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# OIL-WATER SIMULATION, IMPES SOLUTION

## Author: John Kleppe - NTNU

Assistant producers:
Farrokh Shoaei
Khayyam Farzullayev

NTNU

Two phase
system (oil
water)

## The equations for one-phase flow :

Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure

Discretization of
Flow Equations

l ul l Sl
x
t

ul

kk rl Pl
l x

l o, w, g

Where:

Pcow Po Pw
Pcog Pg Po

Upstream
mobility term

l o, w, g

Expansion of
Discretized
equations

flow equations for the two phases flow with substituting Darcy's
equations will be:
kk ro Po
S o

qo

x o Bo x
t Bo

Boundary
Conditions

kk rw Pw
S w

qw

x w Bw x
t Bw

IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

Where:
Pw Po Pcow
So Sw 1

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

## Oil-Water Relative Permeabilities

and Capillary Pressure

Two phase
system (oil
water)
Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure

## most processes of interest, involve displacement of oil by water, or imbibition.

the initial saturations present in the rock will normally be the result of a
drainage process at the time of oil accumulation.

Drainage process:

Discretization of
Flow Equations
Upstream
mobility term

Imbibition process:

SW = 1

oil
Expansion of
Discretized
equations

water

Pc

SW =SWir

Pc

Kr

Kr

Boundary
Conditions
water
oil

IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

water

oil

Pcd

S
Swir

Sw

Swir

Swir

1-Sor

Swir

1-Sor

Sw

H ELP

Sw

## Discretization of Flow Equations

Two phase
system (oil
water)
Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure

## We will use similar approximations for the two-phase equations as we did

for one phase flow.

## Left side flow terms:

kk ro Po

Txo i 1 ( Po i 1 Po i ) Txo i 1 ( Po i 1 Po i )
2
2
x o Bo x i

Discretization of
Flow Equations

kk rw Pw

## Txwi 1 ( Pw i 1 Pw i ) Txwi 1 ( Pwi 1 Pw i )

2
2
x w Bw x i

Upstream
mobility term

Where:

Expansion of
Discretized
equations

Oil transmissibility:

Txoi 1
2

Boundary
Conditions

Oil mobility:

2o i 1

xi 1 xi

xi

k
k
i

1
i

k ro
o Bo

IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

## The mobility term is now a function of saturation in addition to pressure. This

will have significance for the evaluation of the term in discrete form.

H ELP

## Upstream mobility term

Two phase
system (oil
water)

Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure

## Because of the strong saturation dependencies of the two-phase mobility

terms, the solution of the equations will be much more influenced by the
evaluation of this term than in the case of one phase flow.
Buckley-Leverett solution:

Discretization of
Flow Equations
Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations

QW
Sw
1
1-Sor

Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

B.L with PC = 0
Swir
x

H ELP

## Oil-Water Simulation, IMPES Solution

Two phase
system (oil
water)
Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure
Discretization of
Flow Equations

In simulating this process, using a discrete grid block system, the results are
very much dependent upon the way the mobility term is approximated.

Two cases will be considered, using flow of oil between blocks i and i+1:

Upstream selection:

o i 1 o i
2

o i 1
2

Upstream
mobility term

xi o i xi 1o i 1
xi xi 1

QW

Expansion of
Discretized
equations

Sw
1
1-Sor

Boundary
Conditions

B.L (PC = 0)
Upstream

IMPES Method

Weighted average
Swir

Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

## Oil-Water Simulation, IMPES Solution

Two phase
system (oil
water)

The deviation from the exact solution depends on the grid block sizes used.

For very small grid blocks, the differences between the solutions may become negligible.

Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure

Sw
1

Discretization of
Flow Equations

1-Sor
B.L (PC = 0)
Small grid blockss

Upstream
mobility term

Swir
Expansion of
Discretized
equations

The flow rate of oil out of any grid block depends primarily on the relative permeability
to oil in that grid block.

IMPES Method

If the mobility selection is the weighted average, the block i may actually have reached
residual oil saturation, while the mobility of block i+1 still is greater than zero.

Limitations of
the IMPES
method

For small grid block sizes, the error involved may be small, but for blocks of practical
sizes, it becomes a significant problem.

Boundary
Conditions

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

## Expansion of Discretized equations

Two phase
system (oil
water)

Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure
Discretization of
Flow Equations
Upstream
mobility term

S o
S o

S o
t Bo
Bo t
t Bo

By:

## Replacing oil saturation by water saturation.

Use a standard backward approximation of the time derivative.

the right hand side of the oil equation thus may be written as:

Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

S o

## Cpooi ( Poi Poit ) Cswoi ( Swi Swit )

t Bo i
Where:
Cpooi

i (1 Swi ) cr d (1 / Bo)
Bo dPo
t

Cswoi

i
Boi ti
H ELP

Two phase
system (oil
water)

## The right hand side of the water equation:

Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure

S w
Sw

Sw
t Bw Bw t
t Bw

Discretization of
Flow Equations

By:

Upstream
mobility term

## expression the second term

Since capillary pressure is a function of water saturation only
Using the one phase terms and standard difference approximations for the derivatives

Expansion of
Discretized
equations

S w

t Bw i

Boundary
Conditions

Where:

IMPES Method

Cpow i
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

C swwi

i Sw i
t

c r d (1 / Bw )

dPw
Bo

dPcow
i
C powi

Bwi t i dS w i
H ELP

## Oil-Water Simulation, IMPES Solution

Two phase
system (oil
water)
Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure

## The discrete forms of the oil and water equations:

Oil equation:

Discretization of
Flow Equations

Txoi 1 Poi 1 Poi Txoi 1 Poi 1 Poi qoi Cpooi Poi Poit Cswoi Swi Swit
2

Where:

Upstream
mobility term

Txoi 1
2

Expansion of
Discretized
equations

2oi 1

xi 1 xi

ki
ki 1

xi 1 xi

ki
ki 1

xi

oi 1 if Poi 1 Poi
oi if Poi 1 Poi

xi

o i 1 if Po i 1 Po i
o i if Po i 1 Po i

oi 1
2

2oi 1

Txoi 1

o i 1
2

Boundary
Conditions

Water equation:
IMPES Method

## Txw i 1 Po i 1 Po i Pcow i 1 Pcowi Txw i 1 Po i 1 Po i Pcowi 1 Pcow i q wi

2

Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

Cpow i Po i Po it Cswwi Sw i Sw it

Transmissibility and mobility terms are the same as for oil equation,
except the subtitles are changed from o for oil to w for water.
H ELP

## Oil-Water Simulation, IMPES Solution

Boundary Conditions

Two phase
system (oil
water)
Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure
Discretization of
Flow Equations

1.

## for a constant surface water injection rate of Q wi (negative) in

a well in grid block i:

qwi

Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

Qwi
Axi

At the end of a time step, the bottom hole injection pressure may
theoretically be calculated using the well equation:

where:

Well constant

WCi

2ki h
r
ln e
rw

re

yxi

H ELP

## Oil-Water Simulation, IMPES Solution

Two phase
system (oil
water)
Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure
Discretization of
Flow Equations

The fluid injected in a well meets resistance from the fluids it displaces also.

## As a better approximation, it is normally accepted to use the sum of the

mobilities of the fluids present in the injection block in the well equation.

Well equation which is often used for the injection of water in an oil-water
system:
k ro k rwi
B

Qwi Bwi WCi i
or
(Pwi Pbhi )
oi oi
Bwi

qinj

Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method

## Injection wells are frequently

constrained by a maximum bottom
hole pressure, to avoid fracturing of
the formation.

## This should be checked, and if

necessary, reduce the injection rate,
or convert it to a constant bottom hole
pressure injection well.

Pbh

Time

Pmax

Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

Time
H ELP

## Oil-Water Simulation, IMPES Solution

Two phase
system (oil
water)
Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure

2.

## Injection of water at constant bottom hole pressure is achieved:

Discretization of
Flow Equations
Upstream
mobility term

Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions

## By having constant pressure at the injection pump at the surface.

By letting the hydrostatic pressure caused by the well filled with water control the
injection pressure.

## The well equation:

Boi

oi wi ( Pwi Pbhi )
Bwi

Qwi WCi

Capillary
pressure
is neglected

Boi

oi wi ( Po i Pbhi )
Bwi

Qwi WCi

At the end of the time step, the above equation may be used to compute the
actual water injection rate for the step.

IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

## Oil-Water Simulation, IMPES Solution

Two phase
system (oil
water)
Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure

3.

## for a constant surface oil production rate of Q oi (positive) in a

well in grid block i:

qoi

Discretization of
Flow Equations

Qoi
Axi

## in this case oil production will generally be accompanied by water production.

Upstream
mobility term

The water equation will have a water production term given by:
Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions

(Pw i Pbhi )
qwi
qoi wi
oi (Po i Pbhi )

Capillary pressure in
neglected
Around the production
well

qwi qoi

wi
o i

IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

the bottom hole production pressure for the well may be calculated using the well
equation for oil:

H ELP

## Oil-Water Simulation, IMPES Solution

qprod

Two phase
system (oil
water)
Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure
Discretization of
Flow Equations

## Production wells are normally

constrained by a minimum
bottom hole pressure, for lifting
purposes in the well. If this is
reached, the well should be
converted to a constant bottom
hole pressure well.

Time

Pbh

Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations

Pmin
Time

Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

## As the limitation for

water cut was 75%, so at
this point gridblocks that
exceeded allowable
water cut had been
closed in order to keep
the limit.

## If a maximum water cut level is

exceeded for well, the highest
water cut grid block may be
shut in, or the production rate
may have to be reduced.

H ELP

## Oil-Water Simulation, IMPES Solution

Two phase
system (oil
water)
Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure
Discretization of
Flow Equations

4.

## QLi Qoi Qwi

If capillary pressure is neglected:

q oi

Upstream
mobility term

oi
QLi
oi wi Axi

and

q wi

wi
QLi
oi wi Axi

qprod
Expansion of
Discretized
equations

Total liquid
Oil
Water

Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method

Time

Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

## Oil-Water Simulation, IMPES Solution

Two phase
system (oil
water)
Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure

5.

## Production at Constant reservoir voidage rate

A case of constant surface water injection rate of Q winj in some grid block.

total production of liquids from a well in block i is to match the reservoir injection
volume so that the reservoir pressure remains approximately constant.

Discretization of
Flow Equations
Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations

oi

qoi
oi Boi wi Bwi

Qwin Bwinj

Axi

and

wi
q wi
oi Boi wi Bwi

Qwinj Bw inj

Axi

Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

## Oil-Water Simulation, IMPES Solution

Two phase
system (oil
water)
Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure

6.

## Production at Constant bottom hole pressure

Production well in grid block i with constant bottom hole pressure, P bhi:

## Qwi WCi wi (Pw i Pbhi )

an
d

Discretization of
Flow Equations

## Substituting the flow terms in the flow equations:

Upstream
mobility term

qoi
Expansion of
Discretized
equations

and

qwi

WC i
(Pw i Pbhi )
Axi wi

The rate terms contain unknown block pressures, these will have
to be appropriately included in the matrix coefficients when
solving for pressures.

At the end of each time step, actual rates are computed by these
equations, and water cut is computed.

Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method

WC i
(Po Pbhi )
Axi oi i

Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

Two phase
system (oil
water)

IMPES Method

## Discretized form of flow equations:

Txoi 1 Poi 1 Poi Txoi 1 Poi 1 Poi qoi Cpooi Poi Poit Cswoi Swi Swit

Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure

## Txw i 1 Po i 1 Po i Pcow i 1 Pcowi Txw i 1 Po i 1 Po i Pcowi 1 Pcow i q wi

2

Cpow i Po i Po it Cswwi Sw i Sw it

Discretization of
Flow Equations

Where:
i=1, , N

Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

Assumption:

## All coefficients and capillary pressures are evaluated at time=t.

t
t
Txot , Txwt , C sot , C sw
, C tpo , C tpw , PCow

H ELP

## Oil-Water Simulation, IMPES Solution

Two phase
system (oil
water)

The two equations are combined so that the saturation terms are
eliminated. The resulting equation is the pressure equation:

Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure

## ai Poi 1 bi Poi ci Poi 1 d i

i=1, , N

Discretization of
Flow Equations

Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method

This equation may be solved for pressures implicitly in all grid blocks by
Gaussian Elimination Method or some other methods.

