev/min

a)

b)

in terms of gravity forces

Compare this force to that for a bowl with

a radius of 0.2032 m rotating at the same

rev/min

Centrifuges

difference in densities of the solid and fluid media.

on solid in the fluid media gives

ut

2 r p D 2p

18

Dp is particle diameter, p is particle density in kg/m3, and is

liquid viscosity in Pa-s.

If hindered settling occurs, the right hand side of the

equation is multiplied by 2p.

r p

ut

18

2

2

Dp

dr

dt

where: -

of a particle that reaches the distance between r1 and r2. This

particle moves a distance half the liquid layer or (r 2 r1)/2 during the

time the particle is in the centrifuge.

The integration between r=(r1 +r2 )/2 at t=0 and r=r2 at t=tT.

At this flow rate qc, particles with a diameter greater than Dpc will

predominantly settle to the wall and most smaller particles will

remain in the liquid.

the thickness of the liquid layer is small compared to the

radius:

2

Example:

A

density p=1461 kg/m3 is to be clarified by

centrifugation. The solution density =801 kg/m3,

and its viscosity is 100 cp. The centrifuge has a

bowl with r2=0.02225 m, r1=0.00716m, and

height b=0.1970m. Calculate the critical diameter

of the particles in the exit stream if N=23000

rev/min and the flow rate q=0.002832 m3/h.

having a diameter of 5 x 10-2 mm which are to

be removed by centrifuging. The particle density

is 1050 kg/m3 and the solution density is 1000

kg/m3. The viscosity of the liquid is 1.2 x 10-3

Pa-s. A centrifuge at 3000 rpm is to be used. The

bowl dimensions are b=100.1 mm, r1=5mm,

and r2=30 mm. Calculate the expected flow rate

in m3/s just to remove these particles.

Separation of liquids in a

Centrifuge

r1 = radius to surface of

light liquid layer

r2 = radius to liquidliquid

interface

r4= radius to surface of

heavy liquid

downstream

To

of the pressures in the two layers. The force on

the fluid at distance r is:

The

where

(2rb)dr is the volume of fluid.

Dividing

Equating

phase of thickness r2-r1 to the pressure

exerted by the heavy phase of thickness r2-r4

at the liquid-liquid interface:

EXAMPLE:

In a vegetable-oil-refining process, an

aqueous phase is being separated from the oil

phase in a centrifuge. The density of the oil is

919.5 kg/m3 and that of the aqueous phase is

980.3 kg/m3. The radius r1 for overflow of the

light liquid has been set at 10.160 mm and

the outlet for the heavy liquid at 10.414 mm.

Calculate the location of the interface in the

centrifuge.

1. Tubular Centrifuge

Supercentrifuges develop a force about

13,000 times the force of gravity. Some

narrow centrifuges having a diameter

of 75 mm and very high speeds of

60,000 or so rev/min are known as

ultracentrifuges. These

supercentrifuges are often used to

separate liquid-liquid emulsions.

The feed enters the actual compartment at the

bottom and travels upward through vertically

spaced holes, filling the spaces between the

disks.

Disk bowl centrifuge are used in starch-gluten

separation, concentration of rubber latex, and

cream separation.

CENTRIFUGAL FILTRATION

Assuming a thin cake in a large-diameter centrifuge,

the area for flow is approximately constant. The

velocity of the liquid is:

velocity.

filter.

the inner radius of the face of the cake

The inside radius of the basket

For the case where the flow area varies considerably with

the radius:

(logarithmic cake area) and Aa=(ri+r2)b (arithmetic mean

cake area).

END OF MODULE

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