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Module P7 Lesson 9

CORE
14 million K
Fusion (H→He)
release energy

RADIATIVE ZONE
Photons travel
outward. They are
absorbed and then re-
emitted by atoms. It is
thought that it takes
100 000 years for
energy to cross this
zone.

CONVECTION ZONE
Energy carried by convection
PHOTOSPHERE
currents i.e. hot material
Energy leaves the
rises, cooler material sinks.
surface of the Sun as
Convection cells produce the
photons – the
granular pattern on the
temperature is about
surface
6 000 K
Part of Star What happens

Core 14 million degrees K


Fusion reactions release
energy.

Radiative Zone Photons travel outward.


They travel only a very short distance
before they are absorbed by atoms.
Then they are re-emitted.

Convective Zone Heat is carried by


convection currents
(hot plasma rises, cooler plasma falls)

Photosphere Electromagnetic radiation


emitted and travels
through space
The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
This is basically a scatter graph of the brightness of a star against its surface
temperature. It was developed by two astronomers

Ejnar
Henry Norris
Hertzsprung
Russell
(1873-1967)
(1877-1957)

They developed the graph independently of each other in the years 1911 – 1913.
They are given joint credit and graphs of this type are called H-R diagrams in
their honour.
The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
Note: logarithmic scale on x and y axes

90% of stars fall in a band


called the Main Sequence
Brightness of Star (Sun = 1)

10+6

10+4 White dwarfs are found


10+2 here
1

10-2

10-4

40 20 10 5 2
00 00 00 00 50 Surface temp in
0 0 0 0 0
K
The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
Note: logarithmic scale on x and y axes
Supergiants
(stars much larger
than the Sun which
have reached the Red
Red giants are
Giant stage) found here
Brightness of Star (Sun = 1)

10+6

10+4

10+2

10-2

10-4

40 20 10 5 2
00 00 00 00 50 Surface temp in
0 0 0 0 0
K