## The saturations may be solved explicitly by using one of the equations.

Using the oil equation yields:

Swi Swit

1
C

t
swo i

xo

t
i 12

1
2

Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

## Oil-Water Simulation, IMPES Solution

Two phase
system (oil
water)

Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure

## The surface production well water cut may be computed as:

Discretization of
Flow Equations

fws i

Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations

Having obtained oil pressures and water saturations for a given time step, well rates or
bottom hole pressures may be computed as q wi, qoi and Pbh.

qwi
qwi qoi

## Required adjustments in well rates and well pressures, if constrained by

upper or lower limits are made at the end of each time step, before all
coefficients are updated and we can proceed to the next time step.

Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

## Limitations of the IMPES method

Two phase
system (oil
water)
Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure

The evaluation of coefficients at old time level when solving for pressures
and saturations at a new time level, puts restrictions on the solution which
sometimes may be severe.

Discretization of
Flow Equations

IMPES is mainly used for simulation of field scale systems, with relatively large
grid blocks and slow rates of change.

Upstream
mobility term

It is normally not suited for simulation of rapid changes close to wells, such as
coning studies, or other systems of rapid changes.

Expansion of
Discretized
equations

When time steps are kept small, IMPES provides accurate and stable
solutions to a long range of reservoir problems.

Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

## Oil-Water Simulation, IMPES Solution

Simulation examples

Two phase
system (oil
water)
Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure
Discretization of
Flow Equations
Upstream
mobility term

## A simple water injection case

A simple quarter five spots model of oil displacement by water injection.
The geometry dimension of the first case is 5 x 5 x 1 and
second case is 50 x 50 x 50.
The oil Producer well at the corner was controlled by constant Bottom Hole
Pressure (BHP) and the water injector well at the centre was controlled by
constant injection rate.

Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

Two phase
system (oil
water)

## Animation of Oil Saturation of the case 1 (5 x 5 x 1)

Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure
Discretization of
Flow Equations
Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

Two phase
system (oil
water)

## Animation of Iso-Surface Oil Saturation of the case 1 (5 x 5 x 1)

Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure
Discretization of
Flow Equations
Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

Two phase
system (oil
water)

## Animation of Oil Saturation of the case 2 (50 x 50 x 1)

Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure
Discretization of
Flow Equations
Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

Two phase
system (oil
water)

## Animation of Iso-Surface Oil Saturation of the case 2 (50 x 50 x 1)

Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure
Discretization of
Flow Equations
Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

## Oil-Water Simulation, IMPES Solution

Two phase
system (oil
water)
Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure

## Animation of Oil saturation, highest permeability layer at bottom with one

water injector well in the left and one production well in right.

Discretization of
Flow Equations
Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

Two phase
system (oil
water)

## Water mass flow rate, highest permeability layer at bottom.

Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure
Discretization of
Flow Equations
Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

## Oil-Water Simulation, IMPES Solution

Two phase
system (oil
water)

Animation of Oil saturation, highest permeability layer at the top with one
water injection well in the left and one oil production well in right.

Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure
Discretization of
Flow Equations
Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

Two phase
system (oil
water)

## Water mass flow rate, highest permeability layer at top.

Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure
Discretization of
Flow Equations
Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

Two phase
system (oil
water)

## Oil saturation profile, highest permeability layer at top.

Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure
Discretization of
Flow Equations
Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

## Oil-Water Simulation, IMPES Solution

Two phase
system (oil
water)

References

Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure
Discretization of
Flow Equations

Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions
IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples

H ELP

## Oil-Water Simulation, IMPES Solution

Two phase
system (oil
water)
Oil-Water Relative
Permeabilities a
nd Capillary Press
ure

## Title: OIL-WATER SIMULATION, IMPES SOLUTION

Author:

Discretization of
Flow Equations

## Name: Prof. Jon Kleppe

Upstream
mobility term
Expansion of
Discretized
equations
Boundary
Conditions

NTNU
S.P. Andersensvei 15A
7491 Trondheim

Website: http://www.ipt.ntnu.no/~kleppe/

Email: kleppe@ipt.ntnu.no

Size:

Software required:

IMPES Method
Limitations of
the IMPES
method

FAQ

Simulation
R E Fexamples