IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MOST BENIFICET AND THE MOST MERCIFUL

GROUP MEMBERS

ADEEL AHMED MUHAMMAD ASAD RAZA SHAHERYAR KHAN UMER SHARIF DAR RAJA WASEEM KHAN

06-ME06-ME-126 06-ME06-ME-119 06-ME06-ME-114 06-ME06-ME-118 06-ME06-ME-103

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

Programmable Logic Controller 

A digitally operating electronic apparatus which uses a programming memory for the internal storage of instructions for implementing specific functions such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting and arithmetic to control through digital or analog modules, various types of machines or process.

Programmable Logic Controller  

The first PLC (the 084) was extremely durable and reliable... We used to test the programmable controllers with a Tesla coil that struck a quarter inch to half-inch arch anywhere on halfthe system, and the programmable controller still had to continue to run.

Programmable Logic Controller 

A PLC works by looking at its inputs and depending on their state, and the user entered program, turns on/off outputs.

PLC History 

PLCs were first introduced in the 1960 s. The primary reason for designing such a device was eliminating the large cost involved in replacing the complicated relay based machine control systems. Bedford Associates (Bedford, MA) proposed something called a Modular Digital Controller (MODICON) to a major US car manufacturer. The MODICON 084 brought the world's first PLC into commercial production.

Components 

The PLC mainly consists of a CPU, memory areas, and appropriate circuits to receive input/output data. We can actually consider the PLC to be a box full of hundreds or thousands of separate relays, counters, timers and data storage locations. They don't physically exist but rather they are simulated and can be considered software counters, timers, etc. Each component of a PLC has a specific function

Components of a PLC 

Components of a PLC
Programming Device Processor & Memory I/O Module Outputs

Inputs

Basic PLC Schema 
     

CPU Power Supply Memory Input Blocks Output Blocks Communications Expansion Connections

Description of Major Components of PLC 

POWER SUPPLY Provides the voltage needed to run the primary PLC components
I/O MODULES: · Provides signal conversion and isolation

between the internal logic level signals inside the PLC and the field¶s high level signal.

Description of Major Components of PLC 

PROCESSOR
Provides intelligence to command and govern the activities of the entire PLC systems. 

PROGRAMMING DEVICE: It is used to enter the desired program that will determine the sequence of operation and control of process equipment or driven machine.

A picture of PLC application
OUTPUTS INPUTS

CONTACTOR

PLC

PUSHBUTTONS

LAMP

A picture of PLC application
OUTPUTS INPUTS

CONTACTOR

PLC

PUSHBUTTONS

LAMP

PLC Configuration

RACK

MINI

SHOE BOX

MICRO

The Configuration of PLC 


The configuration of PLC refers to the packaging of the components. Typical configurations are listed below from largest to smallest. 


Rack Type : A rack can often be as large as 18 by 30 by 10 Mini: Mini: These are similar in function to PLC racks, but about the half size. Dedicated Backplanes can be used to support the cards OR DIN rail mountable with incorporated I/O bus in module. Shoebox: Shoebox: A compact, all-in-one unit that has limited expansion all-incapabilities. Lower cost and compactness make these ideal for small applications. DIN rail mountable. Micro: Micro: These units can be as small as a deck of cards. They tend to have fixed quantities of I/O and limited abilities, but costs will be lowest. DIN rail mountable.  

Sizing of PLC
Micro PLCs: I/O up to 32 points Small PLC: I/O up to 128 points Medium PLC: I/O up to 1024 points Large PLC: I/O up to 4096 points Very Large: I/O up to 8192 points

Selecting a PLC 
        

Criteria Number of logical inputs and outputs Memory Number of special I/O modules Expansion Capabilities Scan Time Communication Software Support Dollars

Areas of Application 
               

· Manufacturing / Machining · Food / Beverage · Metals · Mining · Power · Petrochemical / Chemical · Conveyor control · Printed circuit board handling equipment · SCADA(Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) · Remote pump/lift station (water/wastewater) · Flow monitoring for leak detection (Oil & Gas) · Strapping machinery / trash compactors · Palletizers · Compressor control · Amusement park rides and attractions · Hard-wired relay panels or Single Board Computers · Many, many more

How does a PLC differ from a computer?  

 



· A computer is optimized for calculation and display tasks · A computer is programmed by specialists · A PLC is designed for (logic) control and regulation tasks · A PLC is programmed by non-specialists · A PLC is well adapted to industrial environment

Advantages of PLCs Compared to Relay Control Panels  

   

Programming a PLC is easier than wiring a relay control panel PLC can be reprogrammed PLCs take less floor space Greater reliability, easier maintenance PLC can be connected to computer systems (CIM) PLCs can perform a greater variety of control functions

Typical PLC Operating Cycle
1. 2.

3. 

Input scan inputs are read by processor and stored in memory Program scan control program is executed Input values stored in memory are used in the control logic calculations to determine values of outputs Output scan output values are updated to agree with calculated values Time to perform the three steps (scan time) varies between 1 and 25 msec

PLC Programming 

Graphical languages:
1. 2.

3.

Ladder logic diagrams most widely used Function block diagrams instructions composed of operation blocks that transform input signals Sequential function charts series of steps and transitions from one state to the next (Europe) Instruction list - low-level computer language lowStructured text high-level computer language high- 

TextText-based languages:
1. 2.

THANK YOU

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful