Reservoir simulation

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Reservoir simulation

© All Rights Reserved

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Assistant producers:

Farrokh Shoaei

Khayyam Farzullayev

NTNU

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Discretization of

Flow Equations

l ul l Sl

x

t

ul

kk rl Pl

l x

l o, w, g

Where:

Pcow Po Pw

Pcog Pg Po

Upstream

mobility term

l o, w, g

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

flow equations for the two phases flow with substituting Darcy's

equations will be:

kk ro Po

S o

qo

x o Bo x

t Bo

Boundary

Conditions

kk rw Pw

S w

qw

x w Bw x

t Bw

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

Where:

Pw Po Pcow

So Sw 1

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

and Capillary Pressure

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

the initial saturations present in the rock will normally be the result of a

drainage process at the time of oil accumulation.

Drainage process:

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Upstream

mobility term

Imbibition process:

SW = 1

oil

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

water

Pc

SW =SWir

Pc

Kr

Kr

Boundary

Conditions

water

oil

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

water

oil

Pcd

S

Swir

Sw

Swir

Swir

1-Sor

Swir

1-Sor

Sw

H ELP

Sw

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

for one phase flow.

kk ro Po

Txo i 1 ( Po i 1 Po i ) Txo i 1 ( Po i 1 Po i )

2

2

x o Bo x i

Discretization of

Flow Equations

kk rw Pw

2

2

x w Bw x i

Upstream

mobility term

Where:

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Oil transmissibility:

Txoi 1

2

Boundary

Conditions

Oil mobility:

2o i 1

xi 1 xi

xi

k

k

i

1

i

k ro

o Bo

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

will have significance for the evaluation of the term in discrete form.

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

terms, the solution of the equations will be much more influenced by the

evaluation of this term than in the case of one phase flow.

Buckley-Leverett solution:

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

QW

Sw

1

1-Sor

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

B.L with PC = 0

Swir

x

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Discretization of

Flow Equations

In simulating this process, using a discrete grid block system, the results are

very much dependent upon the way the mobility term is approximated.

Two cases will be considered, using flow of oil between blocks i and i+1:

Upstream selection:

o i 1 o i

2

o i 1

2

Upstream

mobility term

xi o i xi 1o i 1

xi xi 1

QW

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Sw

1

1-Sor

Boundary

Conditions

B.L (PC = 0)

Upstream

IMPES Method

Weighted average

Swir

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

The deviation from the exact solution depends on the grid block sizes used.

For very small grid blocks, the differences between the solutions may become negligible.

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Sw

1

Discretization of

Flow Equations

1-Sor

B.L (PC = 0)

Small grid blockss

Upstream

mobility term

Swir

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

The flow rate of oil out of any grid block depends primarily on the relative permeability

to oil in that grid block.

IMPES Method

If the mobility selection is the weighted average, the block i may actually have reached

residual oil saturation, while the mobility of block i+1 still is greater than zero.

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

For small grid block sizes, the error involved may be small, but for blocks of practical

sizes, it becomes a significant problem.

Boundary

Conditions

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Upstream

mobility term

S o

S o

S o

t Bo

Bo t

t Bo

By:

Use a standard backward approximation of the time derivative.

the right hand side of the oil equation thus may be written as:

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

S o

t Bo i

Where:

Cpooi

i (1 Swi ) cr d (1 / Bo)

Bo dPo

t

Cswoi

i

Boi ti

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

S w

Sw

Sw

t Bw Bw t

t Bw

Discretization of

Flow Equations

By:

Upstream

mobility term

Since capillary pressure is a function of water saturation only

Using the one phase terms and standard difference approximations for the derivatives

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

S w

t Bw i

Boundary

Conditions

Where:

IMPES Method

Cpow i

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

C swwi

i Sw i

t

c r d (1 / Bw )

dPw

Bo

dPcow

i

C powi

Bwi t i dS w i

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Oil equation:

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Txoi 1 Poi 1 Poi Txoi 1 Poi 1 Poi qoi Cpooi Poi Poit Cswoi Swi Swit

2

Where:

Upstream

mobility term

Txoi 1

2

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

2oi 1

xi 1 xi

ki

ki 1

xi 1 xi

ki

ki 1

xi

oi 1 if Poi 1 Poi

oi if Poi 1 Poi

xi

o i 1 if Po i 1 Po i

o i if Po i 1 Po i

oi 1

2

2oi 1

Txoi 1

o i 1

2

Boundary

Conditions

Water equation:

IMPES Method

2

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

Cpow i Po i Po it Cswwi Sw i Sw it

Transmissibility and mobility terms are the same as for oil equation,

except the subtitles are changed from o for oil to w for water.

H ELP

Boundary Conditions

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Discretization of

Flow Equations

1.

a well in grid block i:

qwi

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

Qwi

Axi

At the end of a time step, the bottom hole injection pressure may

theoretically be calculated using the well equation:

where:

Well constant

WCi

2ki h

r

ln e

rw

Drainage radius

re

yxi

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Discretization of

Flow Equations

The fluid injected in a well meets resistance from the fluids it displaces also.

mobilities of the fluids present in the injection block in the well equation.

Well equation which is often used for the injection of water in an oil-water

system:

k ro k rwi

B

Qwi Bwi WCi i

or

(Pwi Pbhi )

oi oi

Bwi

qinj

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

constrained by a maximum bottom

hole pressure, to avoid fracturing of

the formation.

necessary, reduce the injection rate,

or convert it to a constant bottom hole

pressure injection well.

Pbh

Time

Pmax

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

Time

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

2.

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

By letting the hydrostatic pressure caused by the well filled with water control the

injection pressure.

Boi

oi wi ( Pwi Pbhi )

Bwi

Qwi WCi

Capillary

pressure

is neglected

Boi

oi wi ( Po i Pbhi )

Bwi

Qwi WCi

At the end of the time step, the above equation may be used to compute the

actual water injection rate for the step.

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

3.

well in grid block i:

qoi

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Qoi

Axi

Upstream

mobility term

The water equation will have a water production term given by:

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

(Pw i Pbhi )

qwi

qoi wi

oi (Po i Pbhi )

Capillary pressure in

neglected

Around the production

well

qwi qoi

wi

o i

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

the bottom hole production pressure for the well may be calculated using the well

equation for oil:

H ELP

qprod

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Discretization of

Flow Equations

constrained by a minimum

bottom hole pressure, for lifting

purposes in the well. If this is

reached, the well should be

converted to a constant bottom

hole pressure well.

Time

Pbh

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Pmin

Time

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

water cut was 75%, so at

this point gridblocks that

exceeded allowable

water cut had been

closed in order to keep

the limit.

exceeded for well, the highest

water cut grid block may be

shut in, or the production rate

may have to be reduced.

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Discretization of

Flow Equations

4.

If capillary pressure is neglected:

q oi

Upstream

mobility term

oi

QLi

oi wi Axi

and

q wi

wi

QLi

oi wi Axi

qprod

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Total liquid

Oil

Water

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Time

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

5.

A case of constant surface water injection rate of Q winj in some grid block.

total production of liquids from a well in block i is to match the reservoir injection

volume so that the reservoir pressure remains approximately constant.

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

oi

qoi

oi Boi wi Bwi

Qwin Bwinj

Axi

and

wi

q wi

oi Boi wi Bwi

Qwinj Bw inj

Axi

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

6.

Production well in grid block i with constant bottom hole pressure, P bhi:

an

d

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Upstream

mobility term

qoi

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

and

qwi

WC i

(Pw i Pbhi )

Axi wi

The rate terms contain unknown block pressures, these will have

to be appropriately included in the matrix coefficients when

solving for pressures.

At the end of each time step, actual rates are computed by these

equations, and water cut is computed.

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

WC i

(Po Pbhi )

Axi oi i

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

IMPES Method

Txoi 1 Poi 1 Poi Txoi 1 Poi 1 Poi qoi Cpooi Poi Poit Cswoi Swi Swit

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

2

Cpow i Po i Po it Cswwi Sw i Sw it

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Where:

i=1, , N

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

Assumption:

t

t

Txot , Txwt , C sot , C sw

, C tpo , C tpw , PCow

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

The two equations are combined so that the saturation terms are

eliminated. The resulting equation is the pressure equation:

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

i=1, , N

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

This equation may be solved for pressures implicitly in all grid blocks by

Gaussian Elimination Method or some other methods.

Using the oil equation yields:

Swi Swit

1

C

t

swo i

xo

t

i 12

1

2

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Discretization of

Flow Equations

fws i

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Having obtained oil pressures and water saturations for a given time step, well rates or

bottom hole pressures may be computed as q wi, qoi and Pbh.

qwi

qwi qoi

upper or lower limits are made at the end of each time step, before all

coefficients are updated and we can proceed to the next time step.

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

The evaluation of coefficients at old time level when solving for pressures

and saturations at a new time level, puts restrictions on the solution which

sometimes may be severe.

Discretization of

Flow Equations

IMPES is mainly used for simulation of field scale systems, with relatively large

grid blocks and slow rates of change.

Upstream

mobility term

It is normally not suited for simulation of rapid changes close to wells, such as

coning studies, or other systems of rapid changes.

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

When time steps are kept small, IMPES provides accurate and stable

solutions to a long range of reservoir problems.

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Simulation examples

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Upstream

mobility term

A simple quarter five spots model of oil displacement by water injection.

The geometry dimension of the first case is 5 x 5 x 1 and

second case is 50 x 50 x 50.

The oil Producer well at the corner was controlled by constant Bottom Hole

Pressure (BHP) and the water injector well at the centre was controlled by

constant injection rate.

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

water injector well in the left and one production well in right.

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Animation of Oil saturation, highest permeability layer at the top with one

water injection well in the left and one oil production well in right.

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

References

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

Two phase

system (oil

water)

Oil-Water Relative

Permeabilities a

nd Capillary Press

ure

Author:

Discretization of

Flow Equations

Address:

Upstream

mobility term

Expansion of

Discretized

equations

Boundary

Conditions

NTNU

S.P. Andersensvei 15A

7491 Trondheim

Website: http://www.ipt.ntnu.no/~kleppe/

Email: kleppe@ipt.ntnu.no

Size:

Software required:

IMPES Method

Limitations of

the IMPES

method

FAQ

Simulation

R E Fexamples

ERENCES ABOUT

H ELP

